Introduction: Neuroscience brings advances and revelations of specificities and functionalities of the nervous system, contributing to the understanding of the exposure influences of neuroanatomic structures in various physiological and behavioral factors. Given this, it is known that executive functions are modeled as the most diverse forms of social interaction and are closely linked to the prefrontal lobe. These skills are consolidated only in adulthood. In this sense, the nervous system in adolescence is subject to changes in its development for social and cultural reasons. Objective: In this sense, the aim of this study is to analyze the use and abuse of recreational drugs that act on the nervous system and their influence on executive functions and cognitive development during adolescence. Methodology: The methodology used was a literature review of the integrative type in the PUBMED and ScieELO databases published in the last 10 years. Results and discussions: The use of alcohol, marijuana and inhalants are causative agents of cognitive impairment, especially in processing speed and response and working memory during adolescence, but results are still controversial as information such as dosage is lacking. , time of use and time of abstinence of users. Final Considerations: The results showed controversies in the performance of these substances in neurobiological bases and their long term damages; Therefore, further longitudinal studies are needed to monitor the cognitive development of these diseases and cognitive impairment and its consequences in adulthood.
EVALUATION OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN RATS SUBMITTED TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF CYTHOCBACTERIA ARTHROSPIRA SP. (“SPIRULINA SP.”) AS A FUNCTIONAL SUPPLEMENT
Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of cyanobacteria Arthrospira sp. in the evolution of periodontal disease. Methods: Eight rats, aged 90 days weighing 280 ± 300g, were used from the Animal Experimentation Center Animal Hospital of the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the Federal University of Pernambuco. After an adaptation period of 10 days, the animals were randomly divided into three groups, namely: Group I – Control Rats, without administration of cyanobacteria; Group II – Rats with periodontal disease without administration of cyanobacteria; Group III – Rats with periodontal disease with cyanobacteria administration. All animals were induced to periodontitis, which was made by ligature with cotton thread, and this wire was placed around the gingival sulcus of the left upper first molar, with this application there was accumulation of residues, causing the formation of dental biofilm. Results: After the morphological analysis of the experimental groups, we observed that there was a significant effect among the studied groups, where the periodontal ligament was preserved (treated group) or showed absence of tissue integrity (untreated group). Conclusion: The administration of Arthrospira sp. in rats with periodontal disease, suggests to be an important ally in the fight against the progression of periodontitis, thus acting in the control of this disease.
The Caatinga phytogeographic domain represents 11 % of the Brazilian territory and presents a plant singularity that is not described anywhere else in the world. From this perspective, this study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical and cytotoxic profile of the aqueous extract of the plant species Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba A. ST. Hil, in addition to the evaluation of the photoprotective activity. The methodology used for these analyzes consisted of the collection and determination of secondary compounds of the species, by thin layer chromatography, in addition to the evaluation of the cytotoxic activity by different methods, as well as the evaluation of the photoprotective activity by spectrometry. As a result, it was noticed that the extract did not present erythrocyte hemolysis, as well as cytotoxicity by MTT in relation to the controls.
This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts of marine seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia by two methods of study of antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of the extracts hidroalcolico, methanol and hidroalcolico was evaluated according to Mitsuda (1967). The ability of the extracts to kidnap hydrogen peroxide was determined by Ruch method (1989). The analysis carried out by reading the samples in octoplicata in spectrophotometer, it was possible to calculate the antioxidant and scavenging activities of the extracts hydrogen peroxide. The antioxidant activity presented by the three extracts from C. taxifolia by the ferric thiocyanate method varied each other, showing the methanol extract greater activity than the alcohol and aqueous extracts hydro, may be due to the presence of secondary metabolites like terpenoids. The kidnapper power of hydrogen peroxide of Caulerpa taxifolia strata known significant values when compared to the reference drug.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Chimpanzee Nasal Airflow for Different Respiratory Modes
In this study, we investigated the airflow and air-conditioning within an anatomically accurate computer model of the nasal airways belonging to a healthy adult chimpanzee. The finite volumes method was used to compute unsteady turbulent flows with physiological flow rates of 2.2 sin (2πt/3.4) [m/s], 1.8 sin (2πt/1.6) [m/s], and 4.4 sin (2πt/1.4) [m/s], mimicking breathing at rest state, shallow breathing under light stress, and a sniffing phase, respectively. Turbulent k-omega model was used to simulate unsteady respiratory phases whereas the turbulent k-epsilon model was used to simulate the sniffing phase. Simulation results argued that assuming a steady laminar inhalation state to investigate the air-conditioning performance within chimpanzee nasal cavity may be exaggerated. The outcomes of this study might potentially contribute in accumulating standardized biological information on healthy chimpanzee, and so increasing the ability to care for it as an endangered species.
Response surface methodology for the optimization of chlorpyrifos-degrading conditions by Pseudomonas stutzeri ZH-1
The removal of pesticides in the environment mainly depends on natural degradation, especially on microbial degradation. Biodegradation has many advantages, such as complete degradation, no secondary pollution, quick effect and wide spectrum. Based on the single-factor experiments and Box-Benhnken design, the effect of four factors on the degradation of chlorpyrifos by P. stutzeri ZH-1 was investigated. The four factors, including temperature (°C) , oscillator speed (rpm), inoculum concentration (%) and pH, and their interactions on the degradation of chlorpyrifos were studied through the use of response surface analysis.The optimal conditions of chlorpyrifos-degrading were as follows: temperature 36.7°C, oscillator speed 130.00rpm, inoculum concentration 7%, pH 7. Under these conditions,the degradation rate of chlorpyrifos was 96.48%. Moreover, P. stutzeri ZH-1 could be used efficiently for remediation of contaminated soils.
