Infectious diseases are a significant public health challenge due to the increasing recognition of new infectious agents and the resurgence of infections until recently controlled. These infectious illnesses constitute many hospital admissions, mainly respiratory focus, which requires high-cost therapy. One of the strategies to prevent injuries leading to hospitalization is reducing the body’s inflammatory response. Thus, aromatherapy seems to be a useful adjuvant therapeutic tool due to the essential oils’ synergistic action with proven anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Hence, this study proposes an integrated review of the literature on aromatherapy as a tool to be used in prophylaxis and therapy in respiratory system disorders. After passing the criteria of exclusion and content analysis, a set of 124 articles narrowed to 44 articles that support the anti-inflammatory properties of the sesquiterpenes, such as the farnesol. This substance treats the respiratory system and is present in Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, and Rosa damascena. Caryophyllene and its derivatives are present in Syzygium aromaticum, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cannabis sativa. Besides, α-bisabolol and chamazulene present in Matricaria recutita and Achillea millefolium. Other oils have antibiotic properties that act against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterias according to their constitution’s complexity and interaction with these microorganisms. In this context, some species such as Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus hystrix, Cymbopogon Citratus, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus odorata, Juniperus communis, Lavandula angustifólia, Lavandula intermedia, Melaleuca leucadendra, Mentha piperita, Pinus sylvestris, Syzygium aromaticum, and Thymus vulgaris are in the spotlight. Several studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have demonstrated the potential use of essential oils alone or combined with oils from other species as a strategy for the prevention of respiratory diseases and potentiation of standard therapies. This approach is possible due to the synergistic effects of substances with bioactive potential such as sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, and phenylpropanoids.
SIGNS OF SUCETTABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH EXTRINSIC FACTORS TO FUNGAL INFECTION BY THE GENUS SPOROTHRIX SPP.
Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility to infection by the genus sporothrix spp.; targeting patients with immunosuppression due to the use of inadequate medication, seropositive patients (carriers of Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome – HIV) and alcoholics dependents. Method: This is an integrative review of the literature available in the PUBMED database, using the descriptors: “Sporotrichosis”, “Fungi” and “Sporothrix”, duly registered in MeSH, using the boolean operator AND. A total of 128 articles were found and evaluated and, at the end, 15 were selected to compose this review. The inclusion criteria were: full articles, available free of charge, published in English between 2010 and 2020. Results: Sporotrichosis is clinically characterized in fixed cutaneous, lymphocutaneous, disseminated cutaneous and extracutaneous. Frequently the appearance of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis occurs especially in immunosuppressed individuals. The four cases evaluated have as etiological agent in common, the genus Sporothrix spp., distinguishing the species, the contagion, clinical aspects and their susceptibility factors. Conclusion: However, most cases of sporotrichosis are related to a dysfunction of the immune system. As well, the unusual cases characterize a challenge to reliable diagnosis and can often lead to a wrong pharmacological therapy.
USE OF GLUTAMINE AS AN ADJUVING THERAPY FOR THE NUTRITIONAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESTORATION OF THE BIG BURNED PATIENT
Objective: To analyze the applicability of glutamine in the recovery of the nutritional and physiological status of burn patients. Methods: Study based on a literary review taken from reliable sources such as: The Scientific Electronic Library Online (Scielo), Pubmed, Bireme, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs), Virtual Health Library, the descriptors used were: glutamine ; nutritional therapy; burned; nutrition therapy; burned patients; glutamine, published in the last eleven years (2009-2020). Results: The research was carried out in a literary review format 30 full documents were read, 23 scientific articles were used, 3 bases of the Ministry of Health, 7 were postponed, the arguments used in the composition of the article, were the answer to the problem about applicability about the nutrient with immunomodulatory function glutamine for the recovery of the nutritional and physiological state of burn patients. Conclusion: The research argued about the use of glutamine in the treatment of large burn patients, through data obtained by literary analysis. The results obtained will contribute to the guidelines on the use of immunonutrients to improve the immune response, modulate the inflammatory response, reduce the rates of infectious complications, bringing a possible reduction in hospitalization costs. However, there is a need for further studies focused on this topic, in order to make the benefits of these immunonutrients appreciable for the scientific community, especially in terms of nutritional support more appropriate to supplementation and the recommendation of these nutrients.
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND HEMOTOXICITY OF MEDICINAL PLANT OF THE CAATINGA DOMAIN: AMBURANA CEARENSIS (FABACEAE)
Amburana cearensis is a medicinal species popularly known as “cherry” or “aroma amburana” that has wide distribution in South America, being characteristic of Seasonal Forests. It also occurs in Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, restricted to rocky or limestone outcrops; in Submontane Deciduous SubmontanaSeasonalForest; in Dense Ombrophilous Forest (Atlantic Forest) and even in caatinga/dry forest. Taking into account the growing interest in the search for agents that act in the face of oxidative stress, without causing toxic effects to biological systems, the present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical composition and evaluate the antioxidant and hemotoxic activities in vitro of the aqueous extract obtained from the shells of Amburana cearensis (EAAc). Hemaglutination wasevaluated for human erythrocytes collected from people with the presence of O+ blood. In the face of the tests, Amburana cearensis presented significant results for antioxidant activity without causing erythrocyte hemolysis, highlighting the importance of the species as a source of antioxidant agents, which are recognized for blocking the evolution and acting to combat symptoms triggered by diseases associated with oxidative stress.
