Dermatological Research and Reviews

  • Epidemiological Profile of Leprosy from 2006 to 2013 in Limoeiro, Pernambuco

    Introduction: In the epidemiological transition experienced by Brazil, the prevalence of infectious-contagious diseases is still evident. Among them, leprosy is a public health problem whose main etiological agent is Mycobacterium leprae. It is a common pathology in developing countries. Methodology: Descriptive and retrospective study, with data collection from 2006 to 2013, coming from the National System of Information of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). Results: 93 cases of leprosy were reported in the period covered by the data search. Resulting in an average detection of 1.5 cases / 10,000 inhabitants / year. According to the analysis of the data obtained, there was a predominance of male cases (51.61%), urban residents (60.22%), age range from 30 to 39 years (23.66%), as Dimorfa being the most reported Clinical Form (39.78%). Conclusions / Considerations: It is expected that new strategies and actions will be implemented, or revised, as more specific measures for the prevention and control of leprosy in the municipality of Limoeiro, Pernambuco.

  • Histomorphometric Analysis Of Reepitelization And Collagen Matrix Of Cutaneous Wounds Treated With Hydroalcoolic Extract From The Leaves Of Conocarpus Erectus Linnaeus

    Introduction: The species Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus belonging to the Combretaceae Family, that contains 18 genera, where the genus Combretum is considered to be the largest distributed on the whole African continent, possessing about 370 species that are abundantly used in folk medicine due to its chemical diversity, its low toxicity and low cost. The species of this family are widely used as a therapeutic resource for various types of pains, colds, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, pneumonia, mumps, cancer, hypertension, infections and wound treatment. The wound healing is a process that involves the performance of several cell types, extracellular matrix and chemical mediators, in order to promote tissue reconstitution. Objective: To evaluate reepithelialization and collagen deposition through the histomorphometry of the scar tissue treated with the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus. Methodology: For the general outline of the experiment, male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into four groups: Group I (Negative Control – Lanette Cream); Group II (10% FHFCS – Cream formulation of the hydroalcoholic extract of dry leaves C. erectus); Group III (Cream formulation of the hydroalcoholic extract of fresh leaves of C. erectus) and Group IV (Dexpanthenol – Standard). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups with five animals for euthanasia on the 7th and 21st day. The animals were previously anesthetized with a combination of ketamine and xylazine and were later placed in a ventral decubitus for manual trichotomy and antisepsis with 0.1% iodized alcohol, the area of incidence was marked using a metal punch with a cutting blade (± 10 mm²). Then, the treatments were started and a new layer (± 95 mg) was applied daily. Histological preparations were submitted to Hematoxylin-Eosin technique. The histological images were captured by a digital camera coupled to an optical microscope, obtaining 06 fields per slide with…

  • Histomorphometric Evaluation Of The Effect Of Semi-Solid Formulation Of Conocarpus Erectus Leaves On Fibroblasts And Inflammatory Cells In The Process Of Tissue Remodeling

    Introduction: The wound can be defined as a skin lesion caused by chemical, physical or biological factors leading to cutaneous discontinuity. Based on the healing process, the evolution of the wounds can be mentioned as acute and chronic. Healing is the tissue repair process coordinated by biochemical and histological factors to restore tissue integrity. Since ancient times, medicinal plants have been used as a therapeutic resource, contributing to the treatment and prevention of various diseases. The species Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus, popularly known as “mangue de botão”, is found in the mangrove and stands out for presenting analgesic, anticancer, antimicrobial and hepatoprotective properties. Objective: Evaluate the ability of semi-solid formulations of C. erectus leaves through the histomorphometry of fibroblasts and inflammatory cells in the tissue remodeling process of cutaneous wounds in Wistar rats. Methodology: For the evaluation of the cicatrizant activity were obtained formulations containing 10% of the hydroalcoholic extract of the dry and fresh leaves of C. erectus (FHFCS and FHFCF 10%, respectively), manipulated within the standards and quality control for medicaments in the Laboratory of Pharmacotoxicological Prospecting of Bioactive Products of Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. To evaluate the healing activity, excisional cutaneous wounds were surgically made in the dorsal midline of the cervical region of Wistar rats (n = 5), these were standardized (6 mm²) and performed with animals previously anesthetized, after tricotomy and adequate antisepsis. Then, the wounds were treated with daily topical application (± 95 mg) of the preparations according to the experimental design: Group I (Negative Control – Lanette Cream); Group II (10% FHFCS); Group III (10% FHFCF); Group IV (Dexpanthenol – Positive Control) for 14 days. The histological preparations were submitted to a staining technique by Hematoxylin-Eosin (H.E.) for counting inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. The histological images were captured by digital camera coupled to the…

