Effect of germination time on the diastasic power of maize (Coca-sr variety) and paddy rice (Nerica L.56 variety): Application of amylase rich flours and their extracts in the fluidification and improvement of the energy density of fermented maize gruel
To proceed this study, corn seeds (Coca-sr variety) and rice (Nerica L.56) were germinated over period of 240 hours. Flours and raw extracts produced were used to prepare fermented maize gruels (17.5% of DM) and the flow rates were evaluated using the Botswick consistometer. We noticed from these analyses that the germinated corn Coca-sr variety, in the form of ARF and its extracts presented an optimum fluidification power at 120 h of germination. As for the ARF of Nerica L.56, an optimum fluidification level was observed for the extract at 168 h contrarily to 72 h for the flour. The use of ARF and extracts from corn (Coca-sr) and rice (Nerica L.56) at 2 % and 2.5 mL resulted in a reduction of their consistency (gruels). Coca-sr ARF at a rate of 2 % fluidifies the gruel of fermented corn hence multipliying the energy density and nutritional value (3.57) more than with its extract and the different forms of the incorporation of rice.
A Study On Medicinal Plants and Attitude of Womens Towards Use of Unani Medicine in District Srinagar of Kashmir Valley, J K State
The Jammu and Kashmir state is covered by lofty mountains hang dense forests everywhere consists of three divisions i.e., Jammu division, Kashmir division and Ladakh division, and the state is further divided into 22 districts. Kashmir division consists of 10 districts each whereas Ladakh division consists of 2 districts. Srinagar is the summer capital of J&K state. Plants have been traditionally used for hundreds of years throughout globe as a source of medicine. Forest resources in the state of Jammu and Kashmir have played the most significant role in the economy of the state. The present study was conducted to know the attitude of women towards use of medicinal plants in Kashmir valley. In this paper, a well designed and validated questionnaire was used to collect the information from a sample of 400 women who visited unani hospitals selected randomly from Srinagar district of Kashmir valley. The results of our study showed that women show positive attitude towards the use of medicinal plants during illness. The women’s under study further revealed that due to less expenditure and side effect of modern medicines they are encouraged by elders to use medicinal plants for treatment. It is concluded from our study that there is an urgent need of giving mass awareness on importance of forests and medicinal plants to the women of Kashmir valley. Finally, in this paper, we discuss the importance of medicinal plants and suggestions were given which definitely help in conservation of the fast eroding precious medicinal plants of the Kashmir valley.
To evaluate how plants in folk medicine and diverse forms of application by the communities of the municipality of Milagres in Ceará.
Introduction: The lack of medical care, pharmaceutical and economic crisis, such as information on the use of medicinal plants, developing an empirical knowledge about the use of nature. A Brazilian popular medicine reflects the knowledge transmitted as generations that spread their knowledge about a medicinal flora, becoming as medicinal plants tools in pharmaceutical care. Ceará is rich in medicinal species endemic to the region, traditionally inhabited by the population, but little explored by pharmacology. Objective: To evaluate how plants in folk medicine and diverse forms of application by the communities of the municipality of Milagres in Ceará. Methodology: The research was carried out in the municipality of Milagres-CE, between November and December, through the questionnaire applied in several points of the city and rural area for consumers and raizeiros. Results: The most common plants in this community are: Lemon grass, Anise, Lemon balm, Spearmint and Eucalyptus. Reports of the interviewees showed that the treatment with medicinal plants resulted in the improvement up to 100% of the pathology. Conclusion: The population makes use of listed species treatment of pathologies indiscriminately. A study is needed on the use of medicinal plants in this region and a transmission of knowledge to a population.