Introduction: Neuroscience brings advances and revelations of specificities and functionalities of the nervous system, contributing to the understanding of the exposure influences of neuroanatomic structures in various physiological and behavioral factors. Given this, it is known that executive functions are modeled as the most diverse forms of social interaction and are closely linked to the prefrontal lobe. These skills are consolidated only in adulthood. In this sense, the nervous system in adolescence is subject to changes in its development for social and cultural reasons. Objective: In this sense, the aim of this study is to analyze the use and abuse of recreational drugs that act on the nervous system and their influence on executive functions and cognitive development during adolescence. Methodology: The methodology used was a literature review of the integrative type in the PUBMED and ScieELO databases published in the last 10 years. Results and discussions: The use of alcohol, marijuana and inhalants are causative agents of cognitive impairment, especially in processing speed and response and working memory during adolescence, but results are still controversial as information such as dosage is lacking. , time of use and time of abstinence of users. Final Considerations: The results showed controversies in the performance of these substances in neurobiological bases and their long term damages; Therefore, further longitudinal studies are needed to monitor the cognitive development of these diseases and cognitive impairment and its consequences in adulthood.
EVALUATION OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN RATS SUBMITTED TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF CYTHOCBACTERIA ARTHROSPIRA SP. (“SPIRULINA SP.”) AS A FUNCTIONAL SUPPLEMENT
Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of cyanobacteria Arthrospira sp. in the evolution of periodontal disease. Methods: Eight rats, aged 90 days weighing 280 ± 300g, were used from the Animal Experimentation Center Animal Hospital of the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the Federal University of Pernambuco. After an adaptation period of 10 days, the animals were randomly divided into three groups, namely: Group I – Control Rats, without administration of cyanobacteria; Group II – Rats with periodontal disease without administration of cyanobacteria; Group III – Rats with periodontal disease with cyanobacteria administration. All animals were induced to periodontitis, which was made by ligature with cotton thread, and this wire was placed around the gingival sulcus of the left upper first molar, with this application there was accumulation of residues, causing the formation of dental biofilm. Results: After the morphological analysis of the experimental groups, we observed that there was a significant effect among the studied groups, where the periodontal ligament was preserved (treated group) or showed absence of tissue integrity (untreated group). Conclusion: The administration of Arthrospira sp. in rats with periodontal disease, suggests to be an important ally in the fight against the progression of periodontitis, thus acting in the control of this disease.
The Caatinga phytogeographic domain represents 11 % of the Brazilian territory and presents a plant singularity that is not described anywhere else in the world. From this perspective, this study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical and cytotoxic profile of the aqueous extract of the plant species Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba A. ST. Hil, in addition to the evaluation of the photoprotective activity. The methodology used for these analyzes consisted of the collection and determination of secondary compounds of the species, by thin layer chromatography, in addition to the evaluation of the cytotoxic activity by different methods, as well as the evaluation of the photoprotective activity by spectrometry. As a result, it was noticed that the extract did not present erythrocyte hemolysis, as well as cytotoxicity by MTT in relation to the controls.
This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts of marine seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia by two methods of study of antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of the extracts hidroalcolico, methanol and hidroalcolico was evaluated according to Mitsuda (1967). The ability of the extracts to kidnap hydrogen peroxide was determined by Ruch method (1989). The analysis carried out by reading the samples in octoplicata in spectrophotometer, it was possible to calculate the antioxidant and scavenging activities of the extracts hydrogen peroxide. The antioxidant activity presented by the three extracts from C. taxifolia by the ferric thiocyanate method varied each other, showing the methanol extract greater activity than the alcohol and aqueous extracts hydro, may be due to the presence of secondary metabolites like terpenoids. The kidnapper power of hydrogen peroxide of Caulerpa taxifolia strata known significant values when compared to the reference drug.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Chimpanzee Nasal Airflow for Different Respiratory Modes
In this study, we investigated the airflow and air-conditioning within an anatomically accurate computer model of the nasal airways belonging to a healthy adult chimpanzee. The finite volumes method was used to compute unsteady turbulent flows with physiological flow rates of 2.2 sin (2πt/3.4) [m/s], 1.8 sin (2πt/1.6) [m/s], and 4.4 sin (2πt/1.4) [m/s], mimicking breathing at rest state, shallow breathing under light stress, and a sniffing phase, respectively. Turbulent k-omega model was used to simulate unsteady respiratory phases whereas the turbulent k-epsilon model was used to simulate the sniffing phase. Simulation results argued that assuming a steady laminar inhalation state to investigate the air-conditioning performance within chimpanzee nasal cavity may be exaggerated. The outcomes of this study might potentially contribute in accumulating standardized biological information on healthy chimpanzee, and so increasing the ability to care for it as an endangered species.
Response surface methodology for the optimization of chlorpyrifos-degrading conditions by Pseudomonas stutzeri ZH-1
The removal of pesticides in the environment mainly depends on natural degradation, especially on microbial degradation. Biodegradation has many advantages, such as complete degradation, no secondary pollution, quick effect and wide spectrum. Based on the single-factor experiments and Box-Benhnken design, the effect of four factors on the degradation of chlorpyrifos by P. stutzeri ZH-1 was investigated. The four factors, including temperature (°C) , oscillator speed (rpm), inoculum concentration (%) and pH, and their interactions on the degradation of chlorpyrifos were studied through the use of response surface analysis.The optimal conditions of chlorpyrifos-degrading were as follows: temperature 36.7°C, oscillator speed 130.00rpm, inoculum concentration 7%, pH 7. Under these conditions,the degradation rate of chlorpyrifos was 96.48%. Moreover, P. stutzeri ZH-1 could be used efficiently for remediation of contaminated soils.