Economics and Business Administration

  • Brief valuation of Systems, Applications & Products (SAP) corporation

    SAP is one of the largest players in the commercial software sector. Following our analysis of SAP’s history and capital structure, it is evident that the company has been able to sustain a stable growth for the past 15 years, whilst also maintaining a stable dividend payout. Barring 2015, SAP’s WACC has fallen year on year over the observed period, maximising shareholder value and equity prices. Its conservative financing policy, with a greater emphasis on equity financing than debt may on the one side foreclose potential growth acceleration, yet also indicates a long-sighted managerial conservatism that is focused on long-term value creation rather than short-term growth. One danger of conservative policies is the potential stalling of further growth. However, new partnerships such as the newly announced enlargement of SAP’s cooperation with Microsoft in the sphere of cloud services point in the right direction towards further growth in a highly saturated sector.

  • Digital Shopping and the Purchasing Journey of Post Graduate Students in Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    The study examined the effect of digital shopping on the purchasing journey of post graduate students in Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The study sampled 395 respondents from five (5) faculties in the Rivers State University and 96.45% response rate was used for data analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data in this study. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient (r) was used to test the two hypotheses formulated in this study. The study revealed that to a large extent functionality of the internet infrastructure impact on post graduate students’ experience in Rivers State University. The study also revealed that to a large extent internet security affects the recommendations by post graduate students in Rivers State University. The study found that to a large extent that effective digital or online shopping habit/experience helps to strengthen the academic performance of the post graduate students. The study identified major factors influencing digital or online shopping experience of post graduate students to include: Insufficient knowledge of how online shopping works, providing for unexpected delays, personal internet access, convenience, poor quality of the products offered online, privacy protection, customer service, time saving, inadequate technological infrastructure and shipping problems. Conclusively, it is obvious from the study that digital shopping has come to stay because the technological infrastructures have engendered its prevalence in the society. From the test of hypotheses, it is evident that: There is significant relationship between the functionality of the infrastructure of the internet and repeat online patronage by post graduate students and there is significant relationship between the internet security and recommendations by post graduate students. The study therefore recommends that online shop owners/operators should take important measures to eliminate the psychological factors like trust and security and build trust in the online retail firms and ensure the privacy…

  • Exploring the relationship among Servant leadership, Trust, Team efficacy and intrinsic motivation in Medical field

    Growing topic now a day in the leadership literature is servant leadership. Purpose of this paper is to explore the emergent mechanism of servant leadership with the dependent variable of intrinsic motivation as well as trust as moderator and team efficacy as a mediator. Data sample of 200 respondent’s males and females both has been taken from the different hospitals through self-administered questionnaires. Sample consists of both male and female staff in the hospitals. For the purpose of the analysis; SPSS and AMOS software has been used and conclusions drawn from the developed hypothesis results. Findings indicate that servant leadership has significant impact on intrinsic motivation through the moderating variable trust and mediating variable team efficacy. This research addresses the knowledge gap of trust as a moderator between servant leadership and team efficacy in the presence of dependent variable intrinsic motivation.

  • Impact of Employee Engagement on Organizational Effectiveness

    Purpose: Every organization has the aim of improving their effectiveness. Financial markets are also using different management practices to enhance the competitive level. Purpose of this study is to improve the organization effectiveness by interconnection among all the variables and to check the moderator effect on all these variables. Design/methodology/approach: Convenience sampling technique is used to obtain the data for analysis. A structured questionnaire is made to obtain the data and the sample is 250 employees of all Islamic bank. SEM approach is used to testing the hypothesis for the analysis of moderator. Findings: The results of this study describe that if the training & development, compensation & benefits, leadership and organizational justice are at higher level then it will lead to the higher level of employee engagement. And role of organizational justice also shows the positive relationship on all the variables. Limitations/implications of research: The limitation of this study is that the information is collected only from two cities and the results of this study are not truly defined. Information can be collected from different areas so the better results can be collected. Practical implications: It is difficult to engage the employees especially in the high competitive environment so the results of this research suggest that how an organization can increase the level of engagement among the employees to increase the effectiveness of organization. Originality: Firstly the gap which is covered in literature review is that employee engagement builds team work, training, job security, effective communication and work schedule through leadership, training and development, compensation and benefit and organizational justice, second it tests the positive effect of organizational justice that how a relationship can be more strong and that provides the more data explanations than previous.

