Virology and Diseases

  • Analysis of Cases of Tuberculosis Related to Diabetes Patients and the Concurrent Use of Licit and Ilicit Drugs in the State of Pernambuco

    INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In Brazil, TB is considered a public health problem due to the high rate of cases, ranking 20th in the notified cases ranking. The transmission of the disease is related to some lifestyles, since there is a higher incidence in patients with diabetes Who use illicit and licit drugs such as tobacco and alcohol. Factors such as diabetes, alcoholism, smoking and illicit drugs favor the spread of the disease and may shift from latent to active tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: Given the above, the objective of this study was to verify the cases of tuberculosis related to patients with diabetes and the use of licit and illicit drugs in the state of Pernambuco from 2015 to 2018. METHODS: This is a descriptive study with approach. To verify the incidence of tuberculosis in a given group. For this data were obtained from the SINAM / DATASUS database. The variables used were: diabetes, alcoholism, smoking and illicit drugs. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2018, 19,733 cases of tuberculosis patients were reported. Of these 1,890 (10%) were affected by diabetes, and in 2017 the most affected with (26.5%). Greater susceptibility to develop tuberculosis due to hyperglycemia, leading to insulin dependence which generates indirect cellular effects. It was observed that of the notified by tuberculosis about 4,584 (23%) stated to use alcohol. Alcohol is also considered a risk factor as it alters the immune response due to liver damage, thus leading to an increase to develop TB with an increase of (26.6%) in 2017. TB involvement in patients who have tobacco use was 4,258 (22.1%) with an increase of (31.5%) in 2018, the tobacco is a risk factor because it has reduced immune response due to ciliary dysfunction, developed by cigarette smoke . Given the…

  • 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak: A Review Article

    In December 2019, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and spread across China and beyond. On February 12, 2020, WHO officially named the disease caused by the novel coronavirus as Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19). The COVID-19 is a respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus and pandemic is now a major global health threat. Coronaviruses (CoV) belong to the genus Coronavirus with its high mutation rate in the Corona viridae. This review focuses to have a preliminary opinion about the disease, the ways of treatment, and prevention in this early stage of COVID-19 outbreak.


    Introduction. Measles is an acute infectious disease, whose etiological agent is a RNA virus of the paramyxovirus family. It is transmitted by aerosols through nasopharyngeal secretion within four to six days before the appearance of rash up to four days after. The clinical manifestations of the disease are quite characteristic and may evolve with serious complications, being one of the main causes of morbidity in malnourished or immunosuppressed children and under one year old. Currently the triple viral vaccine is the only way to prevent the disease, providing protection against measles, and also for mumps and rubella. However, some outbreaks are becoming more frequent, including in Brazil and may be related to several factors such as individuals who were not vaccinated by individual decision, thus exposing unvaccinated populations to the pathogen. Objective. To verify the prevalence of measles cases in Brazil from 2018 to 2019. Method. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by surveying the numbers of cases reported by measles in the regions of Brazil from 2018 to 2019, available from the World Health Organization (WHO) database. Result and discussion. To prepare the study, we analyzed the information that was available in the World Health Organization (WHO) database. From November 26, 2018 to October 19, 2019, there were a total of 16,991 confirmed measles cases in eleven states of Brazil. In 2018, the state of Amazonas had the highest notification with 11,156 cases, with 9,695 (89.9%) confirmed, 1,442 (12.9%) discarded and 19 (0.2%) remaining under investigation. It was observed that 6,217 (55.7%) are male and the highest concentration is in the age group of 15 to 29 years, with 5,078 (45.5%), when calculating the incidence of confirmed cases by age group, notes a higher incidence in children under 1 (2,191.8 / 100,000 inhabitant). In 2019, 6,828 cases were reported,…


