International Journal of Philosophical Research

  • Ian Hacking’s Experimental Autonomy Route to Scientific Realism and David B. Resnik’s Objection: a Critical Mediation

    Ian Hacking begins his defence of scientific realism with a preliminary attempt to establish the autonomy of scientific experiment. He believes that if an independent life (free from the constraints of scientific theory) is granted to experimentation, then it will ease the way to a robust defence of entity realism. Incidentally, several critics have tried to pin down Hacking’s discourse of experimental/entity realism as somewhat defective. In this paper I have chosen to react to one of such critics, namely, David B. Resnik. The basic aim here is to re-examine the core of Resnik’s argument against Hacking’s strand of scientific Realism. Resnik raises three major issues against Hacking. First, he says that Hacking’s experimental realism is a version of “success of science argument”. Second, he maintains that belief in unobservable entities is tied to the belief in the truth or approximate truth of the scientific theories explaining or describing the characteristics of some such entities. Then, third, Resnik maintains that, “experimentation is not nearly as theory-free as Hacking maintains”. Now, for the purposes of this paper, I took the first two criticisms of Resnik’s as less important and have addressed the third issue as most important and worthy of extensive consideration. I argue in this paper that Resnik’s third criticism is based on insufficient knowledge of Hacking’s two levels of argument in defence of the autonomy of scientific experiment which is ultimately fathered on Resnik’s hermeneutical incapacity. I endorse the view that Hacking completely failed to establish an independent life for experimentation by attempting to argue for its primacy at some historic episodes of scientific investigations. But, then, the debate continues with my argument that, Hacking’s second-tier argument, which has to do with creation of phenomenon in experimentation, is incontrovertible and provides, in the main, a sufficient basis for his…

  • Shared Leadership Practices: Do Secondary School Heads in Botswana Matter?

    This is an article critique entitled “Shared Leadership Practices: Do Secondary School Heads in Botswana Matter?” by Luke Moloko Mphale as cited in the heading above. The author aims to investigate the perceptions of secondary school heads in Botswana on shared leadership. He raised three research questions for address his purpose. The author of this article raised one of the contemporary issues of leadership “shared leadership” which makes the article timely and important. In line with addressing his purpose the author used 62 school heads used structured questionnaires to collect data from the samples after he has been testing the reliability of the instrument. He found out that leadership is no longer a one man’s show but, a professional work of everyone in the school based on this recommended that for schools to be successful, they should practice a shared leadership model. The reviewer of this article wants to remind that raising the issue as an agenda of discussion and research is most important regardless of some pitfalls to be considered such as issue of generalizability, trustworthiness of findings and instrumentation.

  • Article critique: “Effects of Leadership on Student Success through the Balanced Leadership Framework”

    Cetin and Kinik wrote an article entitled “Effects of Leadership on Student Success through the Balanced Leadership Framework” and this critique focuses on this article. The author aims to investigate the role of balanced leadership for students’ success despite the mismatch between his purpose and the way he discussed balanced leadership. In this study, after reviewing the literature, a qualitative analysis related to the 8 leadership responsibilities (Culture, Ideals and Beliefs, Communication, Visibility, Input, Relationships, Situational Awareness, Affirmation) that are necessary to form the Purposeful Community (which is not exactly match with the intended purpose students success) has been made. The author raised interesting issue in the leadership arena but the issues raised are not in line with the role of balanced leadership on students’ success that goes beyond this creation of purposeful community which seems broad aim to be succeed after long time of schooling. To this end, reviewer underscored that however the author inclined to bring hot and ample issue the way he pass through needs revision and re correction, ways of sampling, singularity of data collection instrument leads to problem of generalizability, replicability and trustworthiness of the findings.


    Human personality is a mind-boggling system of neurons working through the electromagnetic driving forces and radiations. These are inconspicuous energies whose equalization influences the general prosperity of the individual. Plants and their parts contain different bioactive mixes effectively affecting physical, passionate and mental consequences for the human body. Bloom characters are unpretentious concentrates having a significant impact on enthusiastic prosperity, soil improvement, and mind-body wellbeing. Flower cures including Bach Remedies exceptionally well known in the West as pieces of reciprocal medication are believed to be viable in psychosomatic and related diseases.


    The review article is the most authentic form of traditional medicine in AYUSH system, Vriksha Ayurveda is one of the best forms and have huge concept in every field for the plants. New technologies developed for the conservation of medicinal plants in the form of tissue culture is now necessary to prevent their extinction from the earth. Vriksha Ayurved explains many innovative methods of plantations. The nutrients like Milk & Ghee not only provides nutrition to the plants but also are useful in its diseased conditions. This experiment revels that Ghee if poured daily to the small shrubs coats the root drizzles and stops water absorption hence Ghee should not be poured singly and daily to the small shrubs. Amongst all the nutrients Eugenol content of the Tulasi leaves nurtured by milk was maximum. Also, the plants nurtured by milk has double yield of leaves and inflorescence in compared to plants nurtured by water and it is concluded from this research study that Milk is the best plant nutrient for Krishna Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum).

  • Astrology and Mental Health

    The review article explains that the mental disease is an integral part of Medical Astrology based on principles propounded by the ancient sages in India. The planets mainly responsible for sound or unsound mental health are the Moon, Mercury and Jupiter. These planets together either keep a native in perfect good mental health or cause him mental illness. Experimentation on diagnosing major mental disorders says that the nature of the mental illness can be ascertained from the relationship between the afflicted and the afflicting planets aided by a good understanding of the inherent qualities of such afflicted and afflicting planets like Moon: feelings, emotions, love, attachment, intuition and tenderness.Mercury: deep thoughts, logic, analysis, mathematics, rationality, planning, Mars: hot temperament, impulsiveness, knee-jerk reactions, violence and anger, Saturn: cunning, obstacle, suffering, stoic behaviour and suppression, Rahu: Evil thoughts, suffering, inciting, tempting, fantasizing