Hydroethanolic extract of Theobroma cacao beans is non toxic and attenuates oxydative stress induced by Naphtalene in Wistar rats
Background: Oxidative stress is a situation where the cell no longer controls the excessive presence of toxic oxygen radicals. Many human diseases have a strong relationship with oxidative stress due to an imbalance between antioxidants and pro-oxidants. The objective of this study is to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant capacity of Theobroma cacao (T.cacao) beans extract and its acute toxicity. Methods: T. cacao beans were collected in the Obala locality (Center Cameroon) and then subjected to hydroethanolic extraction (70:30) at pH 3. The in vivo oxidative stress induction was done using naphthalene at 110 mg / kg and different doses of extracts (50 mg / kg, 100 mg / kg, and 200 mg / kg) were orally administered to rats. Some oxidative stress parameters helped to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract (superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA)). In addition, the acute toxicity of T. cacao was evaluated by the methods recommended by the ODCE. Test groups received respectively the extract at different doses (5000 mg / kg and 2000 mg / kg) against 10% of DMSO and distilled water as neutral controls. Hepatic function was assessed using transaminase assays (ASAT, ALAT), proteins and histological sections. Also the blood count allowed to explore the haematological function. Results: The administration of different doses of extracts or vitamin C as standard significantly increased GSH levels as well as antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT) and a significant decrease in MDA in studied organs and serum of animals compared to pro-oxidant control. ALAT and ASAT activities did not significantly vary in rats compared to neutral controls. No deaths and hepatic injuries were observed at different doses of the extracts. Conclusion: The extract of T. cacao beans possess in vivo antioxidant capacities capable of protecting tissues against oxidative stress and toxicity in…
Anti-bacterial Activity of Aqueous and Methanolic Root Extracts of Medicinal Plant Heteropogon contortus
Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of chronic and infectious diseases are very expensive and some of them have become less effective due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Researchers are now focused on natural sources including plants and plant parts for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Therefore, this study evaluated in vitro anti-bacterial activity and phytochemical composition of aqueous and methanolic root extracts of Sri Lankan medicinal plant Heteropogon contortus against clinically significant pathogens, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923). Agar well diffusion method and standard chemical tests were performed to evaluate anti-bacterial effect and phytochemical profile of the root extracts, respectively. The results revealed that each crude root extract exhibited anti-bacterial activity against both E. coli and S. aureus. The largest zones of inhibition against both E. coli and S. aureus were detected from the methanolic root extract at a concentration of 200 mg/mL and this is a novel finding. Phytochemical analysis of roots revealed the presence of bioactive constituents that account for the anti-bacterial potential, such as alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids. Thereby, root of H. contortus is a reliable source to develop potent, cheap and natural anti-bacterial agents. Future research focusing on high concentrations of different root extracts is recommended to further understand the anti-bacterial capability of H. contortus.
Cancer is a disease characterized by the multiplication and spread out of control in the form of anomalous cells. A normal cell becomes cancerous cells as a result of one or more mutations of DNA. Marine algae are a rich source of bioactive compounds, some of which are precursors of pharmacological tools and potentially useful substances for the development of new drugs. The present study aims to evaluate the antitumor activity of Caulerpa taxifolia front of Sarcoma 180 in albino mice (Mus musculus). The transplanted animals with sarcoma 180 (n = 24), were divided into four groups (n = 6) treated with two extracts: the MeOH extract (T1) and from hydroalcoholic C. taxifolia (T2) at a dose of 50 mg/kg ip. The control group (S1) received saline for the same route of administration. The default group (S2) received the reference drug to the tumor lineage. The data revealed that the S3 and S4 group responded to treatment with reduction of 63.6 and 42, 0 % respectively, as compared to EN/PA, when compared with the control group. The activities of extracts were higher than those of the reference drug for the Sarcoma 180.
