Public Health

  • Assessing the quality of the Acute Flaccid Paralysis surveillance system in Edo state, Nigeria 2017

    This paper accesses the quality of the Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system in Edo state using the May/June 2017 Rapid Surveillance Assessment tool for reviewing existing surveillance systems. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving the Disease surveillance and notification officers (DSNOs), and their assistants (ADSNOs) in all 18 Local Government Areas (LGAs). All the surveillance officers were 100% knowledgeable on the AFP case definition. About, 94% of the ADSNOs knew how the AFP stool specimens were transported. Only 75% and 50% of the DSNOs and ADSNOs respectively could mention all seven AFP differential diagnosis stated in the AFP surveillance guidelines. Active surveillance was conducted by 89% of the DSNOs in their respective LGAs within the last six months prior to this study. Only 22% of the ADSNOs were actively involved in surveillance activities. Records of documentation of AFP surveillance activities dating as far back as three years were readily available at the offices of 90% of the DSNOs and with the state epidemiologist. Edo state has shown attributes of a quality surveillance system in terms of knowledge, AFP surveillance and documentation. We however encourage a surveillance system that is more inclusive with active participation from the ADSNOs.

  • Food/Drinking Water Contaminants/Adulterants in Bangladesh

    Food adulteration and contamination is nothing new in this age. It is the consequence of modern civilization, people moving from places with altered social value and ethics, industrialization and rapid progression of economic activities. It is highly prominent in urban areas of many developed or underdeveloped countries and so is with in Dhaka city. Commercialism and business mind drive people toward such unethical activities knowingly or unknowingly. Most of the cases it is done by uneducated or illiterate people, having least idea about what evil they are doing to mankind. People who are health conscious mostly avoid these but many of them have to go with this because of busy life schedule or carelessness. By definition, safe food or drink means pollutants or adulterants presence within the limit of standard such as pathogenic micro-organisms, natural toxins and potentially harmful chemicals that may cause health hazards beyond certain limit, either deliberately added or naturally present in them. Again, the economic development of the country doesn’t reveal basic literacy and awareness of general people. Necessary steps should be taken by the authority and mass people should change their mind set up and have to avoid those who creates harm. Purpose of the study: Brief review of chemical induced food and drinking contamination, their consequences and control. Healthcare providers/Policy makers have a major role play to concerned field. Findings: Both general people and the old system, are responsible for this unlivable condition of Bangladesh. Population is not the sole for this instance. A sense of poor rules and regulation is always found everywhere. Negligence is becoming a wide spread disease contaminating illiterate to well educated, all kind of people.Research limitations: Many articles and documents found in concerned area of research, but the scope of this research is on its focus point chemical induced…

  • Enigmatic Domination of Chemical Contaminants and Pollutants in the Measurable Life of Dhaka City

    Background Environmental pollution and food contamination are as old as the civilization itself. It is the result of the improvement of civilization, over usage of nature, industrialization and in certainty a cost for the advancement. It is exceedingly conspicuous in Dhaka city. Air pollution is chiefly because of the vehicle emanation, modern release and consuming of non-renewable energy source. The water asset of Dhaka turns into a noteworthy wellbeing danger because of arsenic contamination, insufficient family unit/modern/restorative waste transfer and mechanical emanating the executives. Food contamination originated from the commercialism of specialists who are doing this purposely to augment benefit. Fundamental advances are to be taken to secure nature for our own reality. This paper uncovers compound pollution and contamination issues of Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh. Purpose of the Study: Brief review of chemical induced pollution and contamination, their consequences and control. Healthcare providers/Policy makers have a major role play to the concerned field. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive literature search followed by consulting healthcare professionals about environmental pollution and food contamination. Hospital, clinic and company personnel, newspaper journalists, NGO workers given their valuable suggestions and asked help for necessary books, journal, newsletters. A few western magazine and newspapers also observed to get the necessary concern. Projections were based on public life pattern, their food habits, pollution and contamination sources, waste disposal features of urban life as well as industry and hospital waste disposals.Results and Discussion: Pollution and adulteration are the most notorious enemy of mankind. Civilization has its own drawback that even causing destruction of itself. Very few people raised voice on this but crippled by the facts of commercialism. The scope of this article is limited to chemical pollution of air and water, medical or household waste products and food contaminants and adulterants. A few discussions based…

  • The Maternal Outcomes and its Determinants among Pregnant Women Complicated by Severe Preeclampsia at Hidar 11 Hospital

