Insecticidal Efficacy of Plumeria Species Leaf Extract on Two Economically Important Insects Populations: Mosquito (Anopheles) and Bean Weevils (Callosobruchus Maculatus)
Insecticidal efficacy of two Plumeria species (P. rubra and P. obtusa) foliar extracts was tested on mosquito and beans weevil populations. The extent of efficacy was analysed using linear regression model. The aim was to determine if the plant, as a safer biological control method, could possibly solve the problem of increasing populations of these insects implicated in malaria ailment and food shortages respectively. Completely randomized experimental designs were set up with 4 interaction effects. Each treatment had 5 levels of concentration applied on the test organism and replicated 4 times. Number of dead organisms was recorded at a constant time interval. Percentage mortality was computed at 48hrs. Correlation coefficient R and Coefficient of determination R2 were computed. Equations connecting the dependent variable (mortality) and independent variable (extract concentration) were formulated with corresponding t-values at 95% confidence interval. Residual statistics was also computed. Explanatory power of the extract-mortality model was depicted by analysis of variance. Reliability Statistics of the overall result was tested using the Cronbach’s Alpha. As a result, P. obtusa yielded mosquito mortality rate of 86.2% while P. rubra was 88.75%. P. obtusa and P. rubra accounted for 90% and 95% weevil mortality respectively. Correlation coefficients were very high (Plumeria–mosquito =0.970; Plumeria-weevil =0.968) yielding high coefficients of determination R2 (94% and 93.7% respectively). The two linear regression equations thus allows for accurate predictability of the mortality rate of the insects with 95% confidence limit. Mosquito mortality rate= -7.812 + 38.875 x (Extract concentration). Weevil mortality rate=-4.875 + 39.250 x (Extract concentration). The explanatory power of the two models is significantly high (p
Study on Vegetative Propagation using bulbs of Wild onion [Urginea indica (Roxb.) Kunth] in Herbal Garden for Ex-situ conservation
Plants are showing variable tendency in their morphological structure and also in their habit, habitat and presence in nature. These are also performing a major role in construction of biodiversity in certain ecological areas. Fr seasonal appearances in nature plants are showing diversity in their propagation rate and modes. Seeds are important structure developed after fertilization in plants but the plants which does not includes seeds in their life are well potent to propagate using their vegetative parts and/or by the modified structures like bulb, tuber, rhizome etc. Wild onion [Urginea indica (Roxb.) Kunth] includes bulbs inside of soil which after maturation produces many small bulbs. These adventitious buds are separated from mother bulb carefully without damage the bulbs and are used as a plant source to develop new individuals of this plant. The current experiment was done in prepared poly bags (filled with soil, sand and manure mixture equally) followed by the proper supply of the water. During of the experimentation necessary facilities provided as per need of the developing bulbs to convert in to new plant. Above rapid propagation was made in herbal garden aimed for its propagation as well as for ex-situ conservation.
Bak Foong pill is a well known prescription to treat gynecological disorders in China. It comprises with more than 20 Chinese herbs including Wuji, Antler, Turtle Shell, Oysters, Sang Cuttlebone, Ginseng, Astragalus, Angelica, White Peony Root, Cyperus, Aspartame, Licorice, Rehmannia, Chuanxiong, silver Bupleurum, Salvia, Yam and Gorgon et al.. Based on the theory of Chinese Medicine, its indications include Qi and blood deficiency, frail, weak waist, irregular menstruation and uterine bleeding vaginal discharge. Previous studies mainly focused on reporting Bak Foong pill. In this review, we will introduce Bak Foong capsule, a new type of Bak Foong preparation, and compare the difference between Bak Foong Pill and Bak Foong capsule based on their prescription composition, indications and modern clinical application. In conclusion, Bak Foong capsule has the same function as Bak Foong pill although Bak Foong capsule has less Chinese herbs. More studies on Bak Foong capsule will help us treat diseases like uterine bleeding vaginal discharge and know the possible difference between Bak Foong pill and Bak Foong capsule.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which can open under both physiology and pathophysiology, is an important diffusion barrier to brain. It can block many componds from blood and protect the brain. BBB is mainly built by cerebral endothelium, tight junctions, adherens junctions, astrocytes, and pericytes and extracellular matrix. Each element plays specific roles to protect the brain. Currently, one of the limitations to treat CNS diseases is that most drugs can not pass through the BBB and can not directly affect the focus of infection. So drugs which could help BBB open would help us to treat CNS diseases. Chinese herbal medicine has been wildly used in China to treat all kinds of diseases, and some of them, like Borneol, Acorus tatarinowii Schott, Moschus, Storax and Benzoin, has notably dual effects on the permeability of the BBB. They can both reduce and increase the the permeability of the BBB. More studies on the effects on Chinese herbal medicine’s effects on BBB may help us out of the limitation that brain drugs can not pass through the BBB.
Stroke is one of the primary cause of long- term disability. Although mounting studies focused on stroke research, currently, only available treatment for stroke is t-PA, with the limitation of a very narrow therapeutic window because of the risk of hemorrhage. So, new therapeutic methods for stoke are expected. Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat stroke with a history of many centuries and is stilling wildly used in China. This review focuses on reporting the research progress of the Chinese herbal medicine including Acorus tatarinowii Schott, Borneol, Moschus and other herbal medicine in stroke. The Conclusion is Chinese herbal medicine including Acorus tatarinowii Schott, Borneol and Moschus could reduce stroke injury and help brain recovery after stroke. More studies in Chinese herbal medicine and stroke may help us to develop a useful treatment for stroke.
Anti-anxiety Activity of Citrus paradisi var. duncan Extracts in Swiss Albino Mice -A Preclinical Study
Background: Fragrances from aromatic oils of Citrus have been particularly attributed with mood enhancing properties by aroma therapists. Volatile oils are available in very small amounts hence authors intend to establish antianxiety activity of leaf extracts that can be made available for commercial purposes. Objectives: The present study was designed to authenticate the already established anti-anxiety activity (by using elevated plus maze model) of various extracts of the leaves of Citrus paradisi var. Duncan by authors using different animal models. Methods: Swiss Albino mice were treated with different doses of the leaf extracts (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg / kg p.o.) and Diazepam (2mg/kg, p.o) was used as a positive control. Antianxiety activity was determined using Y maze model, light dark model and hole board methods. Results: Results of study show that methanol extract in higher doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) possesses marked anti anxiety activity and was comparable to the effect produced by diazepam. Conclusion: The plant can be developed as a commercial source of anxiolytic agent. Further studies are in-process to isolate the active constituent responsible for this activity and mechanism of action.