Medicinal plants constitute main resource base of almost all the traditional healthcare systems. Most of the herbal drugs produced currently in majority of the developing countries lack proper quality specification and standards. Herbal drugs used in traditional medicine may contain a single herb or combinations of several different herbs believed to have complementary and/or synergistic effects. Both the raw drugs and the finished herbal products manufactured contain complex mixtures of organic compounds, such as fatty acids, sterols, alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, glycosides, saponins, tannins, terpenes etc. The quality of the finished product is based on the quality of the raw materials. As many as 35% of the medicinal plants used in Indian systems of medicine are highly cross pollinated which indicate the existence of a wide range of genetic variability in the populations of these medicinal plant species which in turn reflected in the variations in the composition of secondary metabolites. Ecological and edaphic as well as seasonal variations also cause changes in the chemical composition of medicinal plants. These facts have to be considered while developing quality parameters! standards of medicinal plants and their finished products.Purpose of the study: An illustrated review of factors that influence secondary metabolism of plants and their impacts on therapeutic efficacy.Findings: Traditional plants are used from ancient time for various human well-being, both as life-saving and lifestyle drugs. A careful observation may explore facts behind therapeutic efficacy of these plants.Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature review, consulting books, technical newsletters, herb magazines, journals, and many other sources. Health professionals like qualified doctors, herbal specialists, folk healers, alternative medicine specialists given their valuable suggestions. Research limitations: The limitation lies with the unlimited information about traditional medicines. Validity of those are very hard to prove. Only data obtained from books, newsletters, national and international research-based articles are…
Effect of germination time on the diastasic power of maize (Coca-sr variety) and paddy rice (Nerica L.56 variety): Application of amylase rich flours and their extracts in the fluidification and improvement of the energy density of fermented maize gruel
To proceed this study, corn seeds (Coca-sr variety) and rice (Nerica L.56) were germinated over period of 240 hours. Flours and raw extracts produced were used to prepare fermented maize gruels (17.5% of DM) and the flow rates were evaluated using the Botswick consistometer. We noticed from these analyses that the germinated corn Coca-sr variety, in the form of ARF and its extracts presented an optimum fluidification power at 120 h of germination. As for the ARF of Nerica L.56, an optimum fluidification level was observed for the extract at 168 h contrarily to 72 h for the flour. The use of ARF and extracts from corn (Coca-sr) and rice (Nerica L.56) at 2 % and 2.5 mL resulted in a reduction of their consistency (gruels). Coca-sr ARF at a rate of 2 % fluidifies the gruel of fermented corn hence multipliying the energy density and nutritional value (3.57) more than with its extract and the different forms of the incorporation of rice.
A Study On Medicinal Plants and Attitude of Womens Towards Use of Unani Medicine in District Srinagar of Kashmir Valley, J K State
The Jammu and Kashmir state is covered by lofty mountains hang dense forests everywhere consists of three divisions i.e., Jammu division, Kashmir division and Ladakh division, and the state is further divided into 22 districts. Kashmir division consists of 10 districts each whereas Ladakh division consists of 2 districts. Srinagar is the summer capital of J&K state. Plants have been traditionally used for hundreds of years throughout globe as a source of medicine. Forest resources in the state of Jammu and Kashmir have played the most significant role in the economy of the state. The present study was conducted to know the attitude of women towards use of medicinal plants in Kashmir valley. In this paper, a well designed and validated questionnaire was used to collect the information from a sample of 400 women who visited unani hospitals selected randomly from Srinagar district of Kashmir valley. The results of our study showed that women show positive attitude towards the use of medicinal plants during illness. The women’s under study further revealed that due to less expenditure and side effect of modern medicines they are encouraged by elders to use medicinal plants for treatment. It is concluded from our study that there is an urgent need of giving mass awareness on importance of forests and medicinal plants to the women of Kashmir valley. Finally, in this paper, we discuss the importance of medicinal plants and suggestions were given which definitely help in conservation of the fast eroding precious medicinal plants of the Kashmir valley.
To evaluate how plants in folk medicine and diverse forms of application by the communities of the municipality of Milagres in Ceará.
