American Journal of History and Culture

  • THE UNVEILING OF TWO MONUMENTS OF THE LIBERATOR: SIMÓN BOLÍVAR IN NEW YORK CITY (1921), AND SIMÓN BOLÍVAR IN BOLÍVAR, MISSOURI (1948)

    This study explores two important moments in Bolívar’s image and cultural history: first, president Warren G. Harding’s speech during the ceremony of the unveiling of the equestrian statue of the Latin American Liberator, Simón Bolívar, in the city of New York in April 19, 1921, narrating the facts behind the story of the monument created by the American artist, Mrs. Sally James Farnham. Furthermore, this investigation includes original photographs that were taken during the ceremony and that were disseminated by the Addresses Delivered on the Occasion of the Unveiling of the Statue of the Liberator Simón Bolívar Presented to the City of New York by the Government of Venezuela; The American Magazine of Art, and The Colombian Review. Second, this investigation analyzes the unveiling of the statue of the Latin-American Liberator, Simón Bolívar in 1948 in the city of Bolívar in the State of Missouri, including information from the speeches given by the president of the United States of America, Harry Truman, and the Venezuelan president, Rómulo Gallegos. This study also includes a set of eight original photographs that were taken and disseminated during both ceremonies in New York City and in the city of Bolívar in the State of Missouri.

  • Interaction and Conflict among the Nuer and Anuak communities

    Gambella regional state is located in the southwestern Ethiopia with diverse ethnic groups. From the ethnic groups, Anuak and Nuer are dominant in the region. Both interacted in marriage, support each other in the time of famine as well as war and followed traditional religion. Their interaction violated by conflicts in the second half 19th century. The conflict caused by the question of natural resources, Parliamentary seats and curriculum and media of instruction in school. This fight caused the death of human beings and destruction of material properties on the both ethnic groups. Hostilities and conflicts between them had no earned solution due to outbreak of First World War.

  • History of Tantra

    The review article explains that the Tantra is oldest tradition of mind and body health, Universal is not creating any one, it is create by god. Its truth no scientific an evidence of various natural things in 21st century, Tantra explains systematic life, visualization of nothings etc… Tantra is best way of good things only.

  • Socio-cultural features, Special Ceremonies and Economic Activities of the Gumuz Communit

    A Gumuz of the Mandura Woreda share many common socio-cultural features with their ethnic groups. Their basic socio-cultural features are Marriage arrangement, Menstruation and delivery custom, food custom and dressing style. They also celebrated the special ceremony called a memorial feast for the dead whom they call it Kemasa. Besides it, the ceremonial events such as the founding of the true cross, funeral and initiation ceremonies for girls at the first menstruation and for boys at a time of big hunt or killing of an enemy play a significant role of the Gumuz community’s social life. In the Mandura woreda, the most important economic activity of the Gumuz Population was shifting cultivation. Hunting, gathering, small scale fishing, handcrafts, beekeeping and limited animal husbandry were the supplementary economic activity of them.

  • Analysis of the Conversational Implicature of Violating Cooperative Principles in Daily Discourse

    Conversational implicature and conversational principle are proposed by the American language philosopher Grice. The principle of conversation is an important part of the study in the field of pragmatics, represented by Grice’s Cooperative principle and Leech’s Politeness principle, which constitutes the main reference principle and basis for understanding the meaning of conversation. To a certain extent, they regulate people’s verbal communication behavior. Grice believes that in the process of people’s communication, the two sides of the dialogue seem to follow a certain principle intentionally or unintentionally in order to complete the communicative task effectively. But sometimes, to make the communication activities go smoothly, the communicative parties usually break the cooperative principles in order to achieve some kind of communicative purpose. Based on the daily communicative dialogue as corpus, this paper analyzes the communicative implicature that violates the principle of conversation. Through the analysis of communicative implicature and pragmatic effect to explore the main forms of conversational implicature in verbal communication in the context of real communication.