    Introduction: The discovery of HIV compromises individuals in various areas of their lives, which can compromise their quality of life. Objectives: To investigate the topics covered in online journals about the factors that influence the quality of life of people living with HIV / AIDS. Methodology: Integrative Revision carried out in October 2018 in the Regional Portal of the Virtual Library (VHL), applying as descriptors “HIV”, “Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome”, “Quality of life” and using as a cutback the last 5 years, with a certain question The study sample consisted of 10 original articles, divided into three thematic categories: “alterations” and “quality of life” related to HIV / AIDS. bodily, clinical, emotional, “” social support, “” orientation about disease. Results: The study sample consisted of 10 original articles, divided into three thematic categories: “body, clinical, emotional,” “social support,” “orientation about the disease. Conclusion: The quality of life of individuals with HIV / AIDS reflects significantly in the maintenance of their well-being, which highlights the importance of attending to factors that may modify this situation and be able to go beyond the pathology.

  • The contributions of the population about prevention practice of Dengue

    Introduction: Dengue is the world’s most important arboviral disease in terms of number of people affected ans is transmitted by mosquitoes Aedes Aegypti. The main strategy for epidemic prevention and control is population behavior in the prevention and insecticide fumigation. Objective: The following study aims to describe the contributions of the population about prevention practice of dengue. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive research. Studies of any design published from 2012 to 2016 available in english, portuguese and spanish were included. The survey was conducted in the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Results and Discussion: Six articles were found that match the eligible criterias. In accord to them, it was realized that the Brazilian population has a slouch behavior in practice prevention of mosquito outbreaks, providing opportunities that the mosquito prolife, and not getting success in disease control. This may occur because of poor infrastructure conditions in most cities, as well as the lack of preventive actions both private and public initiative. Conclusion: It was clear that the Brazilian population needs to engage in preventive actions related to dengue, but also charge more effective action of public policies to assist them in combating the proliferation of the mosquito.


    The yellow fever is treated of a disease infectious endemic sharp viral of origins in Africa and in areas in South America. According to OMS (World Organization of the Health), they are dear annually 200.000 cases of the disease. The etiological agent of the yellow fever belongs to the family Flaviridae and to the gender Flavirirus, which is the responsible for other diseases in the man. The treatment of the yellow fever is constituted with uses of painkillers and antitérmicos with attention specifies of acid acetilsalicílico and flowed in the pictures hemorrágicos. This work intended to accomplish a bibliographical revision on the yellow fever. Now there are several indicative factors of reurbanização of the disease, the incidence of the virus happens in endemic areas, infecting the man and his/her natural host

  • The Epidemiology of The Zika Virus And Microcephaly

    The development of strategies to manage the Zika virus epidemic constitutes a challenge for the scientific community. Develop tele-education actions in the field of human communication health with an emphasis on implications stemming from the Zika virus and microcephaly for professionals of the Family Health Strategy and students at the Federal University of Pernambuco. The experience of a set of three web conference seminars is described. The lectures addressed the epidemiology of the Zika virus and microcephaly, speech/hearing therapy, breastfeeding and feeding children with microcephaly. The mean number of connected points was 1.6 per session, with representatives of metropolitan Recife and the municipality of Lajedo. A total of 13 individuals participated in the action (three students and 10 healthcare professionals). All considered the topics interesting and relevant to the profession and all reported being satisfied with the experience. Web conference seminars can contribute to the creation of a dialog among different actors linked to health promotion actions with the aim of potentiating integral care, especially in response to current and future epidemics.

