International Journal of Trade and Policy


An Analysis of The Traditions of Origin of Ughoton: the Seaport of Old Benin Kingdom

This paper wholistically examines the issues relating to the origin of Ughoton in the earliest times. It analyses the political anxiety, crises, conflicts misrule, anarchy which characterised the reign of Ogiso Owodo. It assesses the circumstances surrounding the birth of Prince Ekaladerhan, and his banishment. It discusses the role of oracle in Benin traditional institutions. Finally the paper also examines how Ughoton was founded in the eleventh century. The researcher obtained data from primary and secondary sources. Archival materials and oral interview constituted the primary sources while the secondary sources were books, newspapers, articles, theses and dissertations. It was found that the manipulation of the oracle’s divinations was a factor in the foundation of Ughoton. It was also found that from the numerous wives of Ogiso Owodo, only Imade gave birth to a child Prince Ekaladerhan. Prince Ekaladerham was banished and he eventually founded Ughoton in the eleventh century.

Obafemi Awolowo and His Contributions to Socio Economic Development of Nigeria: 1948-1966

This study examines the personality and contributions of Chief Obafemi Awolowo to socio – economic development of Nigerian between 1948 and 1966.. The study found out that Chief Obafemi Awolowo was a Nigerian nationalist and statesman who played a significant role in Nigeria’s independence movement during First and Second Republics. The study notes that Chief Obafemi Awolowo was thrice a major contender for Nigeria’s highest office. He was a key player in the intra-party power tussle that erupted in 1962 that led to disturbances in Western Region House of Assembly. Also, the study examines major challenges faced by Chief Obafemi Awolowo and how he eventually became the Federal Commissioner of Finance and the Vice Chairman of the Federal Executive Council in 1966. The study employs primary and secondary source materials including books, journal articles and other scholarly publications to interrogate the study. It concludes that Awolowo was responsible for much of the progressive social legislation that made Nigeria a modern nation today.

A Historical Analysis of Dutch-Benin Trade Relations, 1593-1741

This paper examined the nature of trade relations between the Benin Kingdom and the Dutch between 1593 and 1741. It documented and analysed the features of Benin-Dutch trade; the major items of trade and means of exchange; as well as the terms of the Dutch-Benin Trade Treaty of 1715. The paper further interrogated the causes of the breakdown of trade relations between the two countries in 1741. Data for the study was obtained extensively through archival materials as primary sources; and books, newspapers, articles, theses, dissertations and journals as secondary sources. The paper found out that trade was the hallmark of Benin-Europeans’ relations between the 1440s and 1741. It observed that the trade contact between Benin and the Dutch started around 1593 and declined around 1741. It concluded that the trade relations brought mutual benefits to both parties: great prosperity and fame to the Benin kingdom; and economic buoyancy to the Dutch.

Transaction Costs and Optimal Liability Rule in the Context of Hadley v Baxendale (1854)

This paper uses a signaling game model to address the debate between limited liability rule and unlimited liability rule in the context of the case of Hadley v Baxendale (1854). This paper compares the levels of net social surplus obtained by the two legal rules under different sets of parameter values. The parameters investigated are the level of transaction cost in communicating the private information regarding the valuation of the contract, the proportion of low valuation versus high valuation promisees, the extra cost of achieving a high performance of contract relative to a low performance by promisors and, the gap between high valuation and low valuation of contract performance. The paper finds that the optimal liability rule depends on the parameter values. When there are many low valuation promisees and transaction cost is low, limited liability rule is better. When there are many low valuation promisees and transaction cost is high, both rules perform equally well. When there are many high valuation promisees, unlimited rule is better irrespective of the level of transaction cost. Finally, when there is high valuation differential relative to performance cost differential, the set of parameter values under which the unlimited rule performs better becomes larger.

Hygienic-sanitary Conditions of Fish Markets Commercialized in the Municipality of Maceió

Introduction: The search for a healthier diet has led to a worldwide increase in fish consumption in recent years. This also brought a growth of diseases transmitted by this type of food, when outside the quality standards and poor hygienic-sanitary conditions of the establishments in which they are sold. This study aims to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of fish commercialized in the city of Maceió – Alagoas, contributing to define a microbiological profile of this product. Methodology: Fish samples from six commercial points were collected from commercial establishments, with two replicates at different periods, totaling 12 samples. Microbiological analyzes were performed for total and thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonella spp and Staphylococcus aureus (coagulase-positive), following methodology according to the legislation. . Results and Discussion: Turbidity and gas production were observed in 75% of the total coliform samples and 66.66% of positivity for the samples in the EC tubes, indicating the presence of thermotolerant coliforms. Salmonella spp was absent in all samples. In the Staphylococcus aureus analyzes, only one sample (8.33%) was uncontaminated by this microorganism, however, 91.67% of the samples were contaminated. Conclusion: The sum of these results suggests possible fecal contamination, evidencing unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions of manipulation of the fish commercialized in the evaluated establishments of the city of Maceió-AL.

Dr. P. Karthikeyan
Associate Professor, School of Management Studies, Kongu Engineering College

Dr Aristidis P. BITZENIS
Full Professor, Global Entrepreneurship & FDI, University of Macedonia, Department of International and European Studies

Dr Vasilii Erokhin
Associate Professor, School of Economics and Management, Harbin Engineering University, China

Prof. Marco Muscettola 
Independent Researcher, Banca Popolare di Milano, Italy

Dr. P. MALYADRI
PRINCIPAL, Government Degree College, Rayalaseema University

Dr. Lukman Raimi
Assistant Professor, American University of Nigeria

Dr Jimmy Teng
Associate Professor, Department of Accounting and Finance, School of Business, American University of Ras Al Khaimah

Dr. Ionel BONDOC
Associate Professor, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iasi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Iasi (ROMANIA), Department of Public Health

Dr. Raga Mohamed Elzaki Ali
Department of Consumer Sciences and Agribusiness, College of Agricultural and Food Sciences, King Faisal University

Dr. Shankar T Battase
Assistant Professor and Head, Dept. of Commerce and Management, Govt. First Grade College Sindagi (Affiliated to Rani Channamma University)

Dr. Guanghua Han
Assistant Professor, Shanghai Jiao Tong University

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1. Avinaba Mukherjee, Sourav Sikdar, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh. Evaluation of ameliorative potential of isolated flavonol fractions from Thuja occidentalis in lung cancer cells and in Benzo(a) pyrene induced lung toxicity in mice. International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 2016; 1(1): 0001-0013. 
2. Vikas Gupta, Parveen Bansal, Junaid Niazi, Kamlesh Kohli, Pankaj Ghaiye. Anti-anxiety Activity of Citrus paradisi var. duncan Extracts in Swiss Albino Mice-A Preclinical Study. Journal of Herbal Medicine Research, 2016; 1(1): 0001-0006.

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