American Journal of History and Culture

  • Analysis of the Conversational Implicature of Violating Cooperative Principles in Daily Discourse

    Conversational implicature and conversational principle are proposed by the American language philosopher Grice. The principle of conversation is an important part of the study in the field of pragmatics, represented by Grice’s Cooperative principle and Leech’s Politeness principle, which constitutes the main reference principle and basis for understanding the meaning of conversation. To a certain extent, they regulate people’s verbal communication behavior. Grice believes that in the process of people’s communication, the two sides of the dialogue seem to follow a certain principle intentionally or unintentionally in order to complete the communicative task effectively. But sometimes, to make the communication activities go smoothly, the communicative parties usually break the cooperative principles in order to achieve some kind of communicative purpose. Based on the daily communicative dialogue as corpus, this paper analyzes the communicative implicature that violates the principle of conversation. Through the analysis of communicative implicature and pragmatic effect to explore the main forms of conversational implicature in verbal communication in the context of real communication.

  • Regional cultural expression of cultural architecture—Take the design works of Yichang History and Culture Theme Exhibition Hall as an example

    Cultural buildings have distinct regional characteristics. How to make them have regional characteristics is an important point to judge the success or failure of a cultural building design. Take Yichang City’s cultural architecture design as an example to explore how regional cultural characteristics are reflected in the architecture. From the aspects of humanities and natural environment, we provide an in-depth analysis of the cultural design of local characteristics, and discuss the specific application of different factors in the design of stylistic architecture.

  • European diplomacy and Kosovo issue during 1992-1998

    European diplomacy was in a dominant position after the loss of Soviet influence in the eastern European countries. The Yugoslav crisis was the first challenge for the European Community that could not stop the conflict in the areas of the former Yugoslavia. It did not appear determined in the initial positions of the Yugoslav crisis by attempting to maintain the Yugoslav federation, at a time when it was impossible for the coming of leaders seeking independence from the such federation. The efforts of European diplomats at the London Conference, The Hague, and then onwards to that of Geneva failed to stop the expansion of the conflict towards Kosovo. Where peace was established only when at the same time diplomacy was combined with NATO air force.

  • The Historical Streams of Adam Smiths An Inquiry Into The Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations

    Set time as independent variable with historical method, regard Adam Smith and his An Inquiry Into The Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations as an ecosystem, explore the inputs to this ecosystem by analysing literature text and abstract two streams therein: one stream from the west, one stream from the east, investigate their flowing trace and coupling process, seek conceivable pattern in chaos, draw a personal imperfect summing-up on the Historical Streams of Adam Smith’s An Inquiry Into The Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations: its discourse system came from the west demonstrably: the attention to people, the legality of private property, the concept of economy from Xenophon, the thought of division of labour from Xenophon and Plato, the distinction between natural and unnatural from Aristotle to natural law and moral philosophy, the discovery of rule of supply and demand, and the development of Commerce and agriculture in Europe… its policy orientation was influenced by the concepts of Tao, i.e. law of nature, and the inaction from China. History can be regard as a winding, discreate watershed relating with multiple streams. The interflow of streams of different civilization, may be able to provide more choices for the opening of thought window and more genes for the ecology to evolve.

  • Physical and Mental Health for Indian Classical Dance

    Dance provides an active, non-competitive form of exercise that has potential positive effects for physical health as well as mental and emotional wellbeing. Dance therapy is based on the idea that body and mind are co-relational. The therapeutic approaches with various forms of Indian dances are a new entrant to dance literature. Ayurveda held dance as a power of healing (therapy) and inner awareness (psychology). Indian philosophy also supports the facts of Sangeet (song, dance and music) for benefit of human health physically as well as mentally. The powerful dance form of Bhangra (Punjab), Karagam (Tamilnadu), Chou, Rayabese, Dhali (West Bengal) gives good health and strength. The fast footwork of Kathak dance helps to release anger and tension. Manipuri dancers make rounded movements and avoid any jerks, sharp edges or straight lines. It gives them undulating and soft appearance, proper body control and peace of mind. All these body movements, body balancing, expression, muscle movement, muscle constriction and relaxation have a strong effect on therapeutic movements. In India today the dance therapists are conscious about this matter and in therapeutic sessions they actually improvise different dance movements according to the need.

  • Balkan Wars and the Albanian issue

    This paper will elaborate the collapse of the Turkish rule in the Balkans and the future fate of Albania, embarking on the new plans of the invasive politics of the Balkan Alliance, especially of Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. Then the dramatic events during the Balkan Wars 1912-1913, the occupation of Kosovo and other Albanian lands by Serbia, the Albanian resistance with special focus on Luma, Opoja and Gora. It will also discuss the rapid developments of the Balkan Wars, which accelerated the Declaration of the Independence of Albania on 28 November, 1912, and organization of the Ambassadors Conference in London, which decided to recognize the Autonomy of Albania with today’s borders. Then, information about the inhumane crimes of the Serbian Army against the Albanian freedom-loving people, committing unprecedented crimes against the civilian population, is given.

