Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common metabolic disorders that causes micro- and macro-vascular complication. The aim of this study was to evaluate The effects of cinnamon on fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) in Syrian individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 90 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), were randomized into two groups: one for placebo and one for treatment with cinnamon powder (Cinnamomum cassia), in daily amounts of 2 grams. We measured the patients’ blood glucose and lipid levels under fasting conditions at the beginning of the study, and again at 30 days, the end of treatment. The mean value of FBG level on the starting day before cinnamon intake was found to be 176.8 ± 9.6 mg/dl, and the mean values for lipids were TG 183.5 ± 15.5 mg/dl, TC 209.4 ± 7.8 mg/dl and LDL 119.4 ± 5.8 mg/dl. When diabetic patients were treated with the dose of 2 g cinnamon for 30 days, their mean FBG level dropped to 147.4 ± 8.9 mg/dl, TG 135.7 ± 9.6 mg/dl, TC 149.3 ± 8.6 mg/dl and LDL to 74 ± 6.2 mg/dl. No significant changes were noted in the placebo groups. The results of this study indicate that intake of 2 grams of cinnamon per day reduces serum glucose, TG, TC, and LDL and thus reducing the risk of diabetic complications.
Intrinsic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus against plasmodium-mediated tropical disease
Objective: To investigate the intrinsic activity (efficacy) of aqueous leaf extract of Cymbopogon (C.) citratus against malaria, a plasmodium-mediated tropical disease. Materials and Methods: Plasmodium (P.) falciparum culture samples from 20 symptomatic adult outpatients were subjected to the antimalarial in vitro test. Parasite quantification by optical microscopy in the performance of in vitro antiplasmodial assays was employed. Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 was used as culture medium for cultivation of P. falciparum. Negative control was culture medium with the malarial parasites while treated drug was the leaf extract of C. citratus dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and prepared into 7 levels concentration (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/mL.) After culture synchronized with sorbitol 5%, micromalarial culture were divided into control and treated groups then incubated in CO2 candle jar at 370C for 72 h. Each 8 h, the percentage of parasitemia were measured giving the activity of the extract on the growth stages of P. falciparum. Parasitemia was estimated by making the thin blood smear from the erythrocytes layer and stained with Giemsa (10%) for 30 mins. Using probit analysis, the antimlarial activity of the extract was calculated by counting the fifty percent of growth inhibition 50 (IC50). Results: The extract inhibited the growth of P. falciparum on mature schizont stage. The fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the extract was 3.9 after 32 h incubation. Conclusion: The leaf extract of C. citratus has efficacious antimalarial effect against P. falciparum in vitro.
In this study, we investigated the effect of crude extracts, derived from stem bark of Myrica esculenta on melanin production in mouse B16 melanoma cells. In response to a-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a-MSH), B16 melanoma cells underwent differentiation characterized by increased melanin biosynthesis. Treatment of Myrica esculenta bark extracts significantly blocked a-MSH-induced melanogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. a-MSH stimulated the activity of tyrosinase, a key melanogenic enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, which was significantly reduced by Myrica esculenta bark extracts. In addition, treatment of B16 melanoma cells with Myrica esculenta bark extracts decreased the protein expression level of tyrosinase. These results demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of Myrica esculenta bark extracts on melanogenesis may be due to the suppression of tyrosinase protein levels.
In recent years, the slowdown of new drug development has resulted in search for alternative medicines such as traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM) that can treat critical and/or life-threatening diseases in the medical community and pharmaceutical industry. AJHMR-CODElthough the development of promising traditional Chinese herbal medicine has great potential, it has been challenged regarding how to effectively and scientifically develop and evaluate a promising TCM under investigation due to the fact that there are some fundamental differences between a Western medicine and a TCM. This article provides a comprehensive review of critical issues that are commonly encountered during the development of a TCM. These issues include, but are not limited to, variation (or consistency) in raw materials, component-to-component interactions, animal studies, matching placebo and calibration of study endpoints in clinical trials, packaging insert, and transition from experience-based to evidence-based clinical practice and investigation.
