American Journal of History and Culture

  • The Historical Streams of Adam Smiths An Inquiry Into The Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations

    Set time as independent variable with historical method, regard Adam Smith and his An Inquiry Into The Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations as an ecosystem, explore the inputs to this ecosystem by analysing literature text and abstract two streams therein: one stream from the west, one stream from the east, investigate their flowing trace and coupling process, seek conceivable pattern in chaos, draw a personal imperfect summing-up on the Historical Streams of Adam Smith’s An Inquiry Into The Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations: its discourse system came from the west demonstrably: the attention to people, the legality of private property, the concept of economy from Xenophon, the thought of division of labour from Xenophon and Plato, the distinction between natural and unnatural from Aristotle to natural law and moral philosophy, the discovery of rule of supply and demand, and the development of Commerce and agriculture in Europe… its policy orientation was influenced by the concepts of Tao, i.e. law of nature, and the inaction from China. History can be regard as a winding, discreate watershed relating with multiple streams. The interflow of streams of different civilization, may be able to provide more choices for the opening of thought window and more genes for the ecology to evolve.

  • Physical and Mental Health for Indian Classical Dance

    Dance provides an active, non-competitive form of exercise that has potential positive effects for physical health as well as mental and emotional wellbeing. Dance therapy is based on the idea that body and mind are co-relational. The therapeutic approaches with various forms of Indian dances are a new entrant to dance literature. Ayurveda held dance as a power of healing (therapy) and inner awareness (psychology). Indian philosophy also supports the facts of Sangeet (song, dance and music) for benefit of human health physically as well as mentally. The powerful dance form of Bhangra (Punjab), Karagam (Tamilnadu), Chou, Rayabese, Dhali (West Bengal) gives good health and strength. The fast footwork of Kathak dance helps to release anger and tension. Manipuri dancers make rounded movements and avoid any jerks, sharp edges or straight lines. It gives them undulating and soft appearance, proper body control and peace of mind. All these body movements, body balancing, expression, muscle movement, muscle constriction and relaxation have a strong effect on therapeutic movements. In India today the dance therapists are conscious about this matter and in therapeutic sessions they actually improvise different dance movements according to the need.

  • Balkan Wars and the Albanian issue

    This paper will elaborate the collapse of the Turkish rule in the Balkans and the future fate of Albania, embarking on the new plans of the invasive politics of the Balkan Alliance, especially of Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. Then the dramatic events during the Balkan Wars 1912-1913, the occupation of Kosovo and other Albanian lands by Serbia, the Albanian resistance with special focus on Luma, Opoja and Gora. It will also discuss the rapid developments of the Balkan Wars, which accelerated the Declaration of the Independence of Albania on 28 November, 1912, and organization of the Ambassadors Conference in London, which decided to recognize the Autonomy of Albania with today’s borders. Then, information about the inhumane crimes of the Serbian Army against the Albanian freedom-loving people, committing unprecedented crimes against the civilian population, is given.

  • Unearth the Issues of Colonialism, Anti Colonialism and Post Colonialism: A Comparative Study of English, Bengali and Australian Literary world

    This paper will explore the concept of colonial enterprise in Western world, while on the other hands, it will focus on the counterpoint of colonial attitudes through the Eastern and Australian writers. England is a country of colonizers. Unlike Australia and Bangladesh are the countries of colonized inhabitants. Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte, Mansfield Park by Jane Austen, Great Expectations by Charles Dickens, all those novels are based on colonial aspect. Here I would like to focus on the superior traits of Western people, therefore will attempt to show their colonial impact on Eastern and Australian literary world. To analyse about the Western writers notion regarding colonialism all of those three quintessential novels would strongly exhibit that how charlotte Bronte, Jane Austen, Charles Dickens, showed the westerners are the superior, or master over their colonized people. On the contrary, Australian famous writer Peter Carey and Bangladesh’s rebel poet Kazi nazrul Islam will uphold the consolidate counterpoint against colonialism. They both are the examples of nationalism, patriotism, rebellion, and insurgence. This research will also examines the Extent to which Charlotte Bronte, Jane Austen, Charles Dickens shaped colonial policy in their writing while on the other hands Peter Caray and kazi nazrul Islam stands against colonial influences through their personal life’s activities and as well as in their writings.

  • Introduction to Discourse on Fever of Averroes

    The 884th Arabic manuscript from the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Ms. DCCCLXXIX, according to Miquel Casiri´s cataloguing) contains in the folios 1rº-7rº and the folios 63vº-64vº two short treatises written by the great scholar from Cordova Ibn Rushd (Averroes) (1126-1198) on fever and its acute access. The first part (f.1rº to f.7rº), titled in Arabic Talkhīs Kitāb al-ḥummayyāt (Summary of fevers book), is a paraphrase of Galen´s De febris; and the second one (f.63vº to f.64vº) is a booklet that lacks a specific title and it possibly is the work called Masā’il fī-nawā’ib al-ḥummà (Questions about the acute access of fever) or Kalām fī-i‘tiqād zamān al-nūba (Speech on the acute bout of fever time). The present article is an approach to the study of these writings and provides the edition and the translation to English of some fragments as well as a brief introduction to the author and his main oeuvre.