  • Unearth the Issues of Colonialism, Anti Colonialism and Post Colonialism: A Comparative Study of English, Bengali and Australian Literary world

    This paper will explore the concept of colonial enterprise in Western world, while on the other hands, it will focus on the counterpoint of colonial attitudes through the Eastern and Australian writers. England is a country of colonizers. Unlike Australia and Bangladesh are the countries of colonized inhabitants. Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte, Mansfield Park by Jane Austen, Great Expectations by Charles Dickens, all those novels are based on colonial aspect. Here I would like to focus on the superior traits of Western people, therefore will attempt to show their colonial impact on Eastern and Australian literary world. To analyse about the Western writers notion regarding colonialism all of those three quintessential novels would strongly exhibit that how charlotte Bronte, Jane Austen, Charles Dickens, showed the westerners are the superior, or master over their colonized people. On the contrary, Australian famous writer Peter Carey and Bangladesh’s rebel poet Kazi nazrul Islam will uphold the consolidate counterpoint against colonialism. They both are the examples of nationalism, patriotism, rebellion, and insurgence. This research will also examines the Extent to which Charlotte Bronte, Jane Austen, Charles Dickens shaped colonial policy in their writing while on the other hands Peter Caray and kazi nazrul Islam stands against colonial influences through their personal life’s activities and as well as in their writings.

  • Introduction to Discourse on Fever of Averroes

    The 884th Arabic manuscript from the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Ms. DCCCLXXIX, according to Miquel Casiri´s cataloguing) contains in the folios 1rº-7rº and the folios 63vº-64vº two short treatises written by the great scholar from Cordova Ibn Rushd (Averroes) (1126-1198) on fever and its acute access. The first part (f.1rº to f.7rº), titled in Arabic Talkhīs Kitāb al-ḥummayyāt (Summary of fevers book), is a paraphrase of Galen´s De febris; and the second one (f.63vº to f.64vº) is a booklet that lacks a specific title and it possibly is the work called Masā’il fī-nawā’ib al-ḥummà (Questions about the acute access of fever) or Kalām fī-i‘tiqād zamān al-nūba (Speech on the acute bout of fever time). The present article is an approach to the study of these writings and provides the edition and the translation to English of some fragments as well as a brief introduction to the author and his main oeuvre.

  • Promotion of Food Habits Adequate in School Space: an Educational Experience

    Introduction: Alimentation is fundamental for the development of a child, therefore it, is important to put in place the fundamental structures from an early age. The school environment has a huge influence on these habits and therefore it is important from an early stage to promote good structure in the formation of those habits. Objective: Explain the approach taken within the school environment to promote good eating habits. Methodology: Treat the case of the public school of Bezerros where the children range in age from 8 to 10 years and are in the 3rd class of fundamental education. The intervention happened once and lasted 3 hours. What resources did you to create dialogue, how did the conversation go using digital support, how did the exhibition of the food pyramid go. As well, fruit was introduced as part of the discussion. Results and Discussion: 60 Students participated who during the entire presentation displayed an interest and attention. It was discussed the impact of each food type on the human organism. In the end, the students participated in sampling each of the foods available. It was noted that some had doubts about some of the verbal explanations given but these doubts were clarified. This active participation by the children allows the conclusion of positive development of the children. Conclusion: The success of this trial proved the team of the school the essential need to have such programmes in the school to promote good eating habits by the students. It also showed the necessity for those in control to ensure that such activities were necessary in order to change the thinking regarding food and would result in better eating habits.

  • Digital Follow-up as an Engagement Strategy to Change Habits

    Introduction: Digital technology used to engage good habits in overweight and obese people. Objective: To analyze weight and practice of physical activities in participants of digital program for habit changes focused on the behavioral therapy. Methodology: Digital follow-up for 17 weeks of bodyweight, daily feeding and physical activity of five initially sedentary women (39-56 years) and provision of educational contents in four sequential modules: food reeducation (M1), physical activity (M2), sleep and well-being (M3) and maintenance of habits (M4). Weekly, a multiprofessional health team identified risk points and constructed interventions. These were based on food and physical activity goals, as well as reflective conversations and engagement by a health mentor via chat and/or phone call. There was no prescription of diets and/or physical exercise training. Analysis performed with paired T test (initial weight vs final) and repeated measures ANOVA (time of physical activity between modules), significance level of 5%. Results and Discussion: The initial group’s bodyweight reduced 6.84% ± 2.73 (mean ± C.I.) (F=5.58; P=0.01). The adherence to physical activity was 100%, each module with weekly mean time (mean ± S.D.) in minutes: M1 141.8 ± 32.3; M2 214.8 ± 53.3; M3 178.4 ± 34.5 and M4 158.3 ± 48.4. In M2, there was more time invested in the practice regarding M1 (P=0.01) and M4 (P=0.047). In addition to weight loss, there was a clear behavioral change with adherence to the regular practice of physical activity by all participants. The motivational character to the regular physical activity in the M2 can justify the greater adhesion in this period. Results corroborate with other studies on digital health programs and bodyweight loss in adults. Conclusion: Digital follow-up has shown to be an interesting strategy in the engagement of better habits and bodyweight reduction.