Dermatological Research and Reviews

  • Urbanization, Environmental Pollution & Skin Aging

    The skin aging process, which is prompted by environmental variables, is named untimely or extrinsic skin aging process and can be recognized from the sequentially (intrinsic) skin aging process by trademark skin aging signs. Albeit human skin goes about as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemicals and physical air pollutants, prolonged or tedious presentation to abnormal amounts of these pollutants may have profound negative impacts on the skin. Sexual orientation contrasts in toxicity have been accounted for some substances. Youngsters are known to be increasingly defenseless against the antagonistic health impacts of air pollution. Environmental pollution by traffic is additionally connected with the event of indications of extrinsic skin aging. Heavy metals, for example, cadmium, lead and mercury are regular air pollutants that posture health hazards because of bioaccumulation. Ozone in the stratosphere has protective impacts by sifting solar UVR; be that as it may, in the troposphere ozone has toxic implications for skin. Because of scarcity of logical proof, there are no settled rules as of now accessible for protecting the skin against air pollution. Beside lessening presentation, potential protection techniques should concentrate on fixing the skin barrier, renewing antioxidant save, and diminishing inflammation brought about via air pollutants.

  • An Extensive Review on Sunscreen and Suntan Preparations

    The sunscreen industry is achieving remarkable worldwide prominence by responding to the growing need for skin protection with fast-paced innovation. Increased consumer awareness of the harmful effects of sunlight has fueled the demand for improved photo protection. The need for broad-spectrum protection from both UVA and UVB rays has inspired scientists worldwide to research new cosmetic formulations and delivery systems. More effective sunscreen actives, emollients and novel cosmetic and functional ingredients have been regularly added to the formulator’s repertoire. Creativity in innovation has been hindered only by regulatory agencies and patent restrictions worldwide. Familiarity with the current restrictive regulations and patent law infringements has become integral to any research effort attempting to provide improved protection to individuals affected by the sun’s damaging effects. The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photo damaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sun screening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Unlike the situation in Europe where sunscreen ingredients are considered under cosmetics guidelines, the FDA is required to define sunscreens as drugs since they are advertised to prevent sunburn and, more recently, the risk of skin cancer. In the USA, the FDA has been regulating this industry since August 25, 1978, with the publication of the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. Sunscreens are considered drugs and cosmetics and therefore must be governed by the FDA-OTC monograph. With the variety of sunscreen agents used in cosmetic and UV protection products, Australia, Canada, and the European Union (EU) have also developed regulatory protocols on safe sunscreen product use. Unlike the USA though, Australia has approved 34 active sunscreen ingredients and the EU has approved 28 of these ingredients. Current FDA regulations allow labeling of sunscreen products to a maximum of 30þ, despite the…

  • Skin Lightening and Management of Hyperpigmentation

    Skin color, along with hair and eye color, is genetically determined by the amount of melanin found in the top layers of skin. Its varied presence – which accounts for different skin colors – is linked to a population’s historic levels of sun exposure. Skin-lightening is just one of the multiple options for augmenting the skin’s surface appearance, including but not limited to tanning, scarification, makeup, tattooing, face lifts, nose jobs, botox, lip extensions, and piercings. Skin-bleaching practices, such as using skin creams and soaps to achieve a lighter skin tone, are common throughout the world and are triggered by cosmetic reasons that oftentimes have deep historical, economic, sociocultural, and psychosocial roots. The cosmetics industry has traditionally relied on convincing people that they are incomplete without a particular product. Yet, unlike makeup or fake tan, skin-whitening creams base beauty on a racial hierarchy, fueling intolerance and causing serious social harm. Lighter and fairer skin is something that everyone craves for, and celebrities play a massive part in paving the way. Just like ladies, men also aspire to get immaculate, glowing and healthy-looking skin to accentuate their personality and overall looks. It’s for everyone to understand that men really feel shy to discuss the skincare routines as they feel it’s all-girl stuff. But there is no denying that even boys need to uplift and improve their skin texture to feel good. Studies have documented the use of skin fairness products, sometimes referred to as “skin whitening products,” “skin bleaching products,” “depigmenting agents,” in Africa, Europe, North America, and Asia, with prevalence of use ranging from 30 to 80% among various community samples. Skin fairness products include whitening and skin-lightening creams, face washes, deodorants, and lotions. These agents act in different ways to lighten skin, but generally work by suppressing the production…

