Pharmaceutical Research and Reviews


    Recent international epidemics of coronavirus-associated illnesses underscore the urgent medical and public health need for vaccine development and regulatory body approved therapies. In particular, the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has quickly intensified interest in developing treatment options to mitigate impact on human life. Remdesivir (GS-5734™) is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug that is now being tested as a potential treatment for COVID-19 in international, multi-site clinical trials. Currently available evidence about the antiviral effects of remdesivir against to accumulate before the clinical trials are concluded. It is imperative for public health practitioners and the One Health community to stay up to date on the most promising potential therapeutic options that are under investigation. Thus, the purpose of this review is to synthesize the knowledge to date about remdesivir as a therapeutic option for coronaviruses, with a special focus on information relevant to the One Health community

  • Effect of Ricinodendron heudelotii seed extract on the oxidative stress biomarkers of Diabetic albino rats

    This study evaluated the potentials of the seed extract of Ricinodendron heudelotii on the oxidative stress biomarkers of diabetic albino rats of the wistar strain. Diabetes mellitus was induced via intraperitoneal administration of 160 mg/ kg bodyweight Alloxan monohydrate in normal saline and confirmed after 120 hours of blood glucose level above 300mg/dl. Blood samples were collected from the animals and analyzed for Malondialdehyde, Catalase, Reduced Glutathione, Glutathione-S-transferase, Glutathione peroxidase, and Superoxide dismutase activities as biomarkers of oxidative stress. The result revealed a significant decrease at P≤0.05 in blood glucose concentration of diabetic rats with increase in the seed extract concentration, Malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased significantly in the diabetic rats while Catalase increased significantly at P≤0.05 as the extract concentration increased. Variations in Glutathione-S-transferase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Superoxide dismutase and Reduced Glutathione in comparison with control was observed. The results therefore suggests that the aqueous seed extract of Ricinodendron heudelotii has the potency to reduce glucose level and act as antioxidants against oxidative stress, hence its use therapeutically.

  • Different Methodology for Preparation of NLCs – A Review

    Nanotechnology in the formulation developed exponentially, the main objective or the basic aim has been on therapeutic undertaking, particularly for targetted drug therapy. Nanocarriers are at forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in novel drug delivery, also in clinical medicines and research. Solid lipid nanoparticles are at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in medicinal formulation and other varied sciences. Due to their unique size-dependent properties, lipid nanoparticles offer the possibility to develop new therapeutic effect. The incorporation of drugs into nanocarriers offers a new prototype in drug delivery that could be used for different levels of drug targeting. Nanostructure lipid carriers have attracted expanding scientific and commercial vigilance in the last couple of years as alternate carriers for the pharmaceutical consignment. Today’s new generation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) consisting of a lipid matrix with a special nanostructured has been developed. This nanostructure improves drug loading and firmly incorporates the drug during storage. The present review gives insights on the definitions and different techniques of preparation of NLCs.

  • Progress in the application of LOV2 domain in protein interaction

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and protein complexes formed by interactions are the main accomplishers of various functions of cells. As an important component of biological networks, protein interaction plays an important role in determining life processes such as signal transduction in cells. Although the experimental methods for studying protein interactions are endless, there are still many shortcomings and gaps in the research on the interaction of precisely regulated protein molecules. LOV (Light Oxygen Voltage) is a light-sensitive protein domain originally discovered in the photo of plants for receiving blue light stimulation, transmitting signals, and causing a series of reactions in plants. The LOV domain belongs to a member of the PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) superfamily and contains two subunits, LOV1 and LOV2. LOV2 is thought to cause a conformational change after receiving light stimulation, primarily responsible for activating the kinase domain. It plays an important role in intracellular signal transduction. In view of the light control and sensitivity of LOV2, which can be used as a research tool in protein interaction processes, the mechanism of action and structural advantages of signal transduction in LOV2 domain in protein interactions are reviewed.

