Recent Articles

  • Overview on Physical Violence Against Women Between 2009 and 2018 in Brazil

    Objectives: To determine the existence of a pattern of women most frequently victims of physical violence in Brazil over a period of 10 years. Methods: Data from the DATASUS platform were collected on the records of domestic, sexual and other violence, registered by physical violence against female persons between 2009 and 2018. Data from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System on characteristics of the violent act against women were also collected. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics was also used to collect data from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD). For bibliographic reference, the descriptors “Domestic and Sexual Violence against Women”, “Domestic Violence” and “Domestic Violence” were searched on virtual data basis and Brazilian articles that were published within the period of the present study were included. Results: There is a continuous and rapid increase in the first half of the study period, with a slight deceleration between 2014 and 2016, followed by a new jump in records from 2017. As for race, the largest numbers are white women, 348428, and browns, 308902. Black women represent 68.25% of the total records of domestic, sexual and other violence, with 8.3% of the total records of physical violence. Conclusion: It is possible to estimate that black women are not making complaints or possibly are not being seen with due care to make them. As it is data that depends on denunciation, which is often not carried out, the results need consideration regarding assertiveness and reflection of reality.

  • TREATMENT OF SPOROTRICOSE IN THE WORLD, WITH EMPHASIS IN BRAZIL: WHAT’S NEW?

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo results of works already published on the use of traditional and alternative medicines in the treatment of sporotrichosis, both in humans and in animals. Methods: The bibliographic research was developed from the analysis of publications found in the scientific literature, with emphasis mainly on Brazil in the period from 2015 to 2020. Updated bibliographies of the medical and veterinary literature were available on MEDLINE, through PubMed, Science direct, Scielo and academic Google, with a total of 28 studies that met the specific work requirements. Results: From the analysis of the reviewed papers, conventional treatments, mainly the use of itraconazole, Amphotericin B and Terbinafine, showed good results in the studies. In addition, the use of alternative treatments, either as the main treatment or support, against sporotrichosis, have shown promise in vitro results, requiring more tests for a possible alternative treatment in the future. Conclusion: The use of alternative treatments is important, since they can be effective against sporotrichosis, becoming a viable means when the animal is resistant to conventional methods.

  • PHARMACEUTICAL ATTENTION IN THE CELIAC DISEASE: SAMPLINGS IN THE CITY OF FOZ DO IGUAÇU/PR

    Objective: To analyze the difficulty found in the diagnosis of celiac disease; the identification of patients’ knowledge about the pathology; Self-medication to treat the symptoms before the disease is detected; the significance of the pharmaceutical care to the celiac patients, among others related problems. Methods: Biographical survey and gathering of data encompassing the sampling of individuals of Foz do Iguaçu, members of the local celiac society. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the interviews occurred by electronic contact, trough “Google Forms”. This work had its project submitted to the Research Ethics Committee of UNIOESTE, approved on August 7, 2020 in all of its terms and proposals, with opinion n. 4.198.688. Results: It was found that, of the 180 interviewed, 56.7% of all the carriers made used self-medication. And 41, 1% of all patients reported that the necessary time for the disease diagnosis was 1 to 5 years. Among the most common symptoms was abdominal swelling with 94,4% incidence, cramps with 60,6% and flatulence with 76,1%. Another important factor to be considered is that 87,8% reported to have the pathology under study, due to genetic predisposition. Conclusion: Such responses prove the importance of the pharmaceutical professional to identify the pathology and guide about which conduct must be followed by the patient, as well how to guide them on the possible presence of gluten in some medications, aiming to avoid self-medication, abuse of drugs that can aggravate the symptoms and a greater incentive to clinical knowledge in order to obtain an early diagnosis.

