Background: Shigru (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) is a well known drug in Ayurveda used for its Krimighna activity (ability to kill the pathogens). Acharya Charaka had mentioned Shigru in Krimighna Mahakashaya1. Nighantus had specifically mentioned Krimighna activity of Shigru Patra viz. Kaiyadeva Nighantu2, Raj Nighantu3 and Shaligram4 Nighantu. Therefore Patra churna (powder of leaves) is selected for evaluation of anti bacterial activity on the strains which affects a large number of population. Methods : Shigru Patra churna at different concentrations viz. 5µl, 10µl, 25µl, 50µl and 75µl were tested for anti bacterial activity by Disc Diffusion method for 2 strains of Gram positive and 2 strains of Gram negative bacteria each, with DMSo (Dimethyl Sulphoxide) a neutral solvent. Zone of Inhibition was calculated. Result : Shigru Patra inhibits growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas auringinosa and Escheria coli at higher concentrations of 50µl and 75µl and is resistant to Streptococcus mutans at all concentrations. Zone of inhibition was 13mm for Staphylococcus aureus, 12mm for Pseudomonas auringinosa and 15mm for Escheria coli and activity index were 0.86, 0.40 and 0.50 respectively. Conclusion : Shigru Patra possess good anti bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas auringinosa and Escheria coli.
Alterations in the Glutamate metabolism and Aminotransferases (AAT, ALAT) during PTZ induced Epilepsy: Protective role of Bacopa monnieri
Epilepsy, a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by repeated, spontaneous seizures, also known as seizure disorder. Seizure related neuronal injury has been assumed to be mediated by glutamate, the excitatory amino acid, in the central nervous system that causes a sudden imbalance between the inhibitory and excitatory signals in the brain with glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine. Since long term usage of antiepileptic drugs cause high incidence of pharmacoresistence and untoward side effects, attention has been paid in recent years to screen bioactive compounds from natural medicinal plants for treatment of several neurological disorders including Epilepsy. Keeping in view of relative importance of natural medicinal plants, the present study is mainly focused to characterize the anti-convulsant effect of Bacopa monnieri (BM), an Indian herb which is being extensively used in Ayurvedic treatments related to neurological complications. The present study is designed to assess the neurotoxicity of Pentylene tetrazole (PTZ), an epileptic compounds, on the Glutamate metabolism and Amino transferases in different brain regions (Cerebral cortex, Cerebellum, Pons medulla and Hippocampus) of rat and to explore the possible antiepileptic effect of different extracts (Ethanol, n-Hexane, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, n-Butanol and Aqueous extracts) of BM in comparison with Diazepam (DZ) (Reference control). The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamine content were decreased in different regions of brain during PTZ induced epilepsy which were increased in epileptic rats pretreated with different extracts of Bacopa monnieri except EAE and AE. Glutaminase activity was increased in PTZ induced epilepsy and decreased on pretreatment with all the extracts of BM except AE. In addition aspartate (AAT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) activity levels were increased during PTZ induced epilepsy when compared with normal control and levels were reversed on pretreatment with different extracts of BM. Recoveries of these parameters during…
Microwave assisted Subcritical water extraction of Berberine hydrochloride from the roots of Berberis Aristata using Harmony search algorithm
The aim of present study is to optimize the conditions of Berberine extraction from roots of Berberis Aristata by Microwave assisted subcritical water extraction (MASCW).MASCW method of extraction had shown reproducibility in respect to time, solvent usage, yield and extraction repeatability. Isoquinone Berberine, is one of the wide spread representatives belonging to family of protoberberine alkaloids abundantly present in roots and stem parts of Indian barberry. The subcritical factors like time, solvent/meal ratio, extraction repeatability, size of particles and temperature were investigated and were in accordance with experimental data and predicted data. Harmony search Algorithm (HSA) was used to study the effect of five subcritical parameters on the yield of Berberine .The extraction of berberine from roots of Berberis aristata was carried at 110-1700C using MASCW method using different variations of five subcritical parameters. The results show that all five factors (Time, Temperature, size of particles, repeatability of extraction and sample/liquid Ratio) have statistically significant effects on the berberine concentration. The results had suggested that experimental data concentration, 223.82 µg/ml and predicted data concentration, 214.854 µg/ml of berberine are in significant correlation at subcritical parameters like temperature 1700C, particle size of 0.65 mm, time of 70 mins, solvent/meal ratio of 12 and at maximum three repetitions. Thus the extracted berberine was precipitated as berberine hydrochloride by acid and further evaluated for NMR structural studies which confirms with standard berberine hydrochloride.