  • Complexation of diclofenac sodium with hydroxy propyl betacyclodextrin improves its solubility and stability in ampoule solution which is determined by HPLC

    Diclofenac sodium injection is widely used in medicine as antinflamatory and antirheumatic agent with a therapeutic value of 25 mg / ml. However, diclofenac sodium is poorly soluble which forms a problem in its manufacturing as an injection. The available commercial products of diclofenac sodium ampoules have used different types of solubilizing agents as benzyl alcohol which is an irritant in a concentration more than 3% while the other manufacturers used propylene glycol which has toxic impurities. In this present work, Diclofenac Sodium injection is prepared by using Hydroxy Propyl Beta Cyclodextrine ; a natural and safe excipient in formulation of ampoule solution which formed an inclusion complex compounds with Diclofenac Sodium ,render it very soluble and more stable. The finished product of ampoules were subjected to the stability study by storing the samples at 40°C and 75% RH for six months and the physico-chemical properties of the samples were tested at different periods. The results showed no change in appearance of the ampoules solution along the study time .In addition a reversed –phase high pressure liquid chromatographic method was developed and applied in studying the behavior of diclofenac Sodium in solution and its resistance to the high temperature challenger. The developed HPLC method was proved to be accurate and able to detect the degradation products of Diclofenac Sodium in solution.

  • Estimation of Some Phytochemicals in Swietenia macrophylla Leaves

    Extract of the leaf for the detection of the phytochemicals were obtained by soaking 100g of the sample in 250ml ethanol for forty-eight hours with frequent agitation. The phytochemical screening of Swietenia macrophylla showed that tannin, phenol, flavonoid, terpenoids and alkaloids are present in the leaf extract. Quantitative determination of the detected secondary metabolites was carried out to know their percentages in the S. macrophylla leaves.The quantitative estimation of phytochemicals revealed that the various phytochemical constituents present in the leaf extract. In leaf extract of Swietenia macrophylla, the alkaloid content was 0.045 (9%), flavonoids content was 0.062 (12.4%), phenol content was 0.032 (6.4%) and tannin content was 0.043 (8.6%).

  • Proximate Analysis and Phytochemeical Screening on Root of Cnidoscolus carumbium

    The root of Cnidoscolus carumbium was soaked in water for 48 hours and filtered. The residue was oven dried at 800C for 4hrs. Further extraction process was done on the residue by soxhlet extraction method using different organic solvent mixtures of 500cm3 of hexane, acetone and methanol in the ratio 3:1:1 mixture. Proximate analysis for roots revealed Moisture content (19.1%), Fiber (17.7%), Crude protein (2.2%), Ash (15.5%), crude fat (1.0%), and carbohydrate (44.5%), indicating high nutritional value. The result for the extraction shows the presence of phytochemicals such as saponin, alkaloid, steroid flavonoid, phenol, tannin, cardiac glycosides, terpenoid and phlobatanin due to the solvent mixture possessing wide polarity thereby enabling the extraction of all the phytochemicals.

  • An Overview On Diabetes

    In India more than 62 million diabetic individuals currently diagnosed with the disease. The prevalence of diabetes is more in India and is increasing rapidly. Herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects of herbal drug used in treatment of diabetes is compiled.

  • Utility of Marine Organisms as a Drug Source: the Perspective

    More than 70% of our planet’s surface is covered with sea/salty water. Even the world’s oldest, most revered and holiest texts, the Vedas, term the Ocean as ‘Ratnakar’, or the bestower of immense riches. From pre-historic times the ocean/marine world has been a source of inspiration, awe & adventure for Mankind. Contemporary science discovered potent bioactive, chemical compounds from marine organisms not before 1950s, for the first time. At present, several potent cytotoxic and anticancer drug leads, from secondary metabolites biosynthesized in Marine invertebrates, have been identified, characterised and some of them have even been synthesized. In order to tackle the problem of supply, even artificial culture of Marine organisms has been successfully attempted. Some of such vital aspects are discussed here.

  • Alkaloids an overview

    Alkaloids are a chemically heterogenous group of natural substances and comprises more than 6000 basic nitrogen containing organic compounds which occur in about 15 percent of all vascular terrestrial plants and in more than 150 different plants families. The alkaloids exhibit diversity of structures and also show an extraordinary spectrum of pharmacological activities. Because of these characters, they are important for chemical, physiological, taxonomic and biogenetic studies.