  • Face Powders: Formulation Considerations

    The face powder was demanded by many nations in the world in the beginning AD and in Asia white skin was believed to be the sign of aristocratism, membership of the elite, and yet, white color is the pure symbol of the internal beauty and nobility. In addition, some face powders are sold in varying specialty shades to suit different skin needs; for example, a face powder with a greenish tinge will minimize the appearance of redness, while a purple-tinted powder may help the appearance of sallow or yellow skin. There is a legitimate reason to use face powder, and the pharmacopeias prescribe them in the treatment of many skin affections. At all events the proper use of powder is beneficial, it lightly covers and unifies a complexion, hiding the ravages of time, improving even the beautiful face. Face powder comes in different shades to match varying skin tones, and it is a good idea to choose the skin tone that most closely matches the natural skin. This will help the makeup appear more natural; it should be virtually unnoticeable. It may be necessary to use different face powders for summer and winter, as the skin may become tanner in the summer, or drier and in need of extra moisture in the winter. They are of benefit in acne, freckles, sunburn and red nose. Beneath their attractive aspect and odor, face powders should be made by the perfumer to combine the qualities of an elegant cosmetic and therapeutic agent; they must primarily possess adherence, lightness and be transparent; secondly, they should be detergent and delicately absorbent in order to aid the natural functions of the skin, taking up the fatty matters not easily dislodged by water; they should also tend to increase the natural elasticity and regular functions of the…

  • Urbanization, Environmental Pollution & Skin Aging

    The skin aging process, which is prompted by environmental variables, is named untimely or extrinsic skin aging process and can be recognized from the sequentially (intrinsic) skin aging process by trademark skin aging signs. Albeit human skin goes about as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemicals and physical air pollutants, prolonged or tedious presentation to abnormal amounts of these pollutants may have profound negative impacts on the skin. Sexual orientation contrasts in toxicity have been accounted for some substances. Youngsters are known to be increasingly defenseless against the antagonistic health impacts of air pollution. Environmental pollution by traffic is additionally connected with the event of indications of extrinsic skin aging. Heavy metals, for example, cadmium, lead and mercury are regular air pollutants that posture health hazards because of bioaccumulation. Ozone in the stratosphere has protective impacts by sifting solar UVR; be that as it may, in the troposphere ozone has toxic implications for skin. Because of scarcity of logical proof, there are no settled rules as of now accessible for protecting the skin against air pollution. Beside lessening presentation, potential protection techniques should concentrate on fixing the skin barrier, renewing antioxidant save, and diminishing inflammation brought about via air pollutants.

  • An Extensive Review on Sunscreen and Suntan Preparations

    The sunscreen industry is achieving remarkable worldwide prominence by responding to the growing need for skin protection with fast-paced innovation. Increased consumer awareness of the harmful effects of sunlight has fueled the demand for improved photo protection. The need for broad-spectrum protection from both UVA and UVB rays has inspired scientists worldwide to research new cosmetic formulations and delivery systems. More effective sunscreen actives, emollients and novel cosmetic and functional ingredients have been regularly added to the formulator’s repertoire. Creativity in innovation has been hindered only by regulatory agencies and patent restrictions worldwide. Familiarity with the current restrictive regulations and patent law infringements has become integral to any research effort attempting to provide improved protection to individuals affected by the sun’s damaging effects. The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photo damaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sun screening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Unlike the situation in Europe where sunscreen ingredients are considered under cosmetics guidelines, the FDA is required to define sunscreens as drugs since they are advertised to prevent sunburn and, more recently, the risk of skin cancer. In the USA, the FDA has been regulating this industry since August 25, 1978, with the publication of the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. Sunscreens are considered drugs and cosmetics and therefore must be governed by the FDA-OTC monograph. With the variety of sunscreen agents used in cosmetic and UV protection products, Australia, Canada, and the European Union (EU) have also developed regulatory protocols on safe sunscreen product use. Unlike the USA though, Australia has approved 34 active sunscreen ingredients and the EU has approved 28 of these ingredients. Current FDA regulations allow labeling of sunscreen products to a maximum of 30þ, despite the…

  • Skin Lightening and Management of Hyperpigmentation

    Skin color, along with hair and eye color, is genetically determined by the amount of melanin found in the top layers of skin. Its varied presence – which accounts for different skin colors – is linked to a population’s historic levels of sun exposure. Skin-lightening is just one of the multiple options for augmenting the skin’s surface appearance, including but not limited to tanning, scarification, makeup, tattooing, face lifts, nose jobs, botox, lip extensions, and piercings. Skin-bleaching practices, such as using skin creams and soaps to achieve a lighter skin tone, are common throughout the world and are triggered by cosmetic reasons that oftentimes have deep historical, economic, sociocultural, and psychosocial roots. The cosmetics industry has traditionally relied on convincing people that they are incomplete without a particular product. Yet, unlike makeup or fake tan, skin-whitening creams base beauty on a racial hierarchy, fueling intolerance and causing serious social harm. Lighter and fairer skin is something that everyone craves for, and celebrities play a massive part in paving the way. Just like ladies, men also aspire to get immaculate, glowing and healthy-looking skin to accentuate their personality and overall looks. It’s for everyone to understand that men really feel shy to discuss the skincare routines as they feel it’s all-girl stuff. But there is no denying that even boys need to uplift and improve their skin texture to feel good. Studies have documented the use of skin fairness products, sometimes referred to as “skin whitening products,” “skin bleaching products,” “depigmenting agents,” in Africa, Europe, North America, and Asia, with prevalence of use ranging from 30 to 80% among various community samples. Skin fairness products include whitening and skin-lightening creams, face washes, deodorants, and lotions. These agents act in different ways to lighten skin, but generally work by suppressing the production…