  • ASPERGILLOSIS AND ADVANCES IN ITS TREATMENT IN THE LAST DECADE: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Introduction: Invasive aspergillosis (AI) remains a fatal infection and difficult to treat in immunocompromised patients. Standard treatment is insufficient for these patients, often impairing their quality of life due to adverse effects, in addition to the short duration. Although mortality rates in patients with UA have decreased in the past two decades with the replacement of amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmB-D) with voriconazole as the first choice, treatment remains sub-ideal for patients due to adverse events and drug interactions with immunosuppressive drugs. Objective: This study aims to carry out a literary review about the scientific productions that address the treatment of AI published in the last 10 years, comparing the success and effectiveness rates of the treatments. Methodology: Through a literature review using the base dates PubMed, Lilacs and MedLine, accepting only articles published in the period 2010 to 2020, and only those in Portuguese or English, with 23 articles selected, of which 7 were included in this review. Results and discussion: There was a prevalence of treatments with voriconazole, used in six of the seven studies reviewed, in addition to being part of the standard Brazilian treatment. Studies related to the treatment of UA are heterogeneous, making it difficult to compare effectively between publications. Well-designed controlled, randomized and multicenter clinical trials are needed to adequately address the issue of the usefulness of the approaches used in Brazil. In addition, combined therapies come in many different forms, requiring cumulative evidence to support the use of combined antifungal therapy in AI, as they are still conflicting and of moderate strength.

  • THE USE OF ANTIPARASITIC DRUGS AS A TREATMENT FOR COVID-19: A NARRATIVE REVIEW

    Objetive: Describe research related to the use of antiparasitic drugs as likely treatment in COVID-19 based on scientific literature. Methods: This is a literature review that uses two platforms as a database: Pubmed and BIREME. Were included in this study twelve published articles, from 2019 to September 2020, which referred to or were related to the use of antiparasitic drugs as a therapeutic alternative to COVID-19. Results: The antiparasitic drugs ivermectin, hydroxychloroquine (HQC), and nitazoxanide (NTZ) were the main drugs extensively studied as therapeutic alternatives for SARS-CoV-2. Ivermectin exhibited a 5000-fold reduction in SARS-CoV-2 RNA over a 48h period, at a concentration of 5μM. While HQC was able to block the entry of SARS-Cov-2 into Vero cells previously treated with 50μM. In addition, NTZ, presented an average inhibition concentration (EC50) of 2.12 μM. The mechanisms of anti-SARS-CoV-2 actions of all the drugs mentioned are not yet fully elucidated. However, it is known that the antiviral potential may be related to the inhibition of essential viral proteins (ivermectin), blockade of interaction in virus-host (HTZ), and immunosuppressant (NTZ). Conclusion: The use of antiparasitic agents for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 have shown promise. However, it is necessary to further investigate the efficacy of the drugs mentioned in this study, to obtain more satisfactory results, seeking to avoid adverse effects on patients, and ensuring safety for them.

  • ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT REDUCES CORTICAL EXCITABILITY IN RATS SUBMITTED TO STATUS EPILEPTICUS IN THE PILOCARPINE MODEL: AN EVALUATION FROM CORTICAL SPREADING DEPRESSION

    Objective: This study verified if the exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) influences brain excitability, evaluated by cortical spreading depression (CSD), in rats submitted to status epilepticus (SE). Methods: At 35 days of age, male Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups: pilocarpine (PILO), which received a single dose of pilocarpine hydrochloride to induce SE, and saline (SAL), which were the group control. On the following day, half of the animals in each group were exposed to EE; while the other half was kept in the standard environment (S), considered control. At 67 days of age, the rats were anesthetized and submitted to CSD. Results: Pilocarpine, isolated, reduced the speed of propagation and increased the duration and amplitude of CSD. EE, itself, reduced the speed of propagation and duration, but increased the amplitude of CSD. In the animals exposed to EE that undergone SE, the values of CSD parameters became closer to the control group. Conclusion: Our results indicate that EE reduced the cortical excitability induced by SE, possibly by promoting antioxidant effects at the brain level, inducing neurogenesis and/or improving the excitatory/inhibitory balance of neurotransmitters.

