Validation of Ewé’fá as Herbal Recipes for Reproductive Health Problems (RHPs) among the Yorùbá of South-western Nigeria
Ifá scriptural verses contain a number of herbs for healing different ailments among the Yorùbá of Nigeria. Thus, Ifá is one of the epistemologies of Yorùbá herbal healing system. Considering religious sentiments and secrecy arising from patenting, hermeneutic analysis and validation of Ifá-based herbs (Ewé’fá) is yet to be scientifically engaged. This paper analyses some Ifá verses and identifies Ewe’ fa mentioned in them for validation, focussing reproductive health problems (RHPs). Thirty medicinal plants mentioned in six selected Ifá verses (Èjìogbè, Ògúndábède, Òyèkú-Méjì, Ogbè- Túrúpòn, Ìwòrì- Òfún, and Òtúrá-Méjì) for the treatment and management of RHPs were identified. Ethnographic and ethno-botanical surveys of those herbs were conducted in Bode herbs market in Ibadan, Nigeria. Key informants’ interviews, observation, and semi-structured ethno-botanical questionnaire were used. Interviews focused on sources of Ewé’fá and mode of treatment in RHPs, botanical information on Ewé’fá, knowledge value of identified Ewé’fá, and uses and validation of Ewé’fá in the treatment of RHPs. Nineteen respondents, mainly herb sellers (78.9%) and some traditional medical practitioners (21.1%) were involved in the survey. All the respondents were females, aged 41-60 years (52.6%) and 78.9% of them were Muslims. Herbal preparations are infusion, decoction, tincture, charring, squeezing, concoction, herbal soap and powder. Herb administrations are oral, topical and as baths. Oral therapies are administered mostly three times daily. Most of the herbs are sourced from the tropical rainforest region of south-western Nigeria. Ewe’fa are valuable as blood tonic, anti-infection, fertility herbs, aphrodisiac, womb cleanser, worm expeller and in the treatment of frigidity. Traditional use of most of the Ewé’fá for RHPs is validated. Hermeneutically, curative meaning given to a plant and beliefs associated with their healing potentials as contained in Ifá verses play a significant role in the use and potency of Ewe’fa. The findings provide a good starting point in…
INTRODUCTION: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in contemporary society and there is increasing evidence to suggest that its incidence and severity are increasing. Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in Traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. Plants synthesize hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including protection against insects, fungi, diseases, and herbivorous mammals etc. Further, the phytochemical content and pharmacological actions, if any, of many plants having medicinal potential remain unassisted by exact scientific research to define efficacy and safety. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to give an on the way into some of the most commonly used medicinal plants, phytochemical information of plants and their method of preparation for the management of asthma. METHOD: In these review assembly information of the medicinal plants used to management of asthma from publication journals, thesis, literature searching. In addition to these some of literature qualitative and quantities determination of the phytochemical screen and bioactivity. RESULT: In the review a total of 23 medicinal plants collect from different literature. This finding is a good indicator for the presence of considerable diversity of plant species for the management of Asthma. The most common medicinal plants that used in the society are Papilionaceae, Caricaceae, Moringaceae, Liliaceae, Asteraceae etc. The society used all parts of medicinal plants like stem, root, bark, leafs, fruit, flowers, seed etc. CONCLUSION: In these review a good number of contemporary medicines have evolved from traditional medicines thus in the present circumstances, our traditional system must be given an objective and critical examination. Further research must be carried out to determine the fraction(s)/compounds that are mostly responsible for the observed anti-asthmatic activity as this will lead to drug development. As well, the potency of plants used in combination as beside being…
The tuberous rhizomes of Cyperus esculentus L. have been used as a food by hunter-gatherer and agricultural societies for millennia. Varieties and selections of the plant are cultivated in southern Europe, north Africa and west Africa. There is popular food and beverage uses, and traditional medicinal uses suggest that the “tubers” may have functional food potential. The first standardized extract of Cyperus esculentus, Cyperol, has been developed and commercialized. In order to characterize the central nervous system activity of this extract a series of neurophysiological studies were undertaken in-vitro, in-vivo and in a pilot clinical study. The results of the studies indicate that Cyperol induces changes in brain electrical activity (EEG), demonstrating that bioactive compounds from the extract are absorbed, are bioavailable, and that these compounds or their metabolites cross the blood brain barrier. Taken overall, the results of the reported studies indicate calming activity without sedation. This extract does indeed have functional food potential and could be used to maintain a calm state of mind while dealing with cognitively demanding work. Preliminary indications suggest that the extract may have anxiolytic potential which should be explored in future clinical studies.