  • Skin Care Creams: Formulation and Use

    Skin reflects origin, lifestyle, age and state of health. Skin color, tone and evenness, pigmentation, as well as skin surface characteristics are signs of skin’s health. The cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry offers a vast armamentarium of skin care products and procedures to clean, soothe, restore, reinforce, protect and to treat our skin and hence to keep it in “good condition”. Skin care products are readily available in daily life and they play a major role in health and nursing care. The promotion of skin care products including their claims are often based on an effect (e.g., moisturizing, antioxidant), evoked by an active (e.g., urea, tocopherol) that is delivered through a vehicle (e.g., lotion) that relies on a specific technology (e.g., nanotechnology). In addition, “without” claims (e.g., without parabens) often accompany nowadays promotions. Today, modern skin care includes cleansing, soothing, restoring, reinforcing and protecting. With increasing age, the emphasis on skin care is changing. The importance of soothing, restoring, reinforcing increases and cleansing should be executed with particular care. The character of skin care shifts from more cosmetic objectives e smooth, healthy looking skin e to more therapeutic and preventive objectives e soothing, restoring, reinforcing and protecting stressed skin. Even though skin care and skin protection play an important role throughout lifetime the skin areas in primary need of care and protection also change. In younger years, environmental factors (e.g., UV radiation) are of primary importance whereas in advanced years, age-related factors (e.g., prolonged exposure to various sources of moisture, including urine or feces, perspiration, wound exudate, and their contents) become more important. Subsequently the skin areas in need of care and protection also change e initially skin areas (e.g., face, arms, legs) exposed to the external environment and later enclosed skin areas (e.g., skin folds, perianal, perigenital skin, groin, feet)…

  • An Extensive Review of Cosmetics in Use

    The word “cosmetics” actually stems from its use in Ancient Rome. They were typically produced by female slaves known as “cosmetae,” which is where the word “cosmetics” stemmed from. Cosmetics are used to enhance appearance. Makeup has been around for many centuries. The first known people who used cosmetics to enhance their beauty were the Egyptians. Makeup those days was just simple eye coloring or some material for the body. Now-a-days makeup plays an important role for both men and women. In evolutionary psychology, social competition of appearance strengthens women’s desires for ideal beauty. According to “The Origin of Species”, humans have evolved to transfer genes to future generations through sexual selection that regards the body condition of ideal beauty as excellent fertility. Additionally, since women’s beauty has recently been considered a competitive advantage to create social power, a body that meets the social standards of a culture could achieve limited social resources. That’s right, even men have become more beauty conscious and are concerned about their looks. Cosmetics can be produced in the organic and hypoallergenic form to meet the demands of users. Makeup is used as a beauty aid to help build up the self-esteem and confidence of an individual. The importance of cosmetics has increased as many people want to stay young and attractive. Cosmetics are readily available today in the form of creams, lipstick, perfumes, eye shadows, nail polishes, hair sprays etc. Other cosmetics like face powder give glow to the skin after applying the base cream. Then we have lipsticks, which are applied by many women of all ages. They are made from wax and cocoa butter in the desired amount. Cosmetics like creams, gels, and colognes are used on a daily basis by both women and men. Creams act as a cleanser for the…

  • Acne Vulgaris: Measures and Miseries

    Acne, also known as acne vulgaris (AV), is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin. It is characterized by blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, oily skin, and possible scarring. An intact stratum corneum and barrier, normal natural moisturizing factor and hyaluronic acid levels, normal Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expression (localized at the basal lateral membranes of collecting duct cells in the kidney), and balanced sebum secretion are qualities of the skin that fall in the middle of the oily–dry spectrum. Patients rarely, if ever, complain about reduced sebum production, but elevated sebum production, yielding oily skin that can be a precursor to acne, is a common complaint. Several factors are known to influence sebum production. AV is mostly triggered by Propionibacterium acnes in adolescence, under the influence of normal circulating dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). It is a very common skin disorder which can present with inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions chiefly on the face but can also occur on the upper arms, trunk, and back. Age, in particular, has a significant and well-known impact, as sebum levels are usually low in childhood, rise in the middle-to-late teen years, and remain stable into the seventh and eighth decades until endogenous androgen synthesis dwindles. Sebum, the oily secretion of the sebaceous glands containing wax esters, sterol esters, cholesterol, di- and triglycerides, and squalene, imparts an oily quality to the skin and is well known to play an important role in acne development. Acne can’t be prevented or cured, but it can be treated effectively. The pimples and bumps heal slowly, and when one begins to go away, others seem to crop up. Depending on its severity, acne can cause emotional distress and scar the skin. Acne may cause scarring of the skin, but generally causes…