International Journal of Neuroscience Research


Review Article of International Journal of Neuroscience Research THE INFLUENCE OF MITOCHONDRIA IN ALZHEIMER DISEASE AND POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES Ferro M1*, Graubard A1, Escalante P1, Channan G.1 1FG Scientifica and Science Department at Nutrition Formulators Inc., Miramar Florida The epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is notable. North America and Western Europe have the most expressive rates of disease (6.4% and 5.4% at age 60), followed by Latin America (4.9%) and, finally China (4%). The most important fact is that head trauma increases the deposition of amyloid βeta (Aβ) and the expression of neuronal tau as well as diabetes. Obesityand trans fats also increase the risk of AD. However, virtually no current pharmacotherapy is approved for agitation / excitation caused by AD, the only purpose is maintaining the memory of those affected by this disease. There is substantial evidence that some dysfunctions in the mitochondria are involved in AD. Mitochondria are essential for neuronal function because the limited glycolytic metabolism of these cells makes them highly dependent on aerobic oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for their energy needs. Increased concentrations of ROS are known to result in molecular damage to the site where they are produced, triggering what science calls oxidative stress. Another no less important pathophysiological process in neurological disease is mitochondrial membrane cholesterol. New evidence indicates that the burden of mitochondrial cholesterol can influence mitochondrial function regardless of its conversion to pregnenolone or oxysterols, emerging as a key factor in the pathology of several neurological diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, as in the case of AD. In this way, neurons are strictly dependent on the presence of healthy mitochondria, especially in the synapses where these organelles produce ATP and concentration of Ca2+ ions, fundamental processes for the implementation of neurotransmission and generation of membrane potential along the axon. Controlling ROS, as ...


Review Article of International Journal of Neuroscience Research MOEBIUS SYNDROME AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR DENTAL TREATMENT Esdras Gomes da Silva1, Débora Correia de Oliveira1, Maria Ricarda Guilherme de Lemos Bacelar1, Rayane Pereira de Araújo1, Roberto Alcemar Alves de Sousa1, Mônica Soares de Albuquerque2 1Graduando do Curso de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. 2Doutoranda de Dentística-Endodontia do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Odontologia da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Pernambuco/Departamento de Embriologia e Histologia Introduction: Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital neurological disease of unknown etiology, that involves several cranial nerves. The main clinical characteristic of this syndrome is the "mask-like face", that is, the absence of facial expression in situations of sorrow or joy. Objective: This study aims to describe the characteristics of Moebius syndrome and its main implications for dentistry. Methodology: In this study, a literature review was carried out, with searches in the following databases:, pubmed and medline. Furthermore, eight articles were selected, among which three were literature reviews and five were reports of clinical cases. Results: In addition to the genetic relation of the syndrome, there are factors that lead to this disorder, such as the use of misoprostol during pregnancy, for example. Conclusion: Early care for patients with Moebius syndrome by a multidisciplinary team is extremely important, since it will attenuate the effects of this pathology. Keywords: Moebius syndrome, Facial paralysis, Misoprostol, Cranial nerves paralysis ...


Research Article of International Journal of Neuroscience Research MORTALITY FOR ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE IN BRAZIL FROM 2010 TO 2017 Juliana Marina Campelo¹*, Jennifer Hellen Melo Sobral¹, Ana Clara De Andrade Pereira¹, Maria Anita Coelho Epaminondas¹, Aparecido Jonanthan Mandú de Araújo², Gysele Alexandre da Silva². 1Discente do Centro Universitário Maurício de Nassau – UNINASSAU, Recife, PE, Brasil. 2Discente da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – Recife – PE, Brasil Introduction. The world population is aging and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), worldwide, the proportion of people aged 60 and over is growing rapidly, however, as life expectancy increases, neurodegenerative diseases and dementia may appear, such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD), a progressive and fatal disorder resulting from the death of hippocampal and cholinergic neurons that are responsible for the functions of memory, learning, emotional control, reasoning and behavior. These changes are characterized by loss of subcortical and cortical neurons, and marked atrophy of the local cerebral cortex where nerve cells in the brain control memory, reasoning, and judgment. Moreover, it is believed that this pathology has a multifactorial etiology, which can be determined by risk factors such as gender, age, environmental and genetic factors, low educational level and inflammatory reactions. Goal. To verify the prevalence of deaths in Brazil from Alzheimer's Disease in the period from 2010 to 2017. Method. A cross-sectional study was carried out by surveying the numbers of cases of death caused by Alzheimer's disease in the regions of Brazil from 2010 to 2017, available in the DATASUS / TABNET database, using the following variables for the research: region, gender, age group and ethnicity. Results. During the period from 2010 to 2017, a total of 121,232 numbers of cases of deaths from Alzheimer's Disease were recorded throughout Brazil. The Southeast region had a higher prevalence with 55.85% in relation to ...

