Content Analysis of Television Food Advertisements Aimed at Children: Case Study of Lagos and Ibadan
Advertisement is one of the major components of the food environment which influences in childhood food choices. This study was conducted to analyze the content of food advertisements aimed at children in Lagos and Ibadan, Nigeria. Advertisement samples which were aired between March 2016 to April 2016 were collected from six television stations. A total of 58 advertisments aimed at children were coded and analysed thematically. Beverages, fruit drinks and soft drinks were the most frequently advertised (32.8%). Butter and margarine had the highest mean duration of time spent for advertisement (47.00± 22.91 seconds), while the mean time for all the advertisement was 34.72±14.05 seconds. Although 82.8% of the advertisements had a slogan, about half of them (48.3%) carried no nutrition message.
Pigeon pea is a perennial tropical crop primarily grown in Asia and Africa, and its seeds are consumed as a rich source of protein and carbohydrates both in fresh and dried forms. It has been used as an important part of the folk and traditional medicine in India, China, and South America to prevent and treat various human diseases. This crop has been successfully grown in some southeastern states but still considered as a novel pulse here in the US with the majority of the work focused on its non-consumable parts like leaves, stems, and roots. Literature studies indicate that pigeon pea has the potential to prevent and treat many human diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, measles, hepatitis, yellow fever, ulcers, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. Nutritionally along with protein and fiber, it has a decent number of health-promoting phytochemicals. Foremost phytochemicals found in pigeon pea seeds are phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and phytic acid. These minor components predominately exhibit antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. It is an excellent source of inexpensive plant-based protein. Some studies describe the bioactive role of protein fractions, especially as an antihyperglycemic factor. Seeds are the edible and non-perishable part of this crop with the feasibility of addition in food products. Functional properties of the pigeon pea flour make it a suitable ingredient for food products like bread, pasta, and nutritional bars which can make it a gluten-free substitute for cereals.
The potential use of Mentha x piperita L., Peumus boldus Mol. and Baccharis trimera Iless. extracts as functional food ingredients
We studied the comparative antioxidant and anti-glycation activities of Mentha x piperita L., Baccharis trimera Iless. and Peumus boldus Mol, in order to evaluate their potential interest as ingredients in functional foods. The total content of polyphenol compounds was determined by Folin-Ciocalteau assay as their antioxidant and anti-glycation capacities, using ABTS and ORAC for the first one and a model with methylglyoxal and bovine serum albumin for the latter. Then, paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) arylesterase activity was measured as well as apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1) structure by SDS-PAGE, in the presence of an oxidative agent and the herbal extracts. Finally, the same procedure was applied to high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles using a Lipoprint kit. Results show that herbal extracts have a considerable amount of total polyphenols, thus a high antioxidant activity and a considerable anti-glycation activity. Furthermore, these extracts restore PON 1 activity as well as the original configuration of apoA-1 and the distribution of HDL subclasses, favouring anti-atherogenic particles. These herbal extracts are interesting targets to use as ingredients in functional foods.