Herbal medicines are one kind of dietary supplement, and they are used for their scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Methi or Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) belonging to the family Fabaceae is an aromatic perennial herb which is cultivated throughout India. It is widely used in cosmetic and flavoring industries. It is included in the formulations used for cholasma, improving complexion and beautification. According to Unani classical literature, its suppository was made in conjunction with duck fat and introduced into the body to cure scirrhus of the uterus and its mouth opened up. It is extensively used for several human diseases mentioned in Unani system of medicine. Various scientific/ experimental studies have been performed presently on TFG namely, phytochemical, physicochemical, pharmacological and clinical studies. In this review, Various actions and clinical indications have been elaborated in the Unani classical literature and some properties namely Anti-inflammatory, An-diabetic, Antiarthritic, Antiglycemic, Antioxidant and Anti-stress activities have been revalidated in the light of recent scientific researches. Significant information about methi as a traditional herbal medicine is provided in this review.
Urinary tract infections are the most frequent bacterial infection in women, mainly by E.coli (80-90%)1 and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5-10%)1,2. Women are more prone to UTI than men because, in female, the urethra is much shorter and closer to anus. The main cause of UTI during pregnancy are (i) higher levels of the hormone progesterone decrease the muscle tone of the ureters, (ii) uterus enlargement which ultimately compresses the ureters, (iii) bladder also loses tone during pregnancy. These changes takes longer time for passing urine through urinary tract, giving chance to bacterial infection and multiplication and becomes easier for the bacteria to causes upward infection. During pregnancy urine becomes less acidic and more likely to contain glucose, both of which boost the potential for bacterial growth. Pain and discomfort in groin, burning urination, frequent and uncontrolled urges and fever are the main symptoms of UTI. If not treated UTI may cause acute Pyelonephritis in third trimester, preterm labour3 and low birth weight. Antibiotics are the drug of choice in UTI, which may cause teratogenic effect to foetus. So pregnant women should refrain such drugs especially in first trimester. In Ayurveda, Trinpanchamoola (roots of Desmostachya bipinnata, Saccharum spontaneum, Saccharum munja, Imperata cylindrica, Saccharum officinarum) decoction is described for treatment of urinary disorder and to subside their symptoms4. The chemical ingredients present in drugs are increase urinary flow, changes pH that are not suitable for growing harmful bacterial flora and reduces inflammation of passage. Trinpanchamoola kwath alleviate the symptoms of UTI.
Medicinal ferns of Eastern Ghats with special reference to Ahobiolam Reserve forest of Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India
The present investigation was carried out during January 2016 to December 2016 for the documentation of medicinal uses of Pteridophytes by indigenous people of Ahobilam reserve forest of Nallamalais forest of Eastern Ghats of Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh,India. Ethnomedicinal information n was gathered through questionnaire from the tribal and non-tribal people. We have reported 8 species of medicinally important Pteridophytes belonging to 6 families distributed in 7 genera. Our study concluded that, the wealth of indigenous ethnomedicinal knowledge of Pteridophytes may also points to a great potential for research in the discovery of new drugs to fight diseases and other new uses. Their conservation is urgently required.
The review article focus on Gangrene and its associated amputations are clinically challenging, but Homoeopathy offers therapy options. In this case are presented, in which the homoeopathic treatment prevented amputation of a body part. Homoeopathy stimulates the body’s ability to heal through its immune mechanisms; consequently, it achieves wound healing and establishes circulation to the gangrenous part. Instead of focusing on the local phenomena of gangrene pathology, treatment focuses on the general indications of the immune system, stressing the important role of the immune system as a whole. The aim was to show, through case reports, that homoeopathic therapy can treat gangrene without amputing the gangrenous part, and hence has a strong substitution for consideration in treating gangrene.