Novel drug delivery systems(NDDS) for herbal drugs with poor water solubility have been expanding, almost exponentially, over thJHMR-CODEe past six years. The great advancement has been made for the technologies increasing the commercial potential of the herbal formulations by increasing the patient compliance and avoiding repeated administration of the formulation. There are varieties of novel herbal formulations like nanoparticles, matrix systems, solid dispersions, nanocapsules, liposomes, phytosomes, nanoemulsions, microemulsions, microsphere, micropellets, transferosomes, and ethosomes has been reported using bioactive and plant extracts. These formulations have remarkable advantages over conventional formulations of plant actives and extracts which include enhancement of solubility, bioavailability, therapeutic efficacy, enhancement of pharmacological activity, enhancement of stability, improved tissue macrophages distribution, sustained delivery, and protection from physical and chemical degradation. This review highlights the current status of the development of novel herbal formulations and applications of NDDS in the traditional medicine system to conflict more chronic diseases like asthma, diabetes, cancer and others.
Ethnobotanical importance and phytochemical analyses of some selected medicinal plants used in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
The study investigated the ethnobotanical importance, phytochemical and proximate compositions of some selected medicinal plants such as Enantia chlorantha (Annonaceae), Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae), Telfaria occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) and Morinda lucida (Rubiaceae) in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The review of the folk knowledge of the plants revealed that they were used in treating ailments such as gastrointestinal infections, malaria fever, typhoid, dermatitis, ringworm, jaundice, dysentery and used as antiseptic, digestive stimulant, blood tonic and bloJHMR-CODEod booster. The qualitative screening of the plants revealed that all the plants contained a considerable amount of bio-active ingredients such as alkaloids, Saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, Terpenoids and total phenols. However, Momordica charantia has the highest number of alkaloids (20.68±0.27), Saponins (11.40±0.59) while Morinda lucida and Telfaria occidentalis have the lowest number of alkaloids (6.62±0.34) and Saponins (1.24±0.09). Similarly, Enantia chlorantha has the highest amount of flavonoids (15.56±0.00) and tannins (0.44±0.05). Morinda lucida stem bark has the lowest number of tannins (0.03±0.00) and flavonoids (0.94±0.00). Morinda lucida leaf has the highest amount of cardiac glycosides (0.07±0.03) while Morinda lucida stem bark and Momordica charantia does not have cardiac glycosides. Telfaria occidentalis has Terpenoids (0.09±0.00). Similarly, total phenols are high in Morinda lucida stem bark (0.58±0.00) while is low in Momordica charantia (0.21±0.00). The proximate composition showed that Telfaria occidentalis had the highest percentage of crude protein (31.49±1.32) and lowest percentage of crude fiber (9.08±0.27). Enantia chlorantha had the highest crude fat (5.17±0.24) and carbohydrates (50.31±1.56). Momordica charantia had the lowest percentage of total ash (2.67±0.16). Morinda lucida leaf had the highest percentages of moisture (10.10±0.14) and total ash (11.24±0.42) while Morinda lucida stem bark had the highest percentage of crude fiber (53.49±1.98) and lowest percentages of moisture (9.00±0.28), crude protein (5.70±0.14), crude fat (0.45±0.16) and carbohydrates (24.93±0.21).
Burns Inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus Healed by Leaf Sheath Extract of Pisang Ambon (Musa acuminata)
Using parts of banana to cure diseases is a common practice for people in homeland of genus Musa. However, scientific researches on biomedical effects of a specific banana cultivar still leaves many questions. This study is intended to find out the healing effect of leaf sheath extract of pisang Ambon or Gros Michel banana, a non-Cavendish cultivar of Musa acuminata, on burn wound intentionally innoculated with Staphylococcus aureus. Eighteen male rabbits were divided into six groups: P0, P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 each consisting of three rabbits. P0 is rabbits that received no treatment as the negative control; P1, P2, P3 and P4 respectively are received banana extract of 6.25%, 12.5%, 55%, and 50%; P5 are given bioplacenton ointment as the positive control. To inflict burn wound, the withers area on the animal’s back were shaved and anticepted using 70% ethanol and 10% iodine. On the shaved skin, burns was made by placing a heated brass coin weighted 10 g and a diameter of 2 cm, at 200oC for 5 seconds. All treatments were given topically three times daily. The recovery of burns is measured every three days for 14 days and the healing criteria were based on wound diameter changes. The results showed the extracts of pisang Ambon at the concentration of 12.5% and 25% are able to totally heal the wound on the day 14. While extracts of 6.25 % and 50% has not provided a complete recovery on day 14 but still give a significant healing in comparison to negative control. Thus, leaft sheath extract of Gros Michel banana is effectively heal burns infected by S. aureus.