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common metabolic disorders that causes micro- and macro-vascular complication. The aim of this study was to evaluate The effects of cinnamon on fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) in Syrian individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 90 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), were randomized into two groups: one for placebo and one for treatment with cinnamon powder (Cinnamomum cassia), in daily amounts of 2 grams. We measured the patients’ blood glucose and lipid levels under fasting conditions at the beginning of the study, and again at 30 days, the end of treatment. The mean value of FBG level on the starting day before cinnamon intake was found to be 176.8 ± 9.6 mg/dl, and the mean values for lipids were TG 183.5 ± 15.5 mg/dl, TC 209.4 ± 7.8 mg/dl and LDL 119.4 ± 5.8 mg/dl. When diabetic patients were treated with the dose of 2 g cinnamon for 30 days, their mean FBG level dropped to 147.4 ± 8.9 mg/dl, TG 135.7 ± 9.6 mg/dl, TC 149.3 ± 8.6 mg/dl and LDL to 74 ± 6.2 mg/dl. No significant changes were noted in the placebo groups. The results of this study indicate that intake of 2 grams of cinnamon per day reduces serum glucose, TG, TC, and LDL and thus reducing the risk of diabetic complications.
Intrinsic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus against plasmodium-mediated tropical disease
Objective: To investigate the intrinsic activity (efficacy) of aqueous leaf extract of Cymbopogon (C.) citratus against malaria, a plasmodium-mediated tropical disease. Materials and Methods: Plasmodium (P.) falciparum culture samples from 20 symptomatic adult outpatients were subjected to the antimalarial in vitro test. Parasite quantification by optical microscopy in the performance of in vitro antiplasmodial assays was employed. Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 was used as culture medium for cultivation of P. falciparum. Negative control was culture medium with the malarial parasites while treated drug was the leaf extract of C. citratus dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and prepared into 7 levels concentration (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/mL.) After culture synchronized with sorbitol 5%, micromalarial culture were divided into control and treated groups then incubated in CO2 candle jar at 370C for 72 h. Each 8 h, the percentage of parasitemia were measured giving the activity of the extract on the growth stages of P. falciparum. Parasitemia was estimated by making the thin blood smear from the erythrocytes layer and stained with Giemsa (10%) for 30 mins. Using probit analysis, the antimlarial activity of the extract was calculated by counting the fifty percent of growth inhibition 50 (IC50). Results: The extract inhibited the growth of P. falciparum on mature schizont stage. The fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the extract was 3.9 after 32 h incubation. Conclusion: The leaf extract of C. citratus has efficacious antimalarial effect against P. falciparum in vitro.
In this study, we investigated the effect of crude extracts, derived from stem bark of Myrica esculenta on melanin production in mouse B16 melanoma cells. In response to a-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a-MSH), B16 melanoma cells underwent differentiation characterized by increased melanin biosynthesis. Treatment of Myrica esculenta bark extracts significantly blocked a-MSH-induced melanogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. a-MSH stimulated the activity of tyrosinase, a key melanogenic enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, which was significantly reduced by Myrica esculenta bark extracts. In addition, treatment of B16 melanoma cells with Myrica esculenta bark extracts decreased the protein expression level of tyrosinase. These results demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of Myrica esculenta bark extracts on melanogenesis may be due to the suppression of tyrosinase protein levels.
In recent years, the slowdown of new drug development has resulted in search for alternative medicines such as traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM) that can treat critical and/or life-threatening diseases in the medical community and pharmaceutical industry. AJHMR-CODElthough the development of promising traditional Chinese herbal medicine has great potential, it has been challenged regarding how to effectively and scientifically develop and evaluate a promising TCM under investigation due to the fact that there are some fundamental differences between a Western medicine and a TCM. This article provides a comprehensive review of critical issues that are commonly encountered during the development of a TCM. These issues include, but are not limited to, variation (or consistency) in raw materials, component-to-component interactions, animal studies, matching placebo and calibration of study endpoints in clinical trials, packaging insert, and transition from experience-based to evidence-based clinical practice and investigation.