  • Epidemiological Profile of Tuberculosis in the Municipality of Limoeiro, Pernambuco, for the Period 2008-2013

    Introduction: This study characterized the epidemiological profile of the reported cases of tuberculosis in the municipality of Limoeiro / PE, between 2008 and 2010. Methodology: This is an epidemiological, observational, retrospective study that used the (SINAN) obtained from the Epidemiological Surveillance of the Municipal Health Department, in which the data were analyzed according to the following variables: gender, age group, institutionalization status, area of residence, clinical form, type of entry , termination status, HIV serology. Results: In the study period, 347 cases of tuberculosis were reported. It was verified that males and individuals aged 15 years and over were the most affected by the disease, with 87.03% and 98.85% respectively. Regarding the institutionalization situation, 55.04% of the cases were institutionalized. The urban area accounted for 39.48% of the cases. The pulmonary form was the most predominant with 95.10%. The main mode of entry was the new case with 76.08%. Regarding the closure situation, the cure outcome was more frequent at 75.50%, mean treatment dropout was 3.75%, and TB-related death was 1.73%. TB / HIV coinfection represents 3.75% of the notifications, and 40.63% of the patients did not perform serology for HIV. Conclusions / Considerations: These results contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the municipality, thus providing subsidies for disease control planning and prevention actions, as well as suggestions for other studies and development of new public policies.

  • The influence of oral health microcefalia

    Introduction: Microcephaly is a condition in which the baby’s head is smaller than normal. It is a clinical sign that may or may not be related to other morphological changes. Studies show that children with microcephaly are more susceptible to changes in the oral region. Objective: To verify the problems caused in the oral health of children affected by microcephaly and to relate the embryonic development and bone formation with neurological problems caused by microcephaly. Methodology: We conducted a research on databases such as Scielo and Lilacs, and sites such as PAHO/WHO and the Ministry of Health, using the descriptors: Microcephaly, Craniofacial Malformations, Oral Health. Results and Discussion: The research resulted in 4,000 articles, of which 40 were separated because they were related to the topic, but only 20 met the inclusion criteria. Neonates with head circumference two standard deviations below the mean should be considered as having microcephaly. For this diagnosis, the measurement should be done at least 24 hours after birth and within the first week of life. Recently, Brazil has started an outbreak of microcephaly related to Zika virus and studies confirm viral neurotropism with possible persistence in brain tissue and placental impairment. Some changes may be related to the multifactorial etiology of microcephaly, which involves genetic and environmental factors. Thus, microcephaly may interfere with organs of the stomatognathic system, influence craniofacial growth, and alter its dynamics. About 1638 children with microcephaly in Brazil have oral alterations including periodontal diseases, dental caries, malocclusion, micrognathia and delayed eruption. Conclusion: It is of great importance to expand the study that relates the health and development of the stomatognathic system in children with microcephaly related to Zika virus so that, if there is a strict relation between the two, the population obtains positive results in the resolutions of their problems.

  • Tracing of cervical cancer prevention examinations carried out in the city of Recife-PE

    Introduction: Cancer of the cervix when diagnosed and treated early is a cause of preventable death. Because it is a neoplasm caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), the Pap test is a safe and efficient strategy for early detection in the female population. According to the Brazilian Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening (2016), the first two tests should be performed at annual intervals and, if both results are negative, the next ones should be performed every 3 years. Beginning at age 25 for women who have had or have had sexual activity and periodic examinations should be continued until age 64 in women without prior history of pre-invasive neoplastic disease and discontinued when women have at least two exams consecutive negatives in the last 5 years. In 2013, the Cancer Information System (Siscan) was established within SUS, integrating the Cervical Cancer Information System (Siscolo) and the Breast Cancer Information System (Sismama). In Pernambuco, 970 new cases are expected and, in Recife, 150 new cases, representing the second most frequent cancer in women in the State and in the capital. Objective: To track the number of cervical cancer screening exams conducted in the city of Recife-PE, Brazil. Methodology: The source used was the Cervical Cancer Information System (SISCOLO), in the period from 2009 to 2014, in women aged 12-64 years, residents of this city and SUS users. Results and Discussion: When comparing the number of exams performed each year, a significant quantitative decrease was observed: from 9019 exams in 2009 to 1171 in 2014, a decrease of almost 87% in the number of exams. In addition to the low incidence of cervical cancer in young women, there is evidence that screening in women younger than 25 years is less effective than in more mature women. Conclusions: Although SISCOLO is an important tool…