Virology and Diseases

  • Epidemiological Profile of Tuberculosis in the Municipality of Limoeiro, Pernambuco, for the Period 2008-2013

    Introduction: This study characterized the epidemiological profile of the reported cases of tuberculosis in the municipality of Limoeiro / PE, between 2008 and 2010. Methodology: This is an epidemiological, observational, retrospective study that used the (SINAN) obtained from the Epidemiological Surveillance of the Municipal Health Department, in which the data were analyzed according to the following variables: gender, age group, institutionalization status, area of residence, clinical form, type of entry , termination status, HIV serology. Results: In the study period, 347 cases of tuberculosis were reported. It was verified that males and individuals aged 15 years and over were the most affected by the disease, with 87.03% and 98.85% respectively. Regarding the institutionalization situation, 55.04% of the cases were institutionalized. The urban area accounted for 39.48% of the cases. The pulmonary form was the most predominant with 95.10%. The main mode of entry was the new case with 76.08%. Regarding the closure situation, the cure outcome was more frequent at 75.50%, mean treatment dropout was 3.75%, and TB-related death was 1.73%. TB / HIV coinfection represents 3.75% of the notifications, and 40.63% of the patients did not perform serology for HIV. Conclusions / Considerations: These results contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the municipality, thus providing subsidies for disease control planning and prevention actions, as well as suggestions for other studies and development of new public policies.

  • The influence of oral health microcefalia

    Introduction: Microcephaly is a condition in which the baby’s head is smaller than normal. It is a clinical sign that may or may not be related to other morphological changes. Studies show that children with microcephaly are more susceptible to changes in the oral region. Objective: To verify the problems caused in the oral health of children affected by microcephaly and to relate the embryonic development and bone formation with neurological problems caused by microcephaly. Methodology: We conducted a research on databases such as Scielo and Lilacs, and sites such as PAHO/WHO and the Ministry of Health, using the descriptors: Microcephaly, Craniofacial Malformations, Oral Health. Results and Discussion: The research resulted in 4,000 articles, of which 40 were separated because they were related to the topic, but only 20 met the inclusion criteria. Neonates with head circumference two standard deviations below the mean should be considered as having microcephaly. For this diagnosis, the measurement should be done at least 24 hours after birth and within the first week of life. Recently, Brazil has started an outbreak of microcephaly related to Zika virus and studies confirm viral neurotropism with possible persistence in brain tissue and placental impairment. Some changes may be related to the multifactorial etiology of microcephaly, which involves genetic and environmental factors. Thus, microcephaly may interfere with organs of the stomatognathic system, influence craniofacial growth, and alter its dynamics. About 1638 children with microcephaly in Brazil have oral alterations including periodontal diseases, dental caries, malocclusion, micrognathia and delayed eruption. Conclusion: It is of great importance to expand the study that relates the health and development of the stomatognathic system in children with microcephaly related to Zika virus so that, if there is a strict relation between the two, the population obtains positive results in the resolutions of their problems.

  • Tracing of cervical cancer prevention examinations carried out in the city of Recife-PE

    Introduction: Cancer of the cervix when diagnosed and treated early is a cause of preventable death. Because it is a neoplasm caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), the Pap test is a safe and efficient strategy for early detection in the female population. According to the Brazilian Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening (2016), the first two tests should be performed at annual intervals and, if both results are negative, the next ones should be performed every 3 years. Beginning at age 25 for women who have had or have had sexual activity and periodic examinations should be continued until age 64 in women without prior history of pre-invasive neoplastic disease and discontinued when women have at least two exams consecutive negatives in the last 5 years. In 2013, the Cancer Information System (Siscan) was established within SUS, integrating the Cervical Cancer Information System (Siscolo) and the Breast Cancer Information System (Sismama). In Pernambuco, 970 new cases are expected and, in Recife, 150 new cases, representing the second most frequent cancer in women in the State and in the capital. Objective: To track the number of cervical cancer screening exams conducted in the city of Recife-PE, Brazil. Methodology: The source used was the Cervical Cancer Information System (SISCOLO), in the period from 2009 to 2014, in women aged 12-64 years, residents of this city and SUS users. Results and Discussion: When comparing the number of exams performed each year, a significant quantitative decrease was observed: from 9019 exams in 2009 to 1171 in 2014, a decrease of almost 87% in the number of exams. In addition to the low incidence of cervical cancer in young women, there is evidence that screening in women younger than 25 years is less effective than in more mature women. Conclusions: Although SISCOLO is an important tool…