Novel drug delivery systems(NDDS) for herbal drugs with poor water solubility have been expanding, almost exponentially, over thJHMR-CODEe past six years. The great advancement has been made for the technologies increasing the commercial potential of the herbal formulations by increasing the patient compliance and avoiding repeated administration of the formulation. There are varieties of novel herbal formulations like nanoparticles, matrix systems, solid dispersions, nanocapsules, liposomes, phytosomes, nanoemulsions, microemulsions, microsphere, micropellets, transferosomes, and ethosomes has been reported using bioactive and plant extracts. These formulations have remarkable advantages over conventional formulations of plant actives and extracts which include enhancement of solubility, bioavailability, therapeutic efficacy, enhancement of pharmacological activity, enhancement of stability, improved tissue macrophages distribution, sustained delivery, and protection from physical and chemical degradation. This review highlights the current status of the development of novel herbal formulations and applications of NDDS in the traditional medicine system to conflict more chronic diseases like asthma, diabetes, cancer and others.
Ethnobotanical importance and phytochemical analyses of some selected medicinal plants used in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
The study investigated the ethnobotanical importance, phytochemical and proximate compositions of some selected medicinal plants such as Enantia chlorantha (Annonaceae), Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae), Telfaria occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) and Morinda lucida (Rubiaceae) in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The review of the folk knowledge of the plants revealed that they were used in treating ailments such as gastrointestinal infections, malaria fever, typhoid, dermatitis, ringworm, jaundice, dysentery and used as antiseptic, digestive stimulant, blood tonic and bloJHMR-CODEod booster. The qualitative screening of the plants revealed that all the plants contained a considerable amount of bio-active ingredients such as alkaloids, Saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, Terpenoids and total phenols. However, Momordica charantia has the highest number of alkaloids (20.68±0.27), Saponins (11.40±0.59) while Morinda lucida and Telfaria occidentalis have the lowest number of alkaloids (6.62±0.34) and Saponins (1.24±0.09). Similarly, Enantia chlorantha has the highest amount of flavonoids (15.56±0.00) and tannins (0.44±0.05). Morinda lucida stem bark has the lowest number of tannins (0.03±0.00) and flavonoids (0.94±0.00). Morinda lucida leaf has the highest amount of cardiac glycosides (0.07±0.03) while Morinda lucida stem bark and Momordica charantia does not have cardiac glycosides. Telfaria occidentalis has Terpenoids (0.09±0.00). Similarly, total phenols are high in Morinda lucida stem bark (0.58±0.00) while is low in Momordica charantia (0.21±0.00). The proximate composition showed that Telfaria occidentalis had the highest percentage of crude protein (31.49±1.32) and lowest percentage of crude fiber (9.08±0.27). Enantia chlorantha had the highest crude fat (5.17±0.24) and carbohydrates (50.31±1.56). Momordica charantia had the lowest percentage of total ash (2.67±0.16). Morinda lucida leaf had the highest percentages of moisture (10.10±0.14) and total ash (11.24±0.42) while Morinda lucida stem bark had the highest percentage of crude fiber (53.49±1.98) and lowest percentages of moisture (9.00±0.28), crude protein (5.70±0.14), crude fat (0.45±0.16) and carbohydrates (24.93±0.21).
Burns Inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus Healed by Leaf Sheath Extract of Pisang Ambon (Musa acuminata)
Using parts of banana to cure diseases is a common practice for people in homeland of genus Musa. However, scientific researches on biomedical effects of a specific banana cultivar still leaves many questions. This study is intended to find out the healing effect of leaf sheath extract of pisang Ambon or Gros Michel banana, a non-Cavendish cultivar of Musa acuminata, on burn wound intentionally innoculated with Staphylococcus aureus. Eighteen male rabbits were divided into six groups: P0, P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 each consisting of three rabbits. P0 is rabbits that received no treatment as the negative control; P1, P2, P3 and P4 respectively are received banana extract of 6.25%, 12.5%, 55%, and 50%; P5 are given bioplacenton ointment as the positive control. To inflict burn wound, the withers area on the animal’s back were shaved and anticepted using 70% ethanol and 10% iodine. On the shaved skin, burns was made by placing a heated brass coin weighted 10 g and a diameter of 2 cm, at 200oC for 5 seconds. All treatments were given topically three times daily. The recovery of burns is measured every three days for 14 days and the healing criteria were based on wound diameter changes. The results showed the extracts of pisang Ambon at the concentration of 12.5% and 25% are able to totally heal the wound on the day 14. While extracts of 6.25 % and 50% has not provided a complete recovery on day 14 but still give a significant healing in comparison to negative control. Thus, leaft sheath extract of Gros Michel banana is effectively heal burns infected by S. aureus.