Ripe fruits of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) of red and yellow varieties were collected from National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) Umudike environs. The pulp was analyzed as eaten. The nutrient compositions were determined using AOAC techniques. Minerals were determined using wet acid digestion method for multiple nutrient determinations as described by AOAC. Gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods were used for phytochemical determinations. The anti-oxidant activity of the extracts was measured in terms of hydrogen donating or radical-scavenging ability using the stable free radical 1.1-diphenyl-2-picylhydrazyl (DPPH). Means and standard deviation were calculated and compared using student t-test. Tropical almond had moisture (82.74 – 83.68%), fiber (1.69 -1.74%), fat (0.06 – 0.07%) Protein (1.27 – 1.32%). predominate minerals were P(143.34 – 145.45mg/100g), K(234.77 -235.82mg/100g), and Ca(12.84 – 14.43ma\g/100g). Β-carotene obtained was 5540 – 5830mcg/100g, vitamin C 17.44 – 18.83mg/100g. all phytochemicals analyzed were below 1%. Radical scavenging ability of red variety of tropical almond were 18.30, 23.70, 32.40, 35.40 and 48.50% at the corresponding concentrations of 2,4,6,8, and 10ppm while the scavenging ability of the yellow variety at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10ppm were 16.70, 21.30, 29.40, 32.50 and 43.80 respectively. The results show that consumption of tropical almond will contribute significantly to intake and health benefits
Ready- to- eat soursop and pawpaw fruits were purchased from Ubani and Umuariaga markets Umuahia, Abia State. Crude protein and crude fiber ranged between 1.17-1.27% and 0.04-0.05% respectively. Ca (90.39mg/100g), Mg(143.49mg/100g), Na(290.51mg/100g) P(185.67mg/100g), I(6.67mg/100g) and Fe(0.35mg/100g) were significantly higher in pawpaw jam,while K (69.38mg/100g) was significantly higher in soursop jam. All the vitamin analysed were significantly higher in pawpaw jam. Phytochemicals were within permissible limits. pH, total titratable acidity and total soluble solids ranged between 3.24- 3.45, 0.63-0.78% and 63.45-70.71% respectively. Pawpaw and soursop jams compared fovourably with pineapple jam (commercial jam) in terms of flavor, taste and texture, but colour attribute for pawpaw jam (7.65) was significantly higher than that of pineapple jam. The results indicated that the jams particularly that of pawpaw would provide essential valuable minerals, energy and vitamin C, needed for good body development.
Chemical properties of mango kernel and seed and production of biscuit from wheat-mango kernel flour blends
Mango seed and kernel are regarded as waste and have been underutilized in the food industry. This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of mango kernel and seed flour. In addition, mango kernel flour was employed as composite flour for biscuit production. Proximate composition of mango seed and kernel include; protein (3.58%-10.48%), fat (10.01%-18.00%), crude fibre (2.48%-2.63%) and carbohydrate (64.57%-75.80%). The result of functional properties of flour from mango seed revealed that the seed possessed oil (2.80 g/ml) and water absorption capacities (4.00g/ml) that were significantly higher than that of the kernel. However, the mineral analysis showed that mango kernel had values that were significantly higher than that of the seed in calcium (896.40 mg/100g: 4122.45 mg/100g), potassium (540.50 mg/100g: 376.27 mg/100g) and magnesium (814.53 mg/100g: 474.44 mg/100g). Antioxidant activities exhibited by mango kernel were significantly higher when compared to that of mango seed in the ability to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (98.10%; 74.70%), ferric reducing properties(72.18 mg/100g; 52.65 mg/100g), flavonoid content (42.36 mg/100g; 19.01 mg/100g) and phenol (1222.13 mg/100g; 512.33 mg/100g). The proximate composition of the biscuits produced using wheat flour and mango kernel flour in different ratios;95%:5%, 90%:10% and 85%:15% revealed that biscuits from composite flour had protein content that were significantly higher than that of 100% wheat flour (control). Sensory results showed that biscuits from wheat- mango kernel flour were scored above average for overall acceptability.
Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of five different brands of Ethiopian coffee
High consumption of coffee has been considered to have negative health consequences, often attributed to the stimulant effects of caffeine. However, coffee is also one of the largest sources of antioxidants in the diet and contains various compounds with potential beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, inflammation and blood vessel function. The present work was carried out to determine the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of five different Ethiopian coffee varieties, namely Sidamo, Yirgacheffe, Harare, Wollega and Jimma coffee. Total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as Gallic acid equivalents whereas antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power and total antioxidant activity. The tested coffee beans contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (54.87-80.51 g GAE /g); DPPH Scavenging capacity (73.33-84.16%), reducing power (0.634 ± 0.62 – 0.887 ± 0.14) and total antioxidant activity (0.198-0.346) at 0.2 mg/mL extract concentration. The study showed that total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of the coffee extracts were capable of protecting against free radical mediated damage and may have applications in preventing and curing various diseases.
Influence of Knowledge and Perception on the Utilization of Some Under-utilized Legumes Among Nigerian Students
Background: Various efforts have been made to improve utilization of neglected and under-utilized legumes at home, cottage and industrial levels, however, utilization is still low. Objective: To identify the major constraints to the utilization of some under-utilized legumes (soybean, lima-bean, pigeon-pea, kidney-bean and bambara groundnut). Methods: Structured and semi-structure questionnaire were used to assess information from students of Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Pearson Chi square was used to test the hypotheses. Results: Soybean stands out among the studied under-utilized legumes in terms of knowledge and perception among respondents. More than half of the respondents (54.6%) had heard of or read about soybean while only 2% had heard of or read about lima bean; 52.6% had seen soybean while 2.6% had seen lima bean; 49.3% had soybean in their present food timetable while none of the respondents (0%) had lima bean in their present food time table. Knowledge of the underutilized legumes followed the order, soybean> pigeon pea>kidney bean>bambara groundnut>lima bean. Pearson Chi square analyses revealed that non recognition and lack of information on the under-utilized legumes affected utilization, but hard to cook nature of the under-utilized legumes did not affect their utilization. The constraints to the utilization of the studied under-utilized legumes are non-recognition and lack of information. Conclusion: Nutrition education programs and seminar should be designed and implemented to raise the level of knowledge on nutrition and health benefit of the underutilized legumes.
The Moringa oleifera it is considered one of the most useful trees in the world because almost all parts of this plant can be used as food, in medicines and for industrial purpose. Is versatile as a medicine, functional food and nutraceutical. Thus, the objective was to estimate the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the flower, leaf and seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. Were purchased flowers, leaves and seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam., in the city of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and harvested in January 2013. The determination of total phenolic content was assessed following to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the antioxidant capacity was determined by the method of DPPH (2.2-definil-1-picrilidrazil). It has been verified that the content of phenolic compounds from the leaf of Moringa oleifera (170.07 ± 0.43 mg /100 g gallic acid) were better when compared to the results found in the flower and seed (114.49 ± 3.95 mg / 100 g gallic acid and (22.43 ± 2.35 mg / 100 g gallic acid), respectively. The leaf presented a kidnap largest free radical antioxidant compared in flower and seed. The present study suggests that M. oleifera could be a potential source of compounds with strong antioxidant potential. Hence consumption of diet supplemented with M. oleifera could protect against diseases induced by oxidative stress.