A key aim in the behavioral sciences is to understand the mechanisms behind individuals’ motivation to participate in health behaviors (Godin & Kok, 1996). This goal are important in a sports activity context in light of research supporting the physiological and psychological benefits of regular exercise in adults and young people (Gutin & Owens, 1996). Sport consumer behavior research, suggests that sport consumer behavior represents consumer behavior relative to products and services offered in the sport and leisure industry. Trying to understand the customer, first of all, we must understand the cognitive structures or mental models that underlie consumer involvement. Zaltman metaphor-elicitation technique (ZMET) (Zaltman, 1996) is a powerfull tool that helps researchers to build a consumer map of involvement in a product knowledge structure. As a result, qualitative research using ZMET technique will be the main instrument to develop this stady. Highly involved sportiest will be chosen for the purpose of this study because high involvement often, correlates with high product knowledge and expertise (Celsi & Olson, 1988). The results of this paper will be presented in a consumer map, which will show the most important motives of Albanian Youth Involvement in sports activities.
The impact of gender diversity in the boardroom on dividend policy: evidence from Swedish listed companies
In recent times, shareholders, regulators and researchers have increasingly shown concern about the gender diversity in the boardroom and dividend policy. Many researches show that women in the board can better represent the shareholders’ interest. There are different findings in the previous literature regarding the relationship between gender diversity in the boardroom and dividend policy in Sweden. This paper aims at examining the relationship between women directors in the boardroom and dividend payout, in additional, examining the components of women directors in the boardroom, that is, how the proportion of women directors, the proportion of independent women directors, the proportion of executive women directors and the proportion of institutional women directors affect dividend payout. The study analyzed the 273 companies currently listed on the Nasdaq OMX Stockholm Stock during the period 2011 and 2015. Three different two-way fixed effects models and regression analysis are used to obtain the required data. Our findings indicated that there is a positive significant relationship between the percentage of women directors, independent women directors and dividend payout in three different models. By the regression result of these three models, there is no significant relationship between the proportion of executive women directors/institutional women directors and dividend payout. Thus, our result confirms that the proportion of women directors and independent women directors in the boardroom has effect on the dividend payout. The empirical evidence on this study can support Swedish board gender quota proposal, which requires at least 40% of their board members of public traded companies are female by 2019.
Bank Selection Criteria in the Saudi Community Empirical Study of Saudi Banks Customers in Tabuk City
The study aims to investigate the determinant factors of bank choice among Saudi community; to rank these determining factors according of the customer’s priority; and to examine whether Saudi banks ‘customers will be a homogeneous group concerning the way they select a bank or not.it follows a descriptive survey research design, quantitative research approach is adopted through the semi-open structure questionnaire. Total of 178 respondents from different banks (full fledge Islamic, conventional and Islamic window banks) as of a single point in time in the form of quantitative measures. Exploratory Factor Analysis is employed to rank factors effect bank choice criteria among Saudi people. Results of factor analysis reveal that ranks of factors affect customer decision in selecting a bank service based on mean, are satisfaction(mean =4.05) ,service quality (mean=3.74),Islamic value (mean =3.7),service cost(mean=3.5),financial intermediate (mean =3.39). Moreover it discovers that Customers in Saudi banks are homogeneous. Lessons to be learned from the study result, Saudi banks should focus on service quality,; note that Saudi Arabia is one of transfers’ countries, and Islamic banks should be emphasizing on customers ‘trust about services consistent with sharia’h provision.
For the better performance in the business, significance of Intellectual Capital (IC) has got world glance. Current study analysis is primarily based on the investigating the impact of intellectual capital on the overall financial performance and financial efficiency of manufacturing firms in Pakistan. For this purpose, panel data regression analysis has been conducted to check the effect of major explanatory factors like human capital efficiency (HCE), structural capital efficiency (SCE), and capital employed efficiency (CEE) has been considered for the outcome factor. Intellectual capital is considered as major IV with three components of HCE, SCE, CEE while firm performance is considered through Return on the assets (ROA) of the business which is considered as major DV. The outcomes of the study reveal the fact that there exists the significant association between the various components of Intellectual Capital and the firm performance. The study will be very much beneficial for the various policy makers in considering the significance of intellectual capital in evaluating the financial performance of the business. However, among the key limitations, this study is not covering the other sectors like service industry in the same region of Pakistan. Therefore, adding some other sectors from Pakistan will provide some more meaningful results like the service industry to conduct the future research. Future studies can be carried while adding some more predictors like social capital and spiritual capital for the consideration of firm performance. In addition, cross sectional comparison in coming time will provide a comprehensive empirical evidence in present literature as well.
This paper examines the effect counseling in eradicating the problems of entrepreneurship education. The study actually tried to find the extent at which counselling has enhanced entrepreneurship education significantly and how Cognitive Behavior Modification Strategies (CBMS) can be used to instill awareness of entrepreneurship education. The study made use two hypotheses. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The sample for the study comprised 62 staff of Center for Entrepreneurship Studies Ogun State University Nigeria. Data obtained from the questionnaire was analyzed using Chi-square technique. The research indicates that there is a positive and significant relationship between Counseling and Entrepreneurship Education. Also, the result shows that Cognitive Behavior Modification Strategies of counseling (CBMS) can be used to instill awareness of Entrepreneurship Education. Based on the results of the study, the study recommended that Counselors should use practical tools rather than theories, make use of available resources in their localities and encourage students to be involved in the local trades in their communities; these will help to enhance students’ skills and knowledge of entrepreneurship education needed and also Workshops, seminars and refresher courses should be organized for practicing counselors from time to time on career counseling skills improvement for the challenges of entrepreneurship education.