  • Promotion of Food Habits Adequate in School Space: an Educational Experience

    Introduction: Alimentation is fundamental for the development of a child, therefore it, is important to put in place the fundamental structures from an early age. The school environment has a huge influence on these habits and therefore it is important from an early stage to promote good structure in the formation of those habits. Objective: Explain the approach taken within the school environment to promote good eating habits. Methodology: Treat the case of the public school of Bezerros where the children range in age from 8 to 10 years and are in the 3rd class of fundamental education. The intervention happened once and lasted 3 hours. What resources did you to create dialogue, how did the conversation go using digital support, how did the exhibition of the food pyramid go. As well, fruit was introduced as part of the discussion. Results and Discussion: 60 Students participated who during the entire presentation displayed an interest and attention. It was discussed the impact of each food type on the human organism. In the end, the students participated in sampling each of the foods available. It was noted that some had doubts about some of the verbal explanations given but these doubts were clarified. This active participation by the children allows the conclusion of positive development of the children. Conclusion: The success of this trial proved the team of the school the essential need to have such programmes in the school to promote good eating habits by the students. It also showed the necessity for those in control to ensure that such activities were necessary in order to change the thinking regarding food and would result in better eating habits.

  • Digital Follow-up as an Engagement Strategy to Change Habits

    Introduction: Digital technology used to engage good habits in overweight and obese people. Objective: To analyze weight and practice of physical activities in participants of digital program for habit changes focused on the behavioral therapy. Methodology: Digital follow-up for 17 weeks of bodyweight, daily feeding and physical activity of five initially sedentary women (39-56 years) and provision of educational contents in four sequential modules: food reeducation (M1), physical activity (M2), sleep and well-being (M3) and maintenance of habits (M4). Weekly, a multiprofessional health team identified risk points and constructed interventions. These were based on food and physical activity goals, as well as reflective conversations and engagement by a health mentor via chat and/or phone call. There was no prescription of diets and/or physical exercise training. Analysis performed with paired T test (initial weight vs final) and repeated measures ANOVA (time of physical activity between modules), significance level of 5%. Results and Discussion: The initial group’s bodyweight reduced 6.84% ± 2.73 (mean ± C.I.) (F=5.58; P=0.01). The adherence to physical activity was 100%, each module with weekly mean time (mean ± S.D.) in minutes: M1 141.8 ± 32.3; M2 214.8 ± 53.3; M3 178.4 ± 34.5 and M4 158.3 ± 48.4. In M2, there was more time invested in the practice regarding M1 (P=0.01) and M4 (P=0.047). In addition to weight loss, there was a clear behavioral change with adherence to the regular practice of physical activity by all participants. The motivational character to the regular physical activity in the M2 can justify the greater adhesion in this period. Results corroborate with other studies on digital health programs and bodyweight loss in adults. Conclusion: Digital follow-up has shown to be an interesting strategy in the engagement of better habits and bodyweight reduction.

  • A Report in Popular Health Education

    To Introduction: Nowadays, with various counter-reforms in social security, social assistance, health, among others, we see many rights guaranteed by the 1988 Constitution, taken from citizens. In this way, the awareness and information of the population is essential to create an engagement in a fight against the loss of its guarantees. Objective: to report the experience of a lecture with the theme “What is Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS)?” for residents of the 27 de novembro Community, neighborhood of Ibura, Recife – Pernambuco. Methodology: The proposal was developed on December 2, 2016 in the form of deliberation, offered by a group of medical students from the Federal University of Pernambuco, in partnership with local community health agents. The theme was worked on four axes: 1- Origin of SUS; 2. Doctrinal and organizational principles of SUS; 3- Counter-reforms in Social Security; 4- Importance of Social Control in SUS. Results: The vast majority of community residents present approved the presentation in their proposal, content and format, considering the important theme for the formation of a critical sense on the subject and when called to a community meeting in January of 2017, in order to organize sanitary and social claims, 100% of those present were interested. Discussion: It can be considered that the experience contributed significantly to the teaching and learning dyad by the articulation of medical students, health workers and community members, and in this sense, it is considered a permanent education action, an indispensable tool in the context of collective health. Conclusion: It is considered that the action was successful in enabling the understanding, the organization and the enlarged view of the residents of the community to the importance of understanding their rights and guarantees, allowing for critical reflection and social engagement.

  • The familiar relationship of adolescents in situation of social vulnerability

    Introduction: Adolescence is a stage of human development marked by intense transformations, causing vulnerability to mental health issues in many adolescents. One of the risk factors for this to happen is the familiar relationship in which the adolescent is inserted. Objective: In face of this, the study aimed to study the familiar relationship of adolescents in situation of social vulnerability. Metodology: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study, with quantitative analysis of data. 21 adolescents, from both sexes, from 10 to 16 years were part of the study. Results and Discussion: Data was collected through a socioeconomic questionnaire, the Escala de Exigência e Responsividade, known as Ecomapa. Results showed that the adolescents boys hold a strong relationship with their parents, the girls, had the opposite response, relating a greater effort from themselves to the relationship. The girls showed a higher level of exigence, while the boys showed responsiveness. Conclusion: The predominant parental model was the negligent, revealing the necessity of a greater investment from parents for their children, with dialogic approach, stimulating autonomy and interactivity.

  • Dream of Having Superpowers: Comparison between Good and Bad Superpowers in Real Life as a Person According to Science

    To acquire any kinds of superpowers, most of the people are absolutely desperate. Inside of their mind they actually use to dream about helping the entire human race by using their superpowers. Here i have the intention to elucidate this matter of having or dreaming about superpowers with different logics. As we know that, according to science human have a fabulous body mechanism with genius super computer brain, which can accumulate, scan and then send essential conscious and unconscious orders/directions to other parts of human body. On this point, i would like to add about Rick Hanson’s statements. He denotes, “ On average each of the 1000 billion neurons in your head has about 1,000 connections with other neurons, creating huge network of about 100 trillion synapses. Like a computer network built from one hundred trillion transistors, each responding a “bit” of information depending on whether it is on or off”. Hanson. R. ( 2007) Your Static Wonderful Brain. So in this way we can define the articulation of human’s actions through brain. Human brain can process various types of functions and come up with different kinds of decisions. Those decisions could be categorized as good or evil which have some connections with the concept of superpowers.