Current Situation, Problems and Countermeasures of Poverty Alleviation in Traditional Chinese Medicine industry
Poverty alleviation by industry plays an indispensable role in poverty alleviation, and poverty alleviation by Chinese medicine industry, as one of the industrial development models with local characteristics in recent years, has achieved remarkable results. However, there are also some problems that cannot be ignored. It is of great practical significance to analyze and put forward countermeasures for the healthy development of poverty alleviation industries, promote economic growth in poor areas, increase income of poor households and realize the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects.
Ganoderma lucidum has been a well-known herb since ancient times and has the reputation of “Xiancao”. In modern times, Ganoderma Lucidum is used more in nourishing health products. Chinese medicine believes that Ganoderma lucidum is sweet, flat, and beneficial to qi and blood. It has the effect of soothing the mind, strengthening the spleen and nourishing the stomach. Clinically, it is also often used to treat insomnia, fatigue, and asthma. The Ganoderma lucidum real estate area has changed greatly from ancient to modern. The wild production area has changed from the ancient Wuyue Mountain to the current major lakes and seas. The cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum began in the 1950s, and the production area has changed to today’s Hubei, Hainan and other places. Currently cultivated Ganoderma lucidum. Has become the main body of Ganoderma lucidum. Hubei is an important real estate area. This paper mainly summarizes and analyzes the original plant and growth environment, cultivation techniques, pest control, medicinal properties, chemical composition, pharmacological effects and clinical use of the existing Chinese herbal medicine Ganoderma lucidum. From the research on the origin, traits, growth habits, medicinal properties and clinical application of Ganoderma lucidum, it provides practical information for the cultivation, use and pharmacological properties of Ganoderma lucidum. At the same time, the summary and analysis of Ganoderma lucidum information will be conducive to further research on the efficacy and marketization of Ganoderma lucidum.
Hydroethanolic extract of Theobroma cacao beans is non toxic and attenuates oxydative stress induced by Naphtalene in Wistar rats
Background: Oxidative stress is a situation where the cell no longer controls the excessive presence of toxic oxygen radicals. Many human diseases have a strong relationship with oxidative stress due to an imbalance between antioxidants and pro-oxidants. The objective of this study is to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant capacity of Theobroma cacao (T.cacao) beans extract and its acute toxicity. Methods: T. cacao beans were collected in the Obala locality (Center Cameroon) and then subjected to hydroethanolic extraction (70:30) at pH 3. The in vivo oxidative stress induction was done using naphthalene at 110 mg / kg and different doses of extracts (50 mg / kg, 100 mg / kg, and 200 mg / kg) were orally administered to rats. Some oxidative stress parameters helped to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract (superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA)). In addition, the acute toxicity of T. cacao was evaluated by the methods recommended by the ODCE. Test groups received respectively the extract at different doses (5000 mg / kg and 2000 mg / kg) against 10% of DMSO and distilled water as neutral controls. Hepatic function was assessed using transaminase assays (ASAT, ALAT), proteins and histological sections. Also the blood count allowed to explore the haematological function. Results: The administration of different doses of extracts or vitamin C as standard significantly increased GSH levels as well as antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT) and a significant decrease in MDA in studied organs and serum of animals compared to pro-oxidant control. ALAT and ASAT activities did not significantly vary in rats compared to neutral controls. No deaths and hepatic injuries were observed at different doses of the extracts. Conclusion: The extract of T. cacao beans possess in vivo antioxidant capacities capable of protecting tissues against oxidative stress and toxicity in…
Anti-bacterial Activity of Aqueous and Methanolic Root Extracts of Medicinal Plant Heteropogon contortus
Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of chronic and infectious diseases are very expensive and some of them have become less effective due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Researchers are now focused on natural sources including plants and plant parts for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Therefore, this study evaluated in vitro anti-bacterial activity and phytochemical composition of aqueous and methanolic root extracts of Sri Lankan medicinal plant Heteropogon contortus against clinically significant pathogens, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923). Agar well diffusion method and standard chemical tests were performed to evaluate anti-bacterial effect and phytochemical profile of the root extracts, respectively. The results revealed that each crude root extract exhibited anti-bacterial activity against both E. coli and S. aureus. The largest zones of inhibition against both E. coli and S. aureus were detected from the methanolic root extract at a concentration of 200 mg/mL and this is a novel finding. Phytochemical analysis of roots revealed the presence of bioactive constituents that account for the anti-bacterial potential, such as alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids. Thereby, root of H. contortus is a reliable source to develop potent, cheap and natural anti-bacterial agents. Future research focusing on high concentrations of different root extracts is recommended to further understand the anti-bacterial capability of H. contortus.