Responses of animals exposed to microgravity during in-space experiments were observed via available video recording stored in the NASA Ames Life Sciences Data Archive. These documented observations of animal behavior, as well as the range and level of activities during spaceflight, clearly demonstrate that weightlessness conditions and the extreme novelty of the surroundings exert damaging psychological stresses on the inhabitants. In response to a recognized need for in-flight animals to improve their wellbeing we propose to reduce such stresses by shaping and interrelating structures and surroundings to satisfying vital physiological needs of inhabitants. A Rodent Habitat Hardware System (RHHS) based housing facility incorporating a tubing network system, to maintain and monitor rodent health environment with advanced accessories has been proposed. Placing mice in a tubing-configured environment creates more natural space-restricted nesting environment for rodents, thereby facilitating a more comfortable transition to living in microgravity. A sectional tubing structure of the RHHS environment will be more beneficial under microgravity conditions than the provision of a larger space area that is currently utilized. The new tubing configuration was found suitable for further incorporation of innovative monitoring technology and accessories in the animal holding habitat unit which allow to monitor in real-time monitoring of valuable health related biological parameters under weightlessness environment of spaceflight.
Prevalence and Drug Resistance Patterns of Staphylococcus aureus in Food Producing Animals, Their Products and Humans
Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive bacterium that belongs to coagulase positive staphylococcus. It is widely distributed in the environment and causes diseases due to direct infection or due to the production of toxins by the bacteria. The prevalence of S. aureus ranges from 4% to 83% in different countries of the world from samples of food producing animals and their products. In Ethiopia the lowest and highest prevalence is reported as 4.2% and 48.75%, respectively. All mammals and birds are susceptible to colonization with S. aureus. Staphylococcus aureus can be treated with a wide range of antibiotics but there are efficient and inefficient antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance tests that have been conducted in different countries revealed that S. aureus were highly resistant to Ampicillin, Cloxacillin and Penicillin and less susceptible to Vancomycin and Rifampicin. The emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animal and human has become a worldwide problem.
Thaumatococcus daniellii Benn. (Marantaceae) Leaf Methanol Extract Possessed Hepatoprotective Effect Against Acetaminophen-induced Liver Injury in Albino Rats
[Background]Acetaminophen or Paracetamol is widely used as analgesic and antipyretic or antimalarial drug, but at high dose it leads to undesirable side effects, such as hepatotoxicity. [Objective]This present study demonstrates the in vivo hepatoprotective effect of Thaumatococcus daniellii against acetaminophen induced liver toxicity. [Methods] Acetaminophen- induced liver injury was evaluated by an increase in serum AST (or SGOT), ALT (or SGPT), ALP activity and bilirubin level accompanied by significant decrease in albumin level. [Results] Acetaminophen hepatoxicity was manifested by an increase in lipid peroxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in liver tissue. Oral administration of the plant extract protects the rats against acetaminophen induced liver injury by increased lipid peroxidation, restored altered serum marker enzymes and antioxidant level to normal liver morphology.[Conclusion]The results showed that T. daniellii leaf extract displayed significant liver healing efficacy against acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The result further affirm the use of the plant as an ethno-medicinal prescription for liver related injury.
Background: There is a lack in finding the precipitating factor in acute –on chronic liver failure (ACLF)insult in large number of patients and either this factor is hepatic or extra hepatic origin. Aim of the work : Our study aiming to evaluate the potential usefulness of a new plasma soluble fibirin polymer (SF) assay for diagnosing the possibility of occurrence of intrahepatic microthrombosis as a cause of ACLF in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus. Patients & Methods: The study was carried out in Zagazig University Hospital, internal medicine department in collaboration with microbiology department from February 2015 tell November 2015. 50 patients having chronic hepatitis c virus was enrolled in this study with ACLF developing new onset ascitis in 15 patient encephalopathy in 12 patients, jaundice in12 and elevated INR in 11 patients all having regular follow-up in hepatology clinic in Zagazig university Hospital with stable clinical course in the previous three months. Control subject was classified as normal subject 20 and 30 patients with compensated chronic hepatitis C virus infection. All patients and control groups were subjected to full history, complete clinical examination and laboratory tests including CBC, INR, serum albumin, serum bilirubin, liver enzymes, ascitic fluid examination and culture, blood culture, alpha-fetoprotein, d D-dimer, thrombin generation and soluble fibrin polymer., abdominal ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound for portal vein. Results: Our results showed significant difference between patients group and both control groups regarding SF and D-dimer, also there were significant differences in patients group and other groups regarding ALT, total bilirubin especially direct bilirubin. There were marked reduction in portal flow mean velocity in patients group and other groups and we recorded further reduction in the portal flow mean velocity in patients group after 2 weeks from the starting time. There is significant positive correlation between SF and D-dimer…