Introduction: The lack of medical care, pharmaceutical and economic crisis, such as information on the use of medicinal plants, developing an empirical knowledge about the use of nature. A Brazilian popular medicine reflects the knowledge transmitted as generations that spread their knowledge about a medicinal flora, becoming as medicinal plants tools in pharmaceutical care. Ceará is rich in medicinal species endemic to the region, traditionally inhabited by the population, but little explored by pharmacology. Objective: To evaluate how plants in folk medicine and diverse forms of application by the communities of the municipality of Milagres in Ceará. Methodology: The research was carried out in the municipality of Milagres-CE, between November and December, through the questionnaire applied in several points of the city and rural area for consumers and raizeiros. Results: The most common plants in this community are: Lemon grass, Anise, Lemon balm, Spearmint and Eucalyptus. Reports of the interviewees showed that the treatment with medicinal plants resulted in the improvement up to 100% of the pathology. Conclusion: The population makes use of listed species treatment of pathologies indiscriminately. A study is needed on the use of medicinal plants in this region and a transmission of knowledge to a population.
Herbal medicines are one kind of dietary supplement, and they are used for their scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Methi or Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) belonging to the family Fabaceae is an aromatic perennial herb which is cultivated throughout India. It is widely used in cosmetic and flavoring industries. It is included in the formulations used for cholasma, improving complexion and beautification. According to Unani classical literature, its suppository was made in conjunction with duck fat and introduced into the body to cure scirrhus of the uterus and its mouth opened up. It is extensively used for several human diseases mentioned in Unani system of medicine. Various scientific/ experimental studies have been performed presently on TFG namely, phytochemical, physicochemical, pharmacological and clinical studies. In this review, Various actions and clinical indications have been elaborated in the Unani classical literature and some properties namely Anti-inflammatory, An-diabetic, Antiarthritic, Antiglycemic, Antioxidant and Anti-stress activities have been revalidated in the light of recent scientific researches. Significant information about methi as a traditional herbal medicine is provided in this review.
Urinary tract infections are the most frequent bacterial infection in women, mainly by E.coli (80-90%)1 and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5-10%)1,2. Women are more prone to UTI than men because, in female, the urethra is much shorter and closer to anus. The main cause of UTI during pregnancy are (i) higher levels of the hormone progesterone decrease the muscle tone of the ureters, (ii) uterus enlargement which ultimately compresses the ureters, (iii) bladder also loses tone during pregnancy. These changes takes longer time for passing urine through urinary tract, giving chance to bacterial infection and multiplication and becomes easier for the bacteria to causes upward infection. During pregnancy urine becomes less acidic and more likely to contain glucose, both of which boost the potential for bacterial growth. Pain and discomfort in groin, burning urination, frequent and uncontrolled urges and fever are the main symptoms of UTI. If not treated UTI may cause acute Pyelonephritis in third trimester, preterm labour3 and low birth weight. Antibiotics are the drug of choice in UTI, which may cause teratogenic effect to foetus. So pregnant women should refrain such drugs especially in first trimester. In Ayurveda, Trinpanchamoola (roots of Desmostachya bipinnata, Saccharum spontaneum, Saccharum munja, Imperata cylindrica, Saccharum officinarum) decoction is described for treatment of urinary disorder and to subside their symptoms4. The chemical ingredients present in drugs are increase urinary flow, changes pH that are not suitable for growing harmful bacterial flora and reduces inflammation of passage. Trinpanchamoola kwath alleviate the symptoms of UTI.
Medicinal ferns of Eastern Ghats with special reference to Ahobiolam Reserve forest of Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India
The present investigation was carried out during January 2016 to December 2016 for the documentation of medicinal uses of Pteridophytes by indigenous people of Ahobilam reserve forest of Nallamalais forest of Eastern Ghats of Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh,India. Ethnomedicinal information n was gathered through questionnaire from the tribal and non-tribal people. We have reported 8 species of medicinally important Pteridophytes belonging to 6 families distributed in 7 genera. Our study concluded that, the wealth of indigenous ethnomedicinal knowledge of Pteridophytes may also points to a great potential for research in the discovery of new drugs to fight diseases and other new uses. Their conservation is urgently required.