American Journal of History and Culture

  • Diplomatic Victory of the Kosovo Liberation Army

    In the dissolution of Yugoslavia, Serbian nationalism played a crucial role with the project of creating a greater Serbia, using military violence to achieve the goal of this project. The northern republics such as Slovenes, Croats and Kosovo Albanians had the strongest reaction against this project, since after the first pluralist elections in Yugoslavia, political parties seeking independence from Belgrade came to the helm of these republics. The actions of national movements of the Slovenians, Croats, Bosnians, Kosovo Albanians, Macedonians and Montenegrins for independence, have been a reaction to the project of Serbian nationalism for the creation of a greater Serbia. In these new circumstances created in the Yugoslav federation, Kosovo Albanians profiled the demands for a sovereign and independent state of Kosovo, legitimizing it with the referendum held under conditions of occupation and with a sovereign vote for the independence of Kosovo. Despite the creation of some parallel institutions such as education and the obedience of Western diplomacy for a peaceful solution to the Kosovo issue. This was not achieved until an armed resistance from Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) started in Kosovo, that the Kosovo issue was imposed on the diplomacies with international influence to start taking important decisions towards the solution to the Kosovo issue. Due to the KLA war, the contact group took the historical decision to organize an international conference in Rambouillet of France, with a concrete peaceful plan for Kosovo. Rambouillet’s decisions were rejected by the Yugoslav government, thus forcing NATO military intervention to stop crimes against Albanian civilians by Serb forces. The efforts of the Kosovo Albanians to get out of the Serbian occupation had been imposed, even though as such they were insufficient to achieve success for nearly a century, but due to the international diplomacy and the sacrifice of the Albanian national…

  • Introduction to the study of Ibn Qutayba´s ‘Uyūn al-Akhbār

    Ibn Qutayba (828-889) is one of the most important writers of medieval Arabic literature. He is the author of several books of Adab, a classic genre of prose cultivated among the Arabs in the Middle Ages. This paper refers to this outstanding figure of medieval times and is an approach to the study of one of his main works: the compendium of Adab (belles-lettres) entitled as ‘Uyūn al-Akhbār (Sources of information). It includes some preliminary notes by way of introduction about the life and the work of the author, a special reference to the cited book, and an appendix with the English translation of an Arabic text selected and taken from the ‘Uyūn al-Akhbār.

  • Documenting The History Of Segadi Michael Monastery

    The aim of this research is dealing with the documenting the history of Segadi Michael monastery. Monastery is very great in size when we compare with church. The monastery established in the 17th century by the founder Abune Tetemke- Medehin at the Awi Administrative Zone, Guangua Woreda. The presence of Segadi Michael monastery in the Guangua Woreda plays a significant role for development of Christianity religion for the local people and people of Ethiopia in general. The income of the church come not only from the contribution of the believers and agricultural product of its own land, grinding variety of crops by the use of mill as well as rearing the cattle, but also when performing religious activities such as child baptizing, gift during celebration (holiday) and in the form of cereals from local people.


    This study explores two important moments in Bolívar’s image and cultural history: first, president Warren G. Harding’s speech during the ceremony of the unveiling of the equestrian statue of the Latin American Liberator, Simón Bolívar, in the city of New York in April 19, 1921, narrating the facts behind the story of the monument created by the American artist, Mrs. Sally James Farnham. Furthermore, this investigation includes original photographs that were taken during the ceremony and that were disseminated by the Addresses Delivered on the Occasion of the Unveiling of the Statue of the Liberator Simón Bolívar Presented to the City of New York by the Government of Venezuela; The American Magazine of Art, and The Colombian Review. Second, this investigation analyzes the unveiling of the statue of the Latin-American Liberator, Simón Bolívar in 1948 in the city of Bolívar in the State of Missouri, including information from the speeches given by the president of the United States of America, Harry Truman, and the Venezuelan president, Rómulo Gallegos. This study also includes a set of eight original photographs that were taken and disseminated during both ceremonies in New York City and in the city of Bolívar in the State of Missouri.