The study aimed to establish the effect of trading volume on market returns of securities traded in Kenyan securities exchange market. The study used secondary data from all the firms listed in NSE during the period 2004 to 2016. The target population of the study consisted of the sixty 62 companies listed in Nairobi securities exchange market that is, both financial and non-financial companies. The study was a census study of all the sixty 2 companies listed in the Nairobi security exchange market for 13 years starting the year 2004 to the year 2016. The study started with descriptive and then diagnostic tests. The measures of central tendency used to test normality were mean, median, maximum and minimum value, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis and Jarque-Bera (JB) test. The results from these tests showed that the variables were fairly normally distributed. The study further sought to investigate the stationality properties of market returns, trading volume. The study used five panel data unit root tests. Particularly the test were, Levin, Lin and Chu t, Breitung t-stat, Im, Pesaran and Shin W-stat developed, Fisher-type tests using augmented dickey fuller ADF and (Phillip and Peron) PP tests. The all these tests revealed that the variables were stationary on average. The study also sought to test the granger causality among the variable. The results from granger causality showed that some of the variables granger caused one another. The cointegration results showed that there was long-run equilibrium. The regression techniques used was Cross-section fixed (dummy variables) and Period fixed (dummy variables). The regression results revealed that the variables were statistically significant effect on market returns trading volume had a positive effect on the market returns. It is therefore in this light that the future research should consider other variables which would increase the predictive power of…
The study focused on the factors affecting internal auditors ‘performance in public universities in Kenya. It aimed at achieving the objectives: to determine how the working environment, to assess how the challenges to the independence of internal auditors, to assess the impact of the level of technical competency affects the performance of internal auditors in public universities in Kenya. Thus this study evaluates the effect of working environment, establishes the effect of internal auditor’s independence and the effect of internal auditors competence on the performance of internal auditor in public universities in Kenya. Descriptive research design was applied, with a target population of the chief internal auditors from 31 chartered public universities in Kenya which are registered by the Higher Education ministry. A random simple sampling technique was applied o give the sample size of 31. Primary data was used for analysis. The study found out that the internal auditors working environment, internal audit independence and authority, internal auditor’s technical competence impacted on the performance of internal audit function. The study recommended that auditors should consider complying with professional standards as the most important contributor to internal auditing performance. The management in the public universities should keep organizing seminars and workshops where the internal auditors would be trained frequently by experts either internally or externally.
Since the reform and opening up, the management model of China’s vocational education has exposed many problems and deficiencies in the process of continuous improvement. The purpose of this paper is to study the management mode of modern vocational education in China, including: 1) research on the development of modern vocational education in China after reform and opening up; 2) study the current status and management mode of vocational education management in China; 3) summarize the main aspects of modern vocational education management theory and model to optimize the management model suitable for the development of modern vocational education in China. This paper selects the methods of qualitative research, selects the relevant responsible persons of vocational colleges, government and enterprise departments, conducts in-depth interviews on the relevant issues of China’s modern vocational education management model, and combines relevant books, reports and materials to propose an optimized management mode of modern Chinese vocational education. Through qualitative analysis, we find that 1) Since the reform and opening up, the development of China’s vocational education has mainly experienced the “exploration and practice stage”, “the stage of vigorous growth” and “the stage of quality improvement”, which has shifted from the cultivation of professional talents to the quality training; 2) The current Chinese vocational education management model mainly follows the modern apprenticeship management mode, and gradually explores the formation of vocational education group and corporate management mode. In the quality training of vocational students, it pays attention to the implementation of talent integration projects and strengthens the combination of engineering and learning. School-enterprise cooperation to enhance the practical ability of students in vocational colleges; 3) However, there are still many problems in the management of modern vocational education in China, such as the closure of vocational education teaching mode and the simplification of management mode….
This paper summarizes trade details, strategy made, and the participant learned through trading on STOCKTRAK game. The report also includes the profits and losses, every trade made on derivatives products, the timing for buying and selling and gain some practical experience.
The pursuit of ethical practice in Distance Higher Education assessment in a Business Leadership School
The pursuit for quality in the learning process in Distance Higher Education is ongoing and continually leading to better ways in which to facilitate learning. It is evident in current literature that high-quality learning outcomes can be achieved by giving students in higher education institutions greater control over their own learning and by engaging in reflective inquiry and enhanced critical thinking within a constructivist paradigm. In the era of open access and digital-based information and communication in which we live, a huge challenge facing higher education is the issue of unethical practices by students. Ensuring academic honesty is a major challenge for traditional classroom teaching, but it is even a more pressing problem for online course-work in which students submit for example, individual assignments and projects. How can unethical student practices be eliminated where the use of information technology is manifest for all learning and instruction? Academically dishonest behaviour in Distance Higher Education (DHE) institutions is on the rise and manifests in various ways including inter-alia, plagiarism in which students use the work of others and which they fail to disclose through acceptable citation methods or even fail to acknowledge. Many find it expedient to cheat and may even stoop to bribery. There are also instances where students fabricate information and falsify what they present as the fruits of their own labours. Whether in assignments or portfolio work, or other such activities and assessments online, there are cases in which students either offer, or acquire assistance from other parties in their formal academic activities, falsify information, are guilty of misrepresentation and thus act out-of- line from an ethical perspective and demonstrate that they are devoid of ethical practice. It is thus crucial to integrate academic ethics education in all core programmes so that students and also their lecturers’, become conversant…