Profile of cacao cultivated in Colombia: a study based on standardized methods, indicators of quality and variety
Several modifications have been reported for methods used to recognize varieties and the quality of cocoa during post-harvest. This situation has limited comparable and competitive profiles. For this reason, the aim of this study was to standardize the methodologies to evaluate the bromatological, and physicochemical profile of raw, fermented and dried cocoa of four clones from Colombia, in order to identify its quality during post-harvest and between varieties. Fat content: Six solvents were evaluated using Soxhlet and an alternative method assisted by Ultrasound. Total acidity: It was optimized with respect to time by using centrifugation. Antioxidant capacity: Two solvent systems were evaluated to obtain the higher recovery of cocoa extract in the determination of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Fermentation index: The difference among the varieties as well as raw and well-fermented cocoa was calculated by using the anthocyanins absorbance ratio. Finally, the experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design. One-way analysis of variance. Hexane was the most efficient solvent for the extraction of fat content. The use of centrifugation instead of filtration during the determination of total acidity reduced the time of analysis in 25 min. acetone:water: acetic acid (70:29.5:0.5) mixture was the best system for the extraction in the determination of the antioxidant activity. The ratio of anthocyanins
Child malnutrition is one of the biggest problems affecting about 195 million under five children in low income countries, such as Malawi. The most common forms of malnutrition are protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, zinc deficiency and Iron deficiency anemia. Complementary foods are generally cereal based and do not meet the nutrient requirement as recommended by the World Health Organization. The aim of this study was to improve iron and zinc contents of the usual traditional maize-based complementary porridge by blending it with high energy and micronutrient rich locally available foods. . Raw materials used in the formulation of the complementary flour underwent simple household level food processing technologies such soaking, roasting and germination. The control complementary flour was prepared from 100% raw maize flour. Individual complementary flours were analyzed for proximate composition using standard methods while iron and zinc were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Pumpkins had significantly high amount of iron (68 mg/100g) and energy (460.03 Kcal) compared to all the ingredients. Zinc was significantly high in pigeon peas roasted at 160 0 C for 40 minutes. The protein content in pigeon peas fluctuated with raw pigeon peas having 14.69 g/100g which was significantly (P=0.05) lower than the protein content of pigeon peas roasted at 40 and 15 minutes (21.25 g and 20.2 g/100g respectively). Significant (P=0.05) increase in the mean iron and zinc contents of germinated finger millet from 11.57 to 13.57 mg/100g were observed at the 48 and 72-hour germination time respectively as compared to 7.6 mg/100g observed in raw finger millet. After proximate composition four complementary porridge flours were developed by blending each of the analyzed flour in varied proportions. Linear programming was used to optimize nutrients of the formulated products to meet micronutrient and macronutrients requirements of the target group. The formulated flour combinations…
Electromagnetic fields are examples of abiotic stresses. Nowadays, the world sinks in lesser-known species of messages and signals that encompasses the environment. So living creatures are in exposure of electromagnetic fields. Living cells are charged that are created by ions and free radicals. Electromagnetic fields with interaction between the ions particularly fero magnetic materials such as iron affect on living cells. These environmental factors can significantly affect living cells in a short time and low intensity. In this research, the effects of electromagnetic waves with high frequency of 940 MHZ on biochemical, physiological factors of seedling corn (Zea mays L) have been examined. corn seeding were put for 10 days in medium perlite and Hoagland of ½ strength. After enough growth, group of plants were treated with high-frequency electromagnetic fields with high frequency (940 MHz) for 3, 5, 7 days respectively each day 3, 5 hours. Biochemical and physiological analyzes on the samples after these steps were under control and treatment. The content of photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll a, b in electromagnetic field treatment was not significantly increased. But and level of the anthocyanin pigments in electromagnetic field treatment was reduced significantly.superoxide dismutase in leaves have been observed in high-frequency electromagnetic fields (940 MHz) compared with the control were significantly increased.
Controversy on the role of iron and a clinical trial with intermittent iron and nutritional supplements in hair loss management
Background: Reports dating 1932, (86 years prior) emphasise the role of iron deficiency in hair loss. However, blood tests sometimes show normal iron levels in these patients. Should we still include iron in our treatment or conclude that iron has no role in hair loss management? In an attempt to review the dilemma we have come across studies recommending intermittent iron therapy, which as a low dose supplement, can be utilized even in the absence of overt deficiencies. A clinical comparison of hair loss patients having normal haemoglobin is presented with standard 2% minoxidil treatment versus intermittent iron therapy once in three days and comprehensive iron therapy along with intermittent once in three days, inclusion of other hair nutrients, antioxidants, vitamins, calcium, aminoacids and omega 3. Objective: Review the role of iron in hair loss management. Understand why hair loss patients sometimes present with normal iron reports. Evaluate if intermittent iron therapy can help in hair loss management. Evaluate if by the same analogy, inclusion of other intermittent hair nutrients along with iron therapy can deliver better hair growth in addition to controlling hair loss. Method: Sixty women volunteers having hair loss despite normal haemoglobin, were enlisted for this prospective study. Three groups of twenty women each were created. Treatment group I, received standard hair loss treatment with 2% minoxidil. Iron therapy group II, received intermittent iron therapy and the nutrition group III, received intermittent iron with intermittent inclusion of antioxidants, vitamins, calcium, aminoacids and omega 3 which are known to benefit hair loss management. Results were evaluated with global photography, trichoscopy counts for hair density and hair calibre. Observations: Minoxidil 2% group I had reduction in hair fall after 10 weeks. This group at the end of 6 months had 9% improvement in density, with 17% non responders and…
Introduction: An elaboration of the Ten Steps to Healthy Eating and of great importance for a population-related approach to food. Objectives: To inquire about the fulfillment of the two steps and to verify the negative answers between passers-by of the university campus. Methodology: Quantitative and qualitative research, approaching educationally the Ten Steps. To present a convenience sample of 34 subjects on the campus of Catholic University of Pernambuco. Results and Discussion: Step 1: 43% do not eat 3 meals a day. Step 2: 32% do not eat cereals, tubers and others. Step 3: 56% do not eat fruits and vegetables regularly. Step 4: 32% do not eat beans with rice regularly. Step 5: 21% do not regularly eat milk, meat and poultry. Step 6: 15% do not regularly eat olive oil, butter and others. Step 7: 32% do not avoid soft drinks, cookies, sweets, processed juices and others. Step 8: 32% did not reduce salt intake. Step 9: 35% do not regularly drink two liters of water daily. Step 10: 35% stated not to practice physical adventure or to avoid alcoholic beverages or smoke. The food pattern is not yet in accordance with the lack of habits, which is related to lack of time and culture. Conclusion: The data point to the need for Food Education, since they were not satisfactory.
