Local categorization of illness and disease can form insight on the understanding of people’s behaviour and attitudes towards microbial infections and how such implicates Coronavirus and disease COVID-19. Relying on data generated through rapid research approach in some Yorùbá cities of southwestern Nigeria, where phoning, WhatsApp, Facebook, quick in-depth interviews, ethnobotanical survey/analysis of some anti-microbial herbs and case analysis were held. The study reveals local understanding of microbial infection and the opposing and contrasting perceptions of COVID-19, which informs different regimes of care and prevention. Such includes non-categorization of microbial infections into viral, bacterial and fungi; biomedical against preternatural causation and utilization of local herbs versus globalised western health care strategies. The study therefore suggests that within the context of globalised health culture accommodation of local traditions is imperative in proper understanding and invention of care and preventive strategies against COVID-19.
Xanthigen® is a nutraceutical combination of two well-known natural products, brown seaweed extract (rich in fucoxanthin) and pomegranate seed oil (rich in punicic acid), and it has been designed to use in weight management, in conjunction with a calorie restricted diet. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Xanthigen® treatment caused a significant reduction in lipid deposition in wild-type N2 (WT-N2) animals but not in sirt-2.1-deficient strain, which raises the possibility that the prolipolytic or anti-lipogenic effect of Xanthigen® in these animals is mediated through Sirtuin 2.1 activation. This response has been well described for Xanthigen® in cell cultures and other animal models. In addition, Xanthigen® treatment conferred to both strains an increased resistance to thermal and oxidative stress, which opens the possibility that the effects of Xanthigen® are not mediated solely by Sirtuin 2.1 activation. We therefore explored whether Xanthigen® could activate diverse defence mechanisms such as DAF-16 activation, or GST induction in response to xenobiotics, by using the strains TJ356, CL2070 and CL2166, stably expressing Pdaf-16::GFP, Phsp-16.2::GFP and Pgst-4::GFP, respectively. Xanthigen® treatment provoked neither DAF-16 translocation to the nucleus nor increased expression of HSP16.2 and GST4, which opens the possibility that different mechanisms other than DAF-16 and those involved in xenobiotic responses, are activated by Xanthigen® and are capable of conferring to the nematode an increased resistance to thermal or oxidative stress.
INTRODUCTION-Cancer’ is not directly mentioned in Ayurvedic text as one disease. Many diseases, which are described in Ayurvedic text, show similarities with Cancer. Also etiology (Nidan), pathogenesis (Samprapti), treatment(Chikitsa) of cancer can be described by considering the basic principles of Ayurved. Granthi is a term for a tumour, lump or nodule. Granthi may be benign or malignant. In Ayurvedic literature, a detailed description is given of various types of tumors. Terms such as gulma, granthi, utseda and arbuda are used for specific tumor conditions. AIMS & OBJECTIVES-1.Conceptual and clinical studies on Granthi. 2.To evaluate safety and efficacy of Sahadevi Panchang Kshara in management of Granthi. MATERIALS & METHODS-The study was conducted on 30 clinically diagnosed and confirmed patients of Granthi from OPD/IPD of Rajvaidhya Premshankar Sharma Govt. Ayurvedic Hospital, Udaipur. Group A- 15 Patients of simple granthi (Benign tumour) were treated by 500mg capsule Sahadevi kshara two times a day with normal water for 60 days. Group B- 15 Patients of malignant granthi were treated by 500mg capsule Sahadevi kshara two times a day with normal water for 60 days. The patients will be diagnosed with the help of various subjective parameters. RESULT-Pain, tenderness, fatigue, size of lump symptoms were significant In Group A and Pain, Tenderness, Size of lump, Nausea, fatigue,, Constipation, Gas in Abdomen, Heaviness in Chest symptoms were significant in group B. Pain was improved in both groups. CONCLUSION-Sahadevi Kshara proved to be an effective, safe, promising and cost effective in the management of cancer.
Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of ethanolic extract of Panax ginseng against Periodontal pathogens: An invitro study
The present experimental study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Panax ginseng on the most common periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa). Ethanolic extract of Panax ginseng was prepared using maceration technique. Thus obtained extract was tested for its antimicrobial efficacy against 4 periodontal pathogens by means of evaluating the Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time kill curve analysis. MIC was carried out by using serial dilution method. MBC was assessed by incubating the cultures of microorganisms with the same drug concentrations as MIC. Time kill curve (TKC) was analysed by incubating the organisms in anaerobic chamber, to evaluate the timely declination of growth rate. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of Panax ginseng was both bacteriostatic and bactericidal for Pg and Pi at 0.8 µg/ml and for Fn at 50 µg/ml. But for Aa, it was only bacteriostatic at 25 µg/ml but not bactericidal in nature. Also, Pg showed no growth after 10 minutes, but the growth of Pi, Fn and Aa was not inhibited even after incubation for 2 hours. From this in-vitro study we conclude that the ethanolic extract of panax ginseng showed antimicrobial efficacy against all the test microorganisms, such as Pg, Fn, Pi and Aa. Thus these results can be used to continue with further invitro, invivo research and in day to day clinical treatment of chronic periodontitis.
Validation of Ewé’fá as Herbal Recipes for Reproductive Health Problems (RHPs) among the Yorùbá of South-western Nigeria
Ifá scriptural verses contain a number of herbs for healing different ailments among the Yorùbá of Nigeria. Thus, Ifá is one of the epistemologies of Yorùbá herbal healing system. Considering religious sentiments and secrecy arising from patenting, hermeneutic analysis and validation of Ifá-based herbs (Ewé’fá) is yet to be scientifically engaged. This paper analyses some Ifá verses and identifies Ewe’ fa mentioned in them for validation, focussing reproductive health problems (RHPs). Thirty medicinal plants mentioned in six selected Ifá verses (Èjìogbè, Ògúndábède, Òyèkú-Méjì, Ogbè- Túrúpòn, Ìwòrì- Òfún, and Òtúrá-Méjì) for the treatment and management of RHPs were identified. Ethnographic and ethno-botanical surveys of those herbs were conducted in Bode herbs market in Ibadan, Nigeria. Key informants’ interviews, observation, and semi-structured ethno-botanical questionnaire were used. Interviews focused on sources of Ewé’fá and mode of treatment in RHPs, botanical information on Ewé’fá, knowledge value of identified Ewé’fá, and uses and validation of Ewé’fá in the treatment of RHPs. Nineteen respondents, mainly herb sellers (78.9%) and some traditional medical practitioners (21.1%) were involved in the survey. All the respondents were females, aged 41-60 years (52.6%) and 78.9% of them were Muslims. Herbal preparations are infusion, decoction, tincture, charring, squeezing, concoction, herbal soap and powder. Herb administrations are oral, topical and as baths. Oral therapies are administered mostly three times daily. Most of the herbs are sourced from the tropical rainforest region of south-western Nigeria. Ewe’fa are valuable as blood tonic, anti-infection, fertility herbs, aphrodisiac, womb cleanser, worm expeller and in the treatment of frigidity. Traditional use of most of the Ewé’fá for RHPs is validated. Hermeneutically, curative meaning given to a plant and beliefs associated with their healing potentials as contained in Ifá verses play a significant role in the use and potency of Ewe’fa. The findings provide a good starting point in…
The tuberous rhizomes of Cyperus esculentus L. have been used as a food by hunter-gatherer and agricultural societies for millennia. Varieties and selections of the plant are cultivated in southern Europe, north Africa and west Africa. There is popular food and beverage uses, and traditional medicinal uses suggest that the “tubers” may have functional food potential. The first standardized extract of Cyperus esculentus, Cyperol, has been developed and commercialized. In order to characterize the central nervous system activity of this extract a series of neurophysiological studies were undertaken in-vitro, in-vivo and in a pilot clinical study. The results of the studies indicate that Cyperol induces changes in brain electrical activity (EEG), demonstrating that bioactive compounds from the extract are absorbed, are bioavailable, and that these compounds or their metabolites cross the blood brain barrier. Taken overall, the results of the reported studies indicate calming activity without sedation. This extract does indeed have functional food potential and could be used to maintain a calm state of mind while dealing with cognitively demanding work. Preliminary indications suggest that the extract may have anxiolytic potential which should be explored in future clinical studies.
Current Situation, Problems and Countermeasures of Poverty Alleviation in Traditional Chinese Medicine industry
Poverty alleviation by industry plays an indispensable role in poverty alleviation, and poverty alleviation by Chinese medicine industry, as one of the industrial development models with local characteristics in recent years, has achieved remarkable results. However, there are also some problems that cannot be ignored. It is of great practical significance to analyze and put forward countermeasures for the healthy development of poverty alleviation industries, promote economic growth in poor areas, increase income of poor households and realize the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects.