    Background: Pre-eclampsia is one of the causes of maternal morbidity and mortality throughout the world. It is common problem in developing countries. This study was aimed to assess the maternal outcomes of severe pre-eclampsia among pregnant women admitedand managed at at Hidar 11 Hospital in 2018. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among preeclamptic women who were admitted to maternity ward of at Hidar 11 Hospital in a four year period from JAN 1/ 2014 – Decem 31/ 2018. All laboring mothers that are admitted and managed at hidar 11 hospitals was a source population retrieved by review of clinical records and then, the data was collected from April 1-30 2018. Daily completeness of the questionnaire was cross checked by principal investigator for data quality control using prepared checklist after a pretest given. Data regarding patient characteristics and treatment outcome (eg. maternal death, maternal complication, hospital stay) were collected. Data was collected using data collection format from patient medical charts. data was cleaned coded entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used. All the statistical tests were significant at P-value < 0.05,Besides odd ratio 95%CI was used. Results: A total of 318 mothers’ medical charts were reviewed. One hundred sixty five (82.5%) pregnant women were diagnosed with severe preeclampsia. About 98(30.8%) of the women developed complications. The most common maternal complication was HELLP syndrome Mothers with gestational age less than 34weeks were 6.8 times more likely to develop complication [AOR=6.8, 95% CI = 1.974-24.026].similarly primigravida 4 times more likely to develop complication[AOR=4.934 CI =2.281-10.675 ]. Mothers with antipartum preeclampsia were 6.6 times more likely to have prolonged hospital stay [AOR=6.611 ,95% CI=2.749-15.898]. Conclusion: The commonly seen poor treatment outcomes in preclamptic mothers were magnesium sulphate toxicity, prolonged hospital stay and development of complications. Preeclampsia...

  • Prevalence and Risk Factors of Work Related Stress in the Medical Emergency Services in Douala, Cameroon

    Background: Healthcare workers are exposed to work related stress in the course of their activities. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of work-related stress and search for its associated factors among healthcare workers assigned to the emergency medical services of public hospitals in Douala. Methods: The cross-sectional and analytical study was carried out from March 27th to June 30th, 2017 in 8 public hospitals in Douala. The sampling method was non-random, consisting of consecutive recruitment of volunteer healthcare staff working in the emergency departments of public hospitals who provided the framework for the study. The level of stress was measured using the French version of KARASEK’s psychometric scale. The analysis was performed with SPSS 20.0 software. The study was authorized and obtained an clearance was granted. Results: The sample consists of 51 men (33.55%) and 101 women (66.44%). The average age is 34.6 ± 5.4 years. Nurses (54.6%) and healthcare staff aged 30 to 39 years (61.2%) predominates in the sample. Day / night shift work is the main form of work done by ¾ staff (75.6%). The prevalence of stress is 78.9% and the associated risk factors are the following: belonging to a 4th category hospital (p = 0.008), medical professions (p = 0.001), nurses (p = 0.0002), work experience of less than 10 years (p = 0.04) and exclusive night shifts (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Continuous improvement of the working conditions must be implemented inside the various facilities to mitigate the consequences of work related stress among the healthcare workers.

  • Exposure and transmission risk of blood and body fluids among health care personnel at first level referral public hospitals in Meme division, Cameroon

    Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids is a serious concern for health care personnel (HCP), and posed a serious risk for the transmission of infectious pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate occupational exposures of HCP at first level hospitals in Meme Division, Cameroon. We sampled 190 HCP working in 3 first level referral hospitals in Meme division in Cameroon using a structured questionnaire with a participation rate of 94.06 %. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis using logistic regression were performed. Of the 190 HCP who participated in the study, 77 (40.53 %) indicated having at least an encounter with exposure with blood and body fluids within the past 12 months. The physicians (78.57%) and the nurses (40.54%) were the most exposed categories of HCP. Working for long hours, lack of continuous training on infection prevention, 7-10 years working experience, dissatisfaction with current jobs, recapping needles after used were significantly associated with exposure and transmission risk to blood and body fluids among HCP. There was a high level of exposure to blood and body fluids among HCP at the first level referral hospitals in Meme division in Cameroon. Programs targeting the implementation of surveillance systems for training, registering, reporting, provision of basic personal protective equipment and management of occupational exposures in health care settings should be prioritised.

  • Assessment of Hygiene Practices among Students at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana

    Background: Proper hand hygiene practices have been shown to prevent the spread of communicable diseases. Although diarrhoeal diseases continue to be recorded among university students, there is paucity of studies focusing on hygiene behavior among university students in Ghana. This study assessed hand washing behavior, knowledge and practices among students of the University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 422 students from 4th January 2018 to 21st January 2018. A pretested, structured questionnaire was used to collect all relevant data. Frequencies and percentages were used for categorical data. Chi square and one –way ANOVA were used to determine associations between some selected variables. P values,

  • Effects of Freshwater Environmental Changes on Spread of Schistosoma haematobium in Guinea Bissau: a Retrospective Analysis