Background: Shigru (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) is a well known drug in Ayurveda used for its Krimighna activity (ability to kill the pathogens). Acharya Charaka had mentioned Shigru in Krimighna Mahakashaya1. Nighantus had specifically mentioned Krimighna activity of Shigru Patra viz. Kaiyadeva Nighantu2, Raj Nighantu3 and Shaligram4 Nighantu. Therefore Patra churna (powder of leaves) is selected for evaluation of anti bacterial activity on the strains which affects a large number of population. Methods : Shigru Patra churna at different concentrations viz. 5µl, 10µl, 25µl, 50µl and 75µl were tested for anti bacterial activity by Disc Diffusion method for 2 strains of Gram positive and 2 strains of Gram negative bacteria each, with DMSo (Dimethyl Sulphoxide) a neutral solvent. Zone of Inhibition was calculated. Result : Shigru Patra inhibits growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas auringinosa and Escheria coli at higher concentrations of 50µl and 75µl and is resistant to Streptococcus mutans at all concentrations. Zone of inhibition was 13mm for Staphylococcus aureus, 12mm for Pseudomonas auringinosa and 15mm for Escheria coli and activity index were 0.86, 0.40 and 0.50 respectively. Conclusion : Shigru Patra possess good anti bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas auringinosa and Escheria coli.
Alterations in the Glutamate metabolism and Aminotransferases (AAT, ALAT) during PTZ induced Epilepsy: Protective role of Bacopa monnieri
Epilepsy, a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by repeated, spontaneous seizures, also known as seizure disorder. Seizure related neuronal injury has been assumed to be mediated by glutamate, the excitatory amino acid, in the central nervous system that causes a sudden imbalance between the inhibitory and excitatory signals in the brain with glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine. Since long term usage of antiepileptic drugs cause high incidence of pharmacoresistence and untoward side effects, attention has been paid in recent years to screen bioactive compounds from natural medicinal plants for treatment of several neurological disorders including Epilepsy. Keeping in view of relative importance of natural medicinal plants, the present study is mainly focused to characterize the anti-convulsant effect of Bacopa monnieri (BM), an Indian herb which is being extensively used in Ayurvedic treatments related to neurological complications. The present study is designed to assess the neurotoxicity of Pentylene tetrazole (PTZ), an epileptic compounds, on the Glutamate metabolism and Amino transferases in different brain regions (Cerebral cortex, Cerebellum, Pons medulla and Hippocampus) of rat and to explore the possible antiepileptic effect of different extracts (Ethanol, n-Hexane, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, n-Butanol and Aqueous extracts) of BM in comparison with Diazepam (DZ) (Reference control). The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamine content were decreased in different regions of brain during PTZ induced epilepsy which were increased in epileptic rats pretreated with different extracts of Bacopa monnieri except EAE and AE. Glutaminase activity was increased in PTZ induced epilepsy and decreased on pretreatment with all the extracts of BM except AE. In addition aspartate (AAT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) activity levels were increased during PTZ induced epilepsy when compared with normal control and levels were reversed on pretreatment with different extracts of BM. Recoveries of these parameters during…
Microwave assisted Subcritical water extraction of Berberine hydrochloride from the roots of Berberis Aristata using Harmony search algorithm
The aim of present study is to optimize the conditions of Berberine extraction from roots of Berberis Aristata by Microwave assisted subcritical water extraction (MASCW).MASCW method of extraction had shown reproducibility in respect to time, solvent usage, yield and extraction repeatability. Isoquinone Berberine, is one of the wide spread representatives belonging to family of protoberberine alkaloids abundantly present in roots and stem parts of Indian barberry. The subcritical factors like time, solvent/meal ratio, extraction repeatability, size of particles and temperature were investigated and were in accordance with experimental data and predicted data. Harmony search Algorithm (HSA) was used to study the effect of five subcritical parameters on the yield of Berberine .The extraction of berberine from roots of Berberis aristata was carried at 110-1700C using MASCW method using different variations of five subcritical parameters. The results show that all five factors (Time, Temperature, size of particles, repeatability of extraction and sample/liquid Ratio) have statistically significant effects on the berberine concentration. The results had suggested that experimental data concentration, 223.82 µg/ml and predicted data concentration, 214.854 µg/ml of berberine are in significant correlation at subcritical parameters like temperature 1700C, particle size of 0.65 mm, time of 70 mins, solvent/meal ratio of 12 and at maximum three repetitions. Thus the extracted berberine was precipitated as berberine hydrochloride by acid and further evaluated for NMR structural studies which confirms with standard berberine hydrochloride.