Ganoderma lucidum has been a well-known herb since ancient times and has the reputation of “Xiancao”. In modern times, Ganoderma Lucidum is used more in nourishing health products. Chinese medicine believes that Ganoderma lucidum is sweet, flat, and beneficial to qi and blood. It has the effect of soothing the mind, strengthening the spleen and nourishing the stomach. Clinically, it is also often used to treat insomnia, fatigue, and asthma. The Ganoderma lucidum real estate area has changed greatly from ancient to modern. The wild production area has changed from the ancient Wuyue Mountain to the current major lakes and seas. The cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum began in the 1950s, and the production area has changed to today’s Hubei, Hainan and other places. Currently cultivated Ganoderma lucidum. Has become the main body of Ganoderma lucidum. Hubei is an important real estate area. This paper mainly summarizes and analyzes the original plant and growth environment, cultivation techniques, pest control, medicinal properties, chemical composition, pharmacological effects and clinical use of the existing Chinese herbal medicine Ganoderma lucidum. From the research on the origin, traits, growth habits, medicinal properties and clinical application of Ganoderma lucidum, it provides practical information for the cultivation, use and pharmacological properties of Ganoderma lucidum. At the same time, the summary and analysis of Ganoderma lucidum information will be conducive to further research on the efficacy and marketization of Ganoderma lucidum.
Hydroethanolic extract of Theobroma cacao beans is non toxic and attenuates oxydative stress induced by Naphtalene in Wistar rats
Background: Oxidative stress is a situation where the cell no longer controls the excessive presence of toxic oxygen radicals. Many human diseases have a strong relationship with oxidative stress due to an imbalance between antioxidants and pro-oxidants. The objective of this study is to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant capacity of Theobroma cacao (T.cacao) beans extract and its acute toxicity. Methods: T. cacao beans were collected in the Obala locality (Center Cameroon) and then subjected to hydroethanolic extraction (70:30) at pH 3. The in vivo oxidative stress induction was done using naphthalene at 110 mg / kg and different doses of extracts (50 mg / kg, 100 mg / kg, and 200 mg / kg) were orally administered to rats. Some oxidative stress parameters helped to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract (superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA)). In addition, the acute toxicity of T. cacao was evaluated by the methods recommended by the ODCE. Test groups received respectively the extract at different doses (5000 mg / kg and 2000 mg / kg) against 10% of DMSO and distilled water as neutral controls. Hepatic function was assessed using transaminase assays (ASAT, ALAT), proteins and histological sections. Also the blood count allowed to explore the haematological function. Results: The administration of different doses of extracts or vitamin C as standard significantly increased GSH levels as well as antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT) and a significant decrease in MDA in studied organs and serum of animals compared to pro-oxidant control. ALAT and ASAT activities did not significantly vary in rats compared to neutral controls. No deaths and hepatic injuries were observed at different doses of the extracts. Conclusion: The extract of T. cacao beans possess in vivo antioxidant capacities capable of protecting tissues against oxidative stress and toxicity in…
Anti-bacterial Activity of Aqueous and Methanolic Root Extracts of Medicinal Plant Heteropogon contortus
Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of chronic and infectious diseases are very expensive and some of them have become less effective due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Researchers are now focused on natural sources including plants and plant parts for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Therefore, this study evaluated in vitro anti-bacterial activity and phytochemical composition of aqueous and methanolic root extracts of Sri Lankan medicinal plant Heteropogon contortus against clinically significant pathogens, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923). Agar well diffusion method and standard chemical tests were performed to evaluate anti-bacterial effect and phytochemical profile of the root extracts, respectively. The results revealed that each crude root extract exhibited anti-bacterial activity against both E. coli and S. aureus. The largest zones of inhibition against both E. coli and S. aureus were detected from the methanolic root extract at a concentration of 200 mg/mL and this is a novel finding. Phytochemical analysis of roots revealed the presence of bioactive constituents that account for the anti-bacterial potential, such as alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids. Thereby, root of H. contortus is a reliable source to develop potent, cheap and natural anti-bacterial agents. Future research focusing on high concentrations of different root extracts is recommended to further understand the anti-bacterial capability of H. contortus.