Cancer is a disease characterized by the multiplication and spread out of control in the form of anomalous cells. A normal cell becomes cancerous cells as a result of one or more mutations of DNA. Marine algae are a rich source of bioactive compounds, some of which are precursors of pharmacological tools and potentially useful substances for the development of new drugs. The present study aims to evaluate the antitumor activity of Caulerpa taxifolia front of Sarcoma 180 in albino mice (Mus musculus). The transplanted animals with sarcoma 180 (n = 24), were divided into four groups (n = 6) treated with two extracts: the MeOH extract (T1) and from hydroalcoholic C. taxifolia (T2) at a dose of 50 mg/kg ip. The control group (S1) received saline for the same route of administration. The default group (S2) received the reference drug to the tumor lineage. The data revealed that the S3 and S4 group responded to treatment with reduction of 63.6 and 42, 0 % respectively, as compared to EN/PA, when compared with the control group. The activities of extracts were higher than those of the reference drug for the Sarcoma 180.
GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HEAMATO-BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF BROILERS CHICKEN FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF Pakia biglobosa LEAF EXTRACTS
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and some hemato-biochemical parameters of broilers fed different levels of Pakia biglobosa leaf extract (BPE). Two hundred and fifty (250) one day old (Ross 308) broiler chicks were randomly assigned to five treatments with five replicate consisting of ten (10) bird each in a completely randomized design. Treatment 1 contained 0% BPE, Treatment 2, 3, 4 and 5 contained 5ml, 10ml, 15ml and 20ml per liter of water respectively. Clean feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the experiment which lasted for 7 weeks during which data on performance, hematology and serum biochemical traits were collected. Results revealed that BPE had a significant (p0.05) on the feed intake of the birds. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in PCV, Hb, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC values among the treatment. However, WBC and its differentials were significantly (p
Medicinal plants constitute main resource base of almost all the traditional healthcare systems. Most of the herbal drugs produced currently in majority of the developing countries lack proper quality specification and standards. Herbal drugs used in traditional medicine may contain a single herb or combinations of several different herbs believed to have complementary and/or synergistic effects. Both the raw drugs and the finished herbal products manufactured contain complex mixtures of organic compounds, such as fatty acids, sterols, alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, glycosides, saponins, tannins, terpenes etc. The quality of the finished product is based on the quality of the raw materials. As many as 35% of the medicinal plants used in Indian systems of medicine are highly cross pollinated which indicate the existence of a wide range of genetic variability in the populations of these medicinal plant species which in turn reflected in the variations in the composition of secondary metabolites. Ecological and edaphic as well as seasonal variations also cause changes in the chemical composition of medicinal plants. These facts have to be considered while developing quality parameters! standards of medicinal plants and their finished products.Purpose of the study: An illustrated review of factors that influence secondary metabolism of plants and their impacts on therapeutic efficacy.Findings: Traditional plants are used from ancient time for various human well-being, both as life-saving and lifestyle drugs. A careful observation may explore facts behind therapeutic efficacy of these plants.Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature review, consulting books, technical newsletters, herb magazines, journals, and many other sources. Health professionals like qualified doctors, herbal specialists, folk healers, alternative medicine specialists given their valuable suggestions. Research limitations: The limitation lies with the unlimited information about traditional medicines. Validity of those are very hard to prove. Only data obtained from books, newsletters, national and international research-based articles are…