  • Skin Care Creams: Formulation and Use

    Skin reflects origin, lifestyle, age and state of health. Skin color, tone and evenness, pigmentation, as well as skin surface characteristics are signs of skin’s health. The cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry offers a vast armamentarium of skin care products and procedures to clean, soothe, restore, reinforce, protect and to treat our skin and hence to keep it in “good condition”. Skin care products are readily available in daily life and they play a major role in health and nursing care. The promotion of skin care products including their claims are often based on an effect (e.g., moisturizing, antioxidant), evoked by an active (e.g., urea, tocopherol) that is delivered through a vehicle (e.g., lotion) that relies on a specific technology (e.g., nanotechnology). In addition, “without” claims (e.g., without parabens) often accompany nowadays promotions. Today, modern skin care includes cleansing, soothing, restoring, reinforcing and protecting. With increasing age, the emphasis on skin care is changing. The importance of soothing, restoring, reinforcing increases and cleansing should be executed with particular care. The character of skin care shifts from more cosmetic objectives e smooth, healthy looking skin e to more therapeutic and preventive objectives e soothing, restoring, reinforcing and protecting stressed skin. Even though skin care and skin protection play an important role throughout lifetime the skin areas in primary need of care and protection also change. In younger years, environmental factors (e.g., UV radiation) are of primary importance whereas in advanced years, age-related factors (e.g., prolonged exposure to various sources of moisture, including urine or feces, perspiration, wound exudate, and their contents) become more important. Subsequently the skin areas in need of care and protection also change e initially skin areas (e.g., face, arms, legs) exposed to the external environment and later enclosed skin areas (e.g., skin folds, perianal, perigenital skin, groin, feet)…

  • An Extensive Review of Cosmetics in Use

    The word “cosmetics” actually stems from its use in Ancient Rome. They were typically produced by female slaves known as “cosmetae,” which is where the word “cosmetics” stemmed from. Cosmetics are used to enhance appearance. Makeup has been around for many centuries. The first known people who used cosmetics to enhance their beauty were the Egyptians. Makeup those days was just simple eye coloring or some material for the body. Now-a-days makeup plays an important role for both men and women. In evolutionary psychology, social competition of appearance strengthens women’s desires for ideal beauty. According to “The Origin of Species”, humans have evolved to transfer genes to future generations through sexual selection that regards the body condition of ideal beauty as excellent fertility. Additionally, since women’s beauty has recently been considered a competitive advantage to create social power, a body that meets the social standards of a culture could achieve limited social resources. That’s right, even men have become more beauty conscious and are concerned about their looks. Cosmetics can be produced in the organic and hypoallergenic form to meet the demands of users. Makeup is used as a beauty aid to help build up the self-esteem and confidence of an individual. The importance of cosmetics has increased as many people want to stay young and attractive. Cosmetics are readily available today in the form of creams, lipstick, perfumes, eye shadows, nail polishes, hair sprays etc. Other cosmetics like face powder give glow to the skin after applying the base cream. Then we have lipsticks, which are applied by many women of all ages. They are made from wax and cocoa butter in the desired amount. Cosmetics like creams, gels, and colognes are used on a daily basis by both women and men. Creams act as a cleanser for the…

  • Acne Vulgaris: Measures and Miseries

    Acne, also known as acne vulgaris (AV), is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin. It is characterized by blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, oily skin, and possible scarring. An intact stratum corneum and barrier, normal natural moisturizing factor and hyaluronic acid levels, normal Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expression (localized at the basal lateral membranes of collecting duct cells in the kidney), and balanced sebum secretion are qualities of the skin that fall in the middle of the oily–dry spectrum. Patients rarely, if ever, complain about reduced sebum production, but elevated sebum production, yielding oily skin that can be a precursor to acne, is a common complaint. Several factors are known to influence sebum production. AV is mostly triggered by Propionibacterium acnes in adolescence, under the influence of normal circulating dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). It is a very common skin disorder which can present with inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions chiefly on the face but can also occur on the upper arms, trunk, and back. Age, in particular, has a significant and well-known impact, as sebum levels are usually low in childhood, rise in the middle-to-late teen years, and remain stable into the seventh and eighth decades until endogenous androgen synthesis dwindles. Sebum, the oily secretion of the sebaceous glands containing wax esters, sterol esters, cholesterol, di- and triglycerides, and squalene, imparts an oily quality to the skin and is well known to play an important role in acne development. Acne can’t be prevented or cured, but it can be treated effectively. The pimples and bumps heal slowly, and when one begins to go away, others seem to crop up. Depending on its severity, acne can cause emotional distress and scar the skin. Acne may cause scarring of the skin, but generally causes…