    Schistosoma haematobium (blood fluke) is a digenetic trematode, which, as all digenetic trematode, has a complex life cycle including one parasite stage in a mollusk (freshwater snail – intermediate host) and one in a vertebrate – definitive host (1). In the vertebrate host the parasite reaches sexual maturity and releases eggs, which are expelled through urine; each egg develops into a miracidium larva, the first free-living stage of the development, which infects the intermediate host. In this, the miracidium undergoes metamorphosis to become a cercaria stage. The cercaria leaves the snail and actively searches, thanks to chemical and physical signals (2) the vertebrate definitive host, being the usual portal of entry the skin. After penetration, the cercariae are known as schistosomulae. These migrate and develop into mature adult schistosome worms, in and around the vesical plexus, and occasionally in the rectal region, the mesenteric portal system and ectopic sites (3). In (4) we have a good article, of general character, on digenetic trematode as parasites, the diversity of trematodes that infect humans, and the economic impact of digenetic flukes. Considering the dependence of blood flukes on freshwater our objective is to show the effects of freshwater environmental changes on the spread of Schistosoma haematobium in Guinea Bissau. Freshwater without flow or with little flow is the favorable habitat for free life stages (miracidium and cercaria) of S. haematobium, as well as, of their snail (Gastropoda) intermediate hosts. Thus, in areas where schistosomiasis caused by S. haematobium is endemic, a change of water flow to without flow or little flow constitutes a potential risk of appearance of new foci of transmission of schistosomiasis. This type of situation of decrease of flow in freshwater collections has occurred in several zones along the Geba river in Guinea Bissau, and this was a consequence…

  • Risk perception of cigarette and alcohol consumption: Korea and Cameroon public assessment views

    Introduction: There is a strong risk perception of personal knowledge on both cigarette-and alcohol-related harm. One possible factor contributing to this may be greater availability and access of cigarette and alcohol in the communities especially in developing settings. The causes of the difference in psychological factors that affect the public with high risk perception of cigarette and alcohol consumption was analysed. A higher perception of cigarette and alcohol availability is not only likely to increase supply but also to raise awareness of the different brands of alcohol, create a competitive local market that reduces product costs, and influence local social norms relating to cigarette and alcohol consumption. This paper assess risk perception with respect to the association between psychological paradigms of alcohol and cigarette use in both Korea and Cameroon nationwide. Methods: Using questionnaire survey a cross sectional study on risk perception regarding cigarette and alcohol consumption was assessed among some 2,181 men and 2,203 women from Korea and Cameroon who were over the age of 20 nationwide. Descriptive statistics were performed in order to analyse the sociodemographic characteristics of South Korea and Cameroon. Student’s t-test was performed to test the difference between risk perception and the psychometric paradigm. Correlational analysis was performed to analyse the relationship between risk perception and psychometric paradigm for each country. In order to analyse the components that affect risk perception, multivariate regression analysis was conducted. Results: The analysis results indicated that for Koreans, the risk perception from smoking was the highest 5.49 ± 1.37 which was beyond controllability and the perceived risk from alcohol consumption was the highest for Cameroonians 6.21 ± 1.22). The results indicated that both South Koreans and Cameroonians indicated a strong risk perception based on cigarette and alcohol consumption with regards to their personal knowledge, scientifically proven evidence, dread consequences…

  • Determination of Microbiological quality and detection of Thermotolerant fecal E. coli in ready to use water from Navsari city of South Gujarat

    Fecal bacterial indicator analyses have been widely used for monitoring the water quality. The present study was designed to determine the density of Coliform and Thermotolerant fecal E. coli from ready to use water samples collected for a five month(from november-2016 to March-2017) period of monitoring from in and around Navsari city. A total of 73 samples were collected from different places and processed under standard bacteriological techniques. The EMB Agar was used as selective medium for isolation. The presumptive isolates of thermotolerant fecal E. coli were identified by Indole and Mac Conkey broth test (Acid & Gas) at 44°C incubation and coliform were enumerated by MPN technique and E. coli were identified by metallic seen on EMB agar plate and biochemical test. Analysis of result revealed 11 isolates (15.06 %) (3 samples from Abrama village, 3 samples from fish market, 1 sample from PG hostel, 1 samples from Krishna hotel, 1 sample from Jay Ambe tea stall, 1 sample from Mahadev mandir and 1 sample from panipuri centre) of Thermotolerant fecal E. coli as well as E. coli from 73 samples. All 11 isolates having presumptive number of coliform (MPN/100ml) ranging from 13-242 which may higher than the standard number which is below 10 according to BIS. The sensitivity pattern of Thermotolerant fecal E. coli with different antimicrobial agents was evaluated by D-test and showed cent percent resistant towards Amoxycilline followed in reducing levels by 18.18% each, of Cephalothine, Trimethoprime and Gatifloxacin and 9.09% each, of Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol. The pattern clearly indicated overall intermediate resistance to Cephalothine (36.36%), Gatifloxacin (36.36%). The isolates showed sensitivity towards 90.90% each, of Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol followed in reducing levels by Trimethoprime (81.81%) and 45.45% each, of Cephalothine and Gatifloxacin. The multiple antibiotic resistance MAR index was determined for each isolate which may…