Virology and Diseases

  • Detection of human papillomavirus in oral mucosa

    Introduction: According to the National Cancer Institute (INCA) 2017, Brazil shows high prevalence rates in malignant neoplasms with primary localization in the oral cavity, since oral cancer affects the lips and oral cavity. It is a multifactorial disease, derived from genetic, environmental or infectious factors (viruses) isolated or in association, causing cytogenetic changes that proceed through a somatic mutation sequence, resulting in uncontrolled cell proliferation. Objective: To study the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the oral mucosa, making it possible to trace possible risk factors associated with its development. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of the bibliographic review on the subject, monographs, dissertations, theses and books, comparatively analyzing the information from these research sources, making a discussion about the results of this survey. Results and Discussion: There are more than 100 types of papillomavirus identified, 24 of these related to the oral cavity. Transmission of papillomavirus to oral mucosa occurs by self-inoculation and through the practice of oral sex. Papillomavirus infection begins when the virus contacts the basal epithelial cells by a slow process of endocytosis, from the binding to a specific receptor on the surface of basal cells. Viral tropism is caused in part by the binding of specific viral surface proteins to certain host cell surface receptor proteins. Studies to detect the presence of papillomavirus in the oral mucosa reveal that this virus appears to persistently or frequently infect the mouth, including in children and adolescents. Conclusion: Detection rates vary mainly according to the population studied and the sensitivity of the methods used, with the main types of papillomavirus being found, Papillomavirus 16 and 18.

  • Teenagers vulnerabilities in relation with HIV/AIDS: an integrative revision

    Introduction: The infection of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a global phenomenon which incidence depends on political, economical, social and cultural factors; being an huge challenge of health. The adolescence is characterized by intense changes. The teenager starts to consolidate values and concepts, being influenced by culture, media and the society. The HIV vulnerability covers coletive and individual aspects, favoring the transmission of the virus by several ways. Objective: Describe the teenagers vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Method: It is an integrative revision, of descriptive type. The data was collected from the scientific works in the databases: LILACS BDENF and MEDLINE. The used descriptors were: Vulnerability, HIV, AIDS, Teenagers. The inclusion criteria used were: papers published in portuguese, english and spanish, with full availability, in the original paper format, and published in the period of 2007-2016. To develop the research was defined the guiding question: Which are the vulnerabilities of teenagers to HIV/AIDS? Results: With the use of the descriptores 151 articles were found, after the use of the filters 21 articles remained, however 15 were excluded due duplicity, due to not attend to the research objective, remaining 6 articles to using in the development of the research. Discussion: The articles showed that the vulnerabilities to HIV of the teenagers are due: insufficient knowledge, ambivalence in the understanding of the disease, precocious starting of the sex life, use of drugs, the HIV symptoms arise belatedly, the precarious use of the condom due to stable relationships, immaturity, using of contraceptive pill, and presuming that is not susceptible to the virus. Final considerations: The higher vulnerability of the teenagers occurs because no condom use and knowledge lack about the means of the transmission of HIV. The health professional should contribute holistically in the preventive steps implementation and promote educative actions along the health services.

  • Importance of the nurse in the specialized assistance service for people living with HIV/AIDS

    Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is considered a public health problem and is characterized as a chronic disease. In this sense, the Specialized HIV / AIDS Assistance Service (SAE) was created to assist people living with HIV / AIDS (PLHA) in relation to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of comorbidities. In the context, it is understood the complexity of PLHA care and relates the importance of nursing, for the integrality of care and interventions according to the needs of the individual. Objectives: To describe aspects about the importance, characteristics and functioning of SAE, which is unique in the treatment of PLHIV. Methodology: This is a descriptive study of the experience report on nursing care to PLHA, lived in the SAE of the metropolitan region of Recife-Pernambuco, by the nursing scholars of the University of Pernambuco (UPE). Results: Currently, this service has 142 active registered patients. It is composed of a multiprofessional team of 05 professionals; being 01 coordinator psychologist, 01 doctor, 01 nurse, 01 nursing technician and 01 administrative assistant. In SAE, PLHAs are welcomed, evaluated, oriented, monitoring exams are also carried out, distribution of preventive inputs regarding safe sexual practices (such as female and male condoms) and medicines such as ART, prophylactics, and others. Discussion: HAART becomes a challenge for PLWHA and nursing care through reception, clarification of doubts and detection of factors that interfere with adherence favors therapeutic progress and consequent improvement in the quality of life of individuals. Conclusion: The nurse as a member of the SAE, plays a fundamental role in the care of PLWHA contributing to a more humanized care based on the holistic view of the patient.