Pharmacological studies on the renal and hepatic effect of methanol leaf extract of Lupinus arboreus in rats
Objective: To investigate the renal and hepatic effect of methanol leaf extract of Lupinus arboreus using experimental rats. Methods: Three groups comprising five rats each were used. Group II and III received 50 and 100 mg/kg of extract respectively. Group I served as negative control and received only normal saline (5 ml/kg). All administration was done once daily for 28 days. Urea and creatinine for renal effect were determined using Quimica Clinica applicado (QCA Test Kit, Spain); while hepatic marker enzymes were evaluated using Assay Kits (Randox Laboratories Ltd., United Kingdom BT 294 QY). Histopathological evaluation was carried out using light microscopy. Student’s t-test, ANOVA and Turkey-Kramer test were employed to assess significance of difference due to administration of extract and the control. Results: Treatment with extract did not produce significantly (P>0.05) changes in the hepatic marker enzymes when compared with the control. The mean creatinine levels showed non-significantly (P>0.05) differences when compared with the control. At 100 mg/kg, the extract exhibited significantly (p
Traditional medicine is the summation of knowledge, skills and practices based on theories, beliefs and experiences which are indigenous to different cultures. Sirka (Vinegar) has a long historical background and besides its usage as a common condiment, food ingredient, preservative, flavoring and culinary agent it has also been extensively exploited as a potent medicinal substance. The use of vinegar to fight infections and other acute conditions dates back to Hippocrates who recommended a vinegar preparation named sikanjabeen for cleaning ulcerations and for the treatment of sores. Sikanjabeen was also used in conventional system of medicine by the name of oxymel. According to Unani classical literature, it is obtained after fermentation of various substances such as grapes, sugarcane, dried grapes, figs, jamun, honey, onions, grains etc and prepared by a specific procedure in which the juice of ingredient is taken in a vessel and kept in sunlight, until proper fermentation of that liquid takes place. Various actions and clinical indications have been elaborated in the Unani classical literature and some properties namely Anti-infective, Antihypertensive, Cardio-protective, Antitumor, Antiglycemic, Antioxidant and Antitubercular activities have been revalidated in the light of recent scientific researches. A number of clinical researches have also been performed to explore medicinal properties of Sirka (Vinegar). This review provides significant information on Sirka (Vinegar) as a traditional asset and furthers the scientific validation of pre existing facts.
Different Levels of Nitrogenous Fertilizer Application for Growth, Flowering and Yield Attributes of Glori lily (Gloriosa superba L.)
Field experiment were conducted at farmer’s field, Devanur village, Ariyalur District of Tamil Nadu during 2008 to study the Different Levels of Nitrogenous Fertilizer Application for Growth, Flowering and Yield Attributes of glori lily. There were Five different treatments viz., Control (T0), 100 per cent recommended N (T1), 75 per cent recommended N (T2), 50 per cent recommended N (T3) and 25 per cent recommended N (T4). The treatments were replicated four adopting RBD design. The growth and yield attributes of glori lily viz., plant height, leaf area index, number of primary branches plant-1, number of secondary branches plant-1, number of tertiary branches plant1,drymatter production (kg ha-1), days to fifty per cent flowering, number of pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1 and hundred seed weight (g), were favorably increased by the application of 100 per cent recommended N (T1). Seed and tuber yield (Kg ha-1) were greatly increased and the maximum seed and tuber yield were recorded. The uptake of NPK by glori lily was significantly increased by the above treatment combination. Application of 100 per cent recommended N (120 kg ha-1) (T1) gave the highest Gross income, Net income and return per rupee invested. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that inorganic use of 100 per cent recommended N (120 kg ha-1) is found to be an appropriate agro-technique for augmenting the productivity and profitability of glori lily without altering the soil fertility. It is a basic constituent in all proteins, enzymes, chlorophyll, certain parts of nucleus and hormone. The supply of nitrogen is related to carbohydrates utilization for growth and development process.