Evaluation of Minerals and Vitamin Compositions of Leaf of Obsecure Morning Glory (Ipomoea Obsecura)
The study was conducted to evaluate vitamin and mineral compositions of leaves of a wild and neglected vegetable Ipomoea obsecura. Vitamins and minerals were determined using standard methods. Vitamins evaluated included Vitamin A, B1, B2, B3and C. Results obtained thus, reported (15.7±0.01mg/100g), (10.4±0.01mg/100g), (15.2±0.02mg/100g), (7.3±0.02mg/100g) and (128.5±0.01mg/100g) respectively. Result further revealed leaves of Ipomoea obsecura to containCa(26.4±0.01mg/100g),Mg(2.3±0.02mg/100g),P(5.2±0.01mg/100g),K(180.4±0.04mg/100g),Fe(10.0±0.01mg/100g),andZn(0.1±0.01mg/100g),Na(2.9±0.06mg/100g),Cu(0.7±0.01mg/100g), Mn (0.01±0.01mg/100g). In conclusion, reported vitamins were present in quantities higher than those reported in literatures for a widely consumed and respected vegetable Telfairia occidentalis. This was contrary to the amounts of minerals present in the leaves of Ipomoea obsecura. Thus, on the basis of its richness in the reported vitamins, it becomes imperative to actively embrace its consumption in order to make up for the deficiency in such nutrients that characterize the popularly consumed vegetables such as the Teliferia occidentalis.
Nutraceutical wild plants and their socio-economic contributions to households in Lare Woreda, Gambella Regional State, Southwest Ethiopia
An ethno botanical study was conducted in Lare woreda (district) of Gamella Regional State of Ethiopia with the objective of identifying the existing nutraceutical plant species having various socio-economic significances for households in the area. The study has given special emphasis on assessing the roles of these plants in diversifying food sources and healthcare of the local communities. In addition, other socio-economic benefits of the identified plant species to the rural households were also studied. 120 households from three representative administrative Kebeles were selected and interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire. In addition to household interview, other methods such as focus group discussions, key informants interview, preference ranking, and matrix scoring and ranking were also employed. Thirty seven plant species belonging to 27 families, along with their multiple household benefits were identified. Fabaceae family, which is represented by four species accounted for the largest proportion of these plants followed by Apocynaceae represented by three species. These plant species belong to different habits, which include trees, shrubs, climbers, and herbs with proportions of 31.57%, 22.05%, 5.26% and 41.12% respectively. The multiple household benefits of the plants include their use as wild food sources (especially during seasons of food deficit from the main food crops); as traditional medicines for treating both human and livestock diseases; as well as for other purposes such as fuel wood, construction materials, agricultural tools/implements, provision of shade, handcrafts or furniture making. Frequent fire, agricultural land expansion and investment activities, and timber collection and settlement are the major threats encountered in sustainable management of these valuable plants. Therefore, there is a need to design and implement an all inclusive and community-based management strategies in order to ensure their sustainable management and thereby enhance their socio-economic contributions to the communities.