  • The effect of re-engineering of administrative operations On strategic performance. (Engistrative) Case study; Jordanian companies of mining

    This research purposes to recognize the effect of re-engineering of administrative operations( engistrative ) on strategic performance in Jordanian companies of mining ; and reach the recommendations that aim to increase the necessity of this side to ameliorate the strategic performance level in these companies from the financial sides ; operational and competitive sides , this research also includes recognizing the effect of personal variables ( gender ; age ; years of experience ; administrative level and scientific qualification) on strategic performance ; whereas this research depends on the descriptive analytical curriculum ; using the questionnaire to study the opinions of sample of research that composes 55 persons like an average ( 15.7%) from the society of research. And this research confirms an effect with statical indication ( a< 05.0) for the dimension of re-engineering of the operations ( administrative settlement ; culture of organization and readiness to change ) jointly and separately on strategic performance of mining companies .The results also approved no differences related with statical significance on the significance level ( a > 05) in strategic performance of the mining companies attributed to personal and functional variables ( gender, age ) , The results also approved differences related with statical significance on the significance level ( a > 05) in strategic performance of the mining companies attributed to the variables (scientific qualification , scientific experience and administrative level ) . The research recommended a number of recommendations, the most important; work on the application of the concept of operations re-engineering to increase its ability to ameliorate the strategic performance by supporting creators and motivating them , adopting their ideas , assigning them with works show their intellectual challenges and sharpen their spirit of creation , also encouraging them to be against the familiar from typical specific thinking…

  • A short review of Non-Audit Services and its Regulations

    Non-Audit Services and its regulations were summarized in this short review. First is to introduce what Non-Audit Services is and then review the regulations of Non-Audit Services in the U.S. and the European Commission. Finally, we analyze the research problem in Non-Audit Services.

  • Status quo of the US and UK’s P2P lending regulation

    The paper analyzes the current status of the US and UK’s P2P lending regulation and compares China’s regulatory system with the US and UK’s to extract experiences and lessons from relatively mature regulation. For the US, it does not make any new laws but relies on current existing laws and regulations to supervise P2P lending industry. US’s strong functional regulatory pattern makes it become the strictest in regulating P2P lending among three countries, emphasizing compulsory registration system and constant information disclosure management. Strict regulation makes the P2P lending market more orderly but also restricts the industry’s innovation. For the UK, it does not count on existing laws, but reassesses P2P lending industry and proposes new legal instrument to regulate this novel industry. Appropriate laws can regulate related businesses effectively and also leave enough space for industry’s innovation. Another bright spot of UK’s P2P lending regulation is the strong self-discipline from the industry association, making a great contribution to standardize P2P lending industry, promote benign competition, and protect consumers.

  • Status quo of China’s P2P lending regulation

    This research illustrates the status quo of China’s P2P regulation by corresponding the current laws and rules with the business models and risks analyzed above. In this paper, China’s current P2P lending regulation is presented in terms of the existing laws, department rules, industry associations, and the adjudication situation of problem platforms. Through the research, it can be seen that the existing laws have blank and gray spaces for P2P lending industry. New department rules are expected to make up those legal gaps but have relatively low legal force. Regarding the industry self-regulation, the national industry association has just been established and has low coverage rate, while the local associations seldom have substantial effects. Besides, the adjudication situation of problem platforms is not ideal.


    This study examines the impact of monetary policy on price stability in Nigeria from 1970 to 2014. The data obtained for the purpose of the study through Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin were analysed using ordinary least square regression (OLS) model, unit root test and Johansen co-integration test. Consumer Price Index (CPI) is used as a proxy for general price level, which is the explained variable. Exchange rate and money supply were used as explanatory variables. The research also addressed various problems associated with monetary policies such as budget deficits, change in policy formulation, lack of enabling environment in the financial market and political instability. The result of the findings reveals that exchange rate and money supply actually influenced price stability in Nigeria both in the short-run and long-run. This is evidenced by 90% coefficient of determination and F-Statistics of 168.30 which is higher than the tabulated F-Statistics

  • Contribution of goods and services exports in economic growth

    The research analyzes theoretically and empirically the relationship between exports of goods and services and economic growth in Togo. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of exports on economic growth in Togo. To achieve the objective, the methodology of the research will present the theoretical framework of the analysis model and the econometric analysis of the estimate of the contribution of exports to economic growth of the country. We collected data from Central Bank of West African Countries and the General Directorate of Statistics and National Accounts of Togo. Firstly the results of our analysis showed that exports of Togo are mainly composed of primary products which values steadily decreased during the 2000s because of the difficulties experienced by the major chains and degradation of equipment export of phosphates. Secondly exportation of goods and services has a positive and significant impact on the economic growth in Togo in the short and long run. This impact is more important in the long run than short run. Thus, to achieve the objectives of the Accelerated Growth Strategy for the Promotion of Employment, Togo should promote exportation of goods and services for the well-being of the population.