  • Interaction and Conflict among the Nuer and Anuak communities

    Gambella regional state is located in the southwestern Ethiopia with diverse ethnic groups. From the ethnic groups, Anuak and Nuer are dominant in the region. Both interacted in marriage, support each other in the time of famine as well as war and followed traditional religion. Their interaction violated by conflicts in the second half 19th century. The conflict caused by the question of natural resources, Parliamentary seats and curriculum and media of instruction in school. This fight caused the death of human beings and destruction of material properties on the both ethnic groups. Hostilities and conflicts between them had no earned solution due to outbreak of First World War.

  • History of Tantra

    The review article explains that the Tantra is oldest tradition of mind and body health, Universal is not creating any one, it is create by god. Its truth no scientific an evidence of various natural things in 21st century, Tantra explains systematic life, visualization of nothings etc… Tantra is best way of good things only.

  • Socio-cultural features, Special Ceremonies and Economic Activities of the Gumuz Communit

    A Gumuz of the Mandura Woreda share many common socio-cultural features with their ethnic groups. Their basic socio-cultural features are Marriage arrangement, Menstruation and delivery custom, food custom and dressing style. They also celebrated the special ceremony called a memorial feast for the dead whom they call it Kemasa. Besides it, the ceremonial events such as the founding of the true cross, funeral and initiation ceremonies for girls at the first menstruation and for boys at a time of big hunt or killing of an enemy play a significant role of the Gumuz community’s social life. In the Mandura woreda, the most important economic activity of the Gumuz Population was shifting cultivation. Hunting, gathering, small scale fishing, handcrafts, beekeeping and limited animal husbandry were the supplementary economic activity of them.

  • Analysis of the Conversational Implicature of Violating Cooperative Principles in Daily Discourse

    Conversational implicature and conversational principle are proposed by the American language philosopher Grice. The principle of conversation is an important part of the study in the field of pragmatics, represented by Grice’s Cooperative principle and Leech’s Politeness principle, which constitutes the main reference principle and basis for understanding the meaning of conversation. To a certain extent, they regulate people’s verbal communication behavior. Grice believes that in the process of people’s communication, the two sides of the dialogue seem to follow a certain principle intentionally or unintentionally in order to complete the communicative task effectively. But sometimes, to make the communication activities go smoothly, the communicative parties usually break the cooperative principles in order to achieve some kind of communicative purpose. Based on the daily communicative dialogue as corpus, this paper analyzes the communicative implicature that violates the principle of conversation. Through the analysis of communicative implicature and pragmatic effect to explore the main forms of conversational implicature in verbal communication in the context of real communication.

  • Regional cultural expression of cultural architecture—Take the design works of Yichang History and Culture Theme Exhibition Hall as an example

    Cultural buildings have distinct regional characteristics. How to make them have regional characteristics is an important point to judge the success or failure of a cultural building design. Take Yichang City’s cultural architecture design as an example to explore how regional cultural characteristics are reflected in the architecture. From the aspects of humanities and natural environment, we provide an in-depth analysis of the cultural design of local characteristics, and discuss the specific application of different factors in the design of stylistic architecture.

  • European diplomacy and Kosovo issue during 1992-1998

    European diplomacy was in a dominant position after the loss of Soviet influence in the eastern European countries. The Yugoslav crisis was the first challenge for the European Community that could not stop the conflict in the areas of the former Yugoslavia. It did not appear determined in the initial positions of the Yugoslav crisis by attempting to maintain the Yugoslav federation, at a time when it was impossible for the coming of leaders seeking independence from the such federation. The efforts of European diplomats at the London Conference, The Hague, and then onwards to that of Geneva failed to stop the expansion of the conflict towards Kosovo. Where peace was established only when at the same time diplomacy was combined with NATO air force.