  • Analysis of motor ground function in children with cerebral paralysis: a case study

    Introduction: In cerebral palsy (CP) there are disorders in posture and movement, and there are innumerable interventions, including Restricted Movement Induction Therapy (TRIMm), associated to the “Pirate Group” protocol, which uses play context and Bimanual Training. Objective: To evaluate changes in gross motor function after modified application of Pirate Group Therapy in children with CP. Methodology: Descriptive, exploratory, quantitative, case report. Sociodemographic questionnaire was used, evaluation by the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFM); Classification System of Hand Skills; Pediatric Disability Assessment Inventory (PEDI); International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, followed by the initiation of therapy. A total of 14 physiotherapeutic sessions of 60 minutes each were performed. Results and Discussion: In the GMFM, there was an improvement in the Gross Motor Function (82.99 to 86.52); in the field Walking, running and jumping (67 to 69). Already in the PEDI, obtained functional gain in the ten items of the Self-Care Domain. Discussion: Because the patient had unilateral spastic PC (better gross motor function), the results were discrete, corroborating with the literature. Conclusion: Due to the innovative character of the application of effective and playful protocol, it allowed to increase the functional ability of a child with unilateral right spastic CP.

  • Immunization in elderly people in public health

    Introduction: Vaccination is an important instrument to spread health care, especially in Brazil, available by the SUS, that offers vaccines recommended by OMS, without any cost, and with strategies that help propagate that prevention, like the Vaccination Calendar, made for the different age groups, including the elderly. Objectives: It is extremely important to evaluate and to unravel all the vaccines recommended and offered by the SUS for elder people, taking a look at its importance and how the doses are administered. Methodology: This research is a transversal, retrospective study, in a bibliographic revision form, about the immunization of the elderly. Articles from 2002, in english, portuguese and spanish, found in Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Google Scholar were used. They were sectioned in order of relevance and by their abstracts. Results: One of the groups most benefited by this vaccine situation is the elderly, who has been growing in the last few years, all around the world. The immunization of these people with vaccines against diphtheria and tetanus, yellow fever, pneumococci, hepati is B and influenza. Conclusion: Vaccination is extremely important, because it decreases morbidity and mortality that are associated with infectious diseases, leading to a better quality of life.

  • Treatment and rehabilitation of patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis

    Introduction: The cases that involve this pathology promote discussions about diagnosis and treatment, generating numerous ways to treat this pathology. Objectives: To describe the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Methodology: The information contained in this article results from the combination of research on patients and treatments involving TMJ ankylosis as well as its applications. Results: It was verified that there is no common therapeutic procedure for all patients, so there are several forms of treatment. Conclusion: It is necessary to have a multi professional team that is directed and committed in the diagnosis and treatment of the patient, as well as a line of research that facilitates the diagnosis.

  • Promoting healthy food practices through food education: a focus on functional foods

    Introduction: The poor eating habits of large populations associated with a more sedentary lifestyle, are responsible for the increase of diseases linked to diet. Given this scenario, there is a worldwide interest in improving the quality of nutrition and reducing health spending. Objective: To promote an intervention action directed to the reeducation of food related to the consumption of functional foods, based on an intervention carried out at the Colégio Dom Augustinho Ikas in São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco. Methodology: The intervention was divided into 6 stages, where the topics on poor diet, healthy eating and functional foods were discussed. A practical gastronomic workshop and the application of questionnaires were carried out to evaluate the nutritional status of the participants, as well as the impact of the intervention. Outcome: Participants in the intervention already consumed some of these functional foods, being very positive from a nutritional point of view, although only 10% knew or had already heard about the subject. It was also possible to verify the gain of new knowledge by those involved. Conclusion: The intervention proved to be a sensitizing tool in relation to the factors related to food choices reconciled with the measure of health promotion and quality of life.