The Effect of Nitrendipine and Levetiracetam in Pentylenetetrazole Kindled Rats

Research Article of International Journal of Neuroscience Research The Effect of Nitrendipine and Levetiracetam in Pentylenetetrazole Kindled Rats Meryem Dilek Karakurt1, Süleyman Emre Kocacan2, Cafer Marangoz3 1Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University Medical Faculty, Ankara, TURKEY 2Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical Faculty, Samsun, TURKEY 3Istanbul Medipol University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, TURKEY We aimed to investigate the efficacy of L-type voltage gated calcium channel blocker nitrendipine and levetiracetam in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindled male rats. In order to establish kindling model, 35 mg/kg PTZ injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to male wistar albino rats three days a week. Then, screw electrodes were placed in the skulls of the kindled rats. During the experiments, EEG activities and seizure behaviors of kindled rats were recorded. The kindled rats were divided into control (n=6), PTZ (n=6), nitrendipine (2.5 mg/kg (n=6), 5 mg/kg (n=6), 10 mg/kg (n=6)) and levetiracetam (10 mg/kg (n=6), 20 mg/kg (n=6), 40 mg/kg (n=6)) groups. Nitrendipine (5 mg/kg) and levetiracetam (20 mg/kg) were suppressed the spike frequency and the seizure score effectively (p<0.05). The effective doses of nitrendipine (5 mg/kg) and levetiracetam (20 mg/kg) were administered consecutively to the kindled animals (n=6). The co-administration of nitrendipine (5 mg/kg) and levetiracetam (20 mg/kg) did not effectively decrease the spike frequency and seizure score (p>0.05). The co-administration of nitrendipine and levetiracetam was not more effective than administration of nitrendipine or levetiracetam separately (p>0.05). Keywords: levetiracetam, nitrendipine, kindling model, voltage-gated calcium channels, rat ...

Dr. Mohd Normani Zakaria
Chairman / Head of Hospital Unit / Assistant Professor, Audiology and Speech Pathology Programme, Universiti Sains Malaysia

Dr. Ayanabha Chakraborti
Senior Researcher, Department of Surgery, THT-1066, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Dr. Richa Madan Lomash
Research Fellow, Receptor Biology Unit (NINDS), NIH, Bethesda (MD), USA

Dr. Mario Bernardo-Filho
Professor Titular, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Dr. Dhruba Pathak
The University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Dr. Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Ramani
Consultant Neurologist, Raffles Hospital, Singapore

Dr. Abdelrahman Y. Fouda
Vascular Biology Center, R.B. Caldwell lab, Augusta University

Dr. Igor Iskusnykh
University of Tennessee Health Science Center

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1. Avinaba Mukherjee, Sourav Sikdar, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh. Evaluation of ameliorative potential of isolated flavonol fractions from Thuja occidentalis in lung cancer cells and in Benzo(a) pyrene induced lung toxicity in mice. International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 2016; 1(1): 0001-0013. 
2. Vikas Gupta, Parveen Bansal, Junaid Niazi, Kamlesh Kohli, Pankaj Ghaiye. Anti-anxiety Activity of Citrus paradisi var. duncan Extracts in Swiss Albino Mice-A Preclinical Study. Journal of Herbal Medicine Research, 2016; 1(1): 0001-0006.

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International Journal of Neuroscience Research is a peer reviewed open access journal publishing research manuscripts, review articles, case reports, editorials, letters to the editor in Neuroscience Research (indexing information).

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