  • Detection of human papillomavirus in oral mucosa

    Introduction: According to the National Cancer Institute (INCA) 2017, Brazil shows high prevalence rates in malignant neoplasms with primary localization in the oral cavity, since oral cancer affects the lips and oral cavity. It is a multifactorial disease, derived from genetic, environmental or infectious factors (viruses) isolated or in association, causing cytogenetic changes that proceed through a somatic mutation sequence, resulting in uncontrolled cell proliferation. Objective: To study the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the oral mucosa, making it possible to trace possible risk factors associated with its development. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of the bibliographic review on the subject, monographs, dissertations, theses and books, comparatively analyzing the information from these research sources, making a discussion about the results of this survey. Results and Discussion: There are more than 100 types of papillomavirus identified, 24 of these related to the oral cavity. Transmission of papillomavirus to oral mucosa occurs by self-inoculation and through the practice of oral sex. Papillomavirus infection begins when the virus contacts the basal epithelial cells by a slow process of endocytosis, from the binding to a specific receptor on the surface of basal cells. Viral tropism is caused in part by the binding of specific viral surface proteins to certain host cell surface receptor proteins. Studies to detect the presence of papillomavirus in the oral mucosa reveal that this virus appears to persistently or frequently infect the mouth, including in children and adolescents. Conclusion: Detection rates vary mainly according to the population studied and the sensitivity of the methods used, with the main types of papillomavirus being found, Papillomavirus 16 and 18.

  • Teenagers vulnerabilities in relation with HIV/AIDS: an integrative revision

    Introduction: The infection of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a global phenomenon which incidence depends on political, economical, social and cultural factors; being an huge challenge of health. The adolescence is characterized by intense changes. The teenager starts to consolidate values and concepts, being influenced by culture, media and the society. The HIV vulnerability covers coletive and individual aspects, favoring the transmission of the virus by several ways. Objective: Describe the teenagers vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Method: It is an integrative revision, of descriptive type. The data was collected from the scientific works in the databases: LILACS BDENF and MEDLINE. The used descriptors were: Vulnerability, HIV, AIDS, Teenagers. The inclusion criteria used were: papers published in portuguese, english and spanish, with full availability, in the original paper format, and published in the period of 2007-2016. To develop the research was defined the guiding question: Which are the vulnerabilities of teenagers to HIV/AIDS? Results: With the use of the descriptores 151 articles were found, after the use of the filters 21 articles remained, however 15 were excluded due duplicity, due to not attend to the research objective, remaining 6 articles to using in the development of the research. Discussion: The articles showed that the vulnerabilities to HIV of the teenagers are due: insufficient knowledge, ambivalence in the understanding of the disease, precocious starting of the sex life, use of drugs, the HIV symptoms arise belatedly, the precarious use of the condom due to stable relationships, immaturity, using of contraceptive pill, and presuming that is not susceptible to the virus. Final considerations: The higher vulnerability of the teenagers occurs because no condom use and knowledge lack about the means of the transmission of HIV. The health professional should contribute holistically in the preventive steps implementation and promote educative actions along the health services.

  • Importance of the nurse in the specialized assistance service for people living with HIV/AIDS

    Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is considered a public health problem and is characterized as a chronic disease. In this sense, the Specialized HIV / AIDS Assistance Service (SAE) was created to assist people living with HIV / AIDS (PLHA) in relation to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of comorbidities. In the context, it is understood the complexity of PLHA care and relates the importance of nursing, for the integrality of care and interventions according to the needs of the individual. Objectives: To describe aspects about the importance, characteristics and functioning of SAE, which is unique in the treatment of PLHIV. Methodology: This is a descriptive study of the experience report on nursing care to PLHA, lived in the SAE of the metropolitan region of Recife-Pernambuco, by the nursing scholars of the University of Pernambuco (UPE). Results: Currently, this service has 142 active registered patients. It is composed of a multiprofessional team of 05 professionals; being 01 coordinator psychologist, 01 doctor, 01 nurse, 01 nursing technician and 01 administrative assistant. In SAE, PLHAs are welcomed, evaluated, oriented, monitoring exams are also carried out, distribution of preventive inputs regarding safe sexual practices (such as female and male condoms) and medicines such as ART, prophylactics, and others. Discussion: HAART becomes a challenge for PLWHA and nursing care through reception, clarification of doubts and detection of factors that interfere with adherence favors therapeutic progress and consequent improvement in the quality of life of individuals. Conclusion: The nurse as a member of the SAE, plays a fundamental role in the care of PLWHA contributing to a more humanized care based on the holistic view of the patient.