  • Regional cultural expression of cultural architecture—Take the design works of Yichang History and Culture Theme Exhibition Hall as an example

    Cultural buildings have distinct regional characteristics. How to make them have regional characteristics is an important point to judge the success or failure of a cultural building design. Take Yichang City’s cultural architecture design as an example to explore how regional cultural characteristics are reflected in the architecture. From the aspects of humanities and natural environment, we provide an in-depth analysis of the cultural design of local characteristics, and discuss the specific application of different factors in the design of stylistic architecture.

  • European diplomacy and Kosovo issue during 1992-1998

    European diplomacy was in a dominant position after the loss of Soviet influence in the eastern European countries. The Yugoslav crisis was the first challenge for the European Community that could not stop the conflict in the areas of the former Yugoslavia. It did not appear determined in the initial positions of the Yugoslav crisis by attempting to maintain the Yugoslav federation, at a time when it was impossible for the coming of leaders seeking independence from the such federation. The efforts of European diplomats at the London Conference, The Hague, and then onwards to that of Geneva failed to stop the expansion of the conflict towards Kosovo. Where peace was established only when at the same time diplomacy was combined with NATO air force.

  • The Historical Streams of Adam Smiths An Inquiry Into The Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations

    Set time as independent variable with historical method, regard Adam Smith and his An Inquiry Into The Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations as an ecosystem, explore the inputs to this ecosystem by analysing literature text and abstract two streams therein: one stream from the west, one stream from the east, investigate their flowing trace and coupling process, seek conceivable pattern in chaos, draw a personal imperfect summing-up on the Historical Streams of Adam Smith’s An Inquiry Into The Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations: its discourse system came from the west demonstrably: the attention to people, the legality of private property, the concept of economy from Xenophon, the thought of division of labour from Xenophon and Plato, the distinction between natural and unnatural from Aristotle to natural law and moral philosophy, the discovery of rule of supply and demand, and the development of Commerce and agriculture in Europe… its policy orientation was influenced by the concepts of Tao, i.e. law of nature, and the inaction from China. History can be regard as a winding, discreate watershed relating with multiple streams. The interflow of streams of different civilization, may be able to provide more choices for the opening of thought window and more genes for the ecology to evolve.

  • Physical and Mental Health for Indian Classical Dance

    Dance provides an active, non-competitive form of exercise that has potential positive effects for physical health as well as mental and emotional wellbeing. Dance therapy is based on the idea that body and mind are co-relational. The therapeutic approaches with various forms of Indian dances are a new entrant to dance literature. Ayurveda held dance as a power of healing (therapy) and inner awareness (psychology). Indian philosophy also supports the facts of Sangeet (song, dance and music) for benefit of human health physically as well as mentally. The powerful dance form of Bhangra (Punjab), Karagam (Tamilnadu), Chou, Rayabese, Dhali (West Bengal) gives good health and strength. The fast footwork of Kathak dance helps to release anger and tension. Manipuri dancers make rounded movements and avoid any jerks, sharp edges or straight lines. It gives them undulating and soft appearance, proper body control and peace of mind. All these body movements, body balancing, expression, muscle movement, muscle constriction and relaxation have a strong effect on therapeutic movements. In India today the dance therapists are conscious about this matter and in therapeutic sessions they actually improvise different dance movements according to the need.

  • Balkan Wars and the Albanian issue

    This paper will elaborate the collapse of the Turkish rule in the Balkans and the future fate of Albania, embarking on the new plans of the invasive politics of the Balkan Alliance, especially of Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. Then the dramatic events during the Balkan Wars 1912-1913, the occupation of Kosovo and other Albanian lands by Serbia, the Albanian resistance with special focus on Luma, Opoja and Gora. It will also discuss the rapid developments of the Balkan Wars, which accelerated the Declaration of the Independence of Albania on 28 November, 1912, and organization of the Ambassadors Conference in London, which decided to recognize the Autonomy of Albania with today’s borders. Then, information about the inhumane crimes of the Serbian Army against the Albanian freedom-loving people, committing unprecedented crimes against the civilian population, is given.