  • THE IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON THE MENTAL HEALTH OF HEALTH PROFESSIONALS

    Objective: To assess the impact on mental health of health professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Narrative review of the literature, of a descriptive character, carried out through bibliographic survey through a search strategy based on the terms: Mental health, Health professionals and Covid-19. Inclusion criteria were adopted: articles published in Portuguese, English and Spanish indexed in the PUBMED / MEDLINE, SciELO and VHL databases published between February 2020 and August 2020. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic established a chaos in all sectors of society, the health sphere was the most affected. The routine of health professionals was abruptly altered by the constant confrontation of an enormous pressure that goes from working in an environment with a high risk of contamination without adequate protection, excessive working hours, frustration, lack of contact with family to experiences of discrimination by a small part of society who see them as potential vectors of disease transmission. Conclusion: The pandemic was extremely harmful to the health of health professionals, affecting their emotional balance. It was shown that the pandemic scenario caused a lot of damage, as these professionals were exposed to high and intense workloads, which caused physical and mental exhaustion, leading to a feeling of weakness and professional insecurity.

  • Epidemiology Of Exogenous Intoxication In A Triple Border Region Between The Years 2015 And 2019

    Objective: To characterize the profile of compulsory notifications of exogenous intoxication in Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, in the five-year period 2015 to 2019. Methods: Documentary, quantitative-analytical study of the sociodemographic and epidemiological profiles, of notifications of exogenous intoxication. The variables were collected in Individual Notification Forms of the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) with a sample of 2799 evaluated records. The data were tabulated in spreadsheets, Microsoft Excel, and were analyzed using Sigma Plot, version 11.0. The results were expressed in absolute frequency and relative percentages. The analysis of associations between variables was performed using chi-square. Results: Regarding the socio-demographic and economic profile, it was found that the average age of victims of poisoning is higher for the male population, 33 years old (± 15.48), with a preponderance of intoxications among white, female individuals (n = 1174; 41.94%) and male (n = 736; 26.30%), with complete secondary education for women (n = 318; 11.36%) and incomplete primary education for men (n = 227; 8.11%), residing in urban areas, female (n = 1594; 56.95%) and male (n = 1069; 38.19%), whose occupation is in formal work, female (n = 270; 9.65%) and male (n = 178; 6.36%) respectively. Regarding epidemiology, drugs, especially anxiolytics, with digestive tract and evolution to cure were the characteristics most present in the notifications. Conclusion: Suicide attempts and abuse were the circumstances for their reports and the most recurrent ones, with drugs, especially anxiolytics and antidepressants, in the digestive tract being the most used. In the cases evaluated, the outcome of the cure without sequel predominated.

  • Antiparasitary Activity Of The Juglone Compound: A Narrative Review

    Objective: To report, based on the literature, the action of the compound 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone against parasites (protozoa and helminths) that affect humans. Methods: This is a narrative review that used Pubmed and Google Scholar as a data tool. This work included articles published until September 2020 that were directly related to the use of the compound juglone in antiparasitic trials. Results: The compound juglone demonstrated promising effects as a human and animal antiparasitic substance. In protozoa, the Apicomplexo Toxoplasma gondii parasite showed a high mortality rate in concentrations of juglone in the nanomolar range. The juglone showed an average inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.62 µM, >100 µM, and 2.02 µM µM for Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei rhodesiense, and Leishmania donovani, respectively. Also, the juglone showed antihelmintic activity on Hymenolepis nana in mice, and on adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni (LE strain) with IC50 34.16 µM, 32.14 µM, and 25 µM in the 24h, 48h, and 72 h, respectively. Conclusion: The results published so far show the in vitro antiparasitic potential of juglone, and the need for further studies on the specific mode of action that interacts with parasites. Besides, the literature is still limited to studies that evaluate in vivo the compound juglone, requiring better information on its interaction with living organisms.

  • Correlation Between Anthropometric Parameters And Biochemical Markers Of Cardiovascular Risk In Chronic Renal Patients On Hemodialysis

    Objective: To correlate anthropometric parameters and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk in chronic renal patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: Cross-sectional observational study, carried out at the Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira – Imip (Recife-PE), from July to October 2018. Anthropometric parameters were analyzed: The anthropometric measurements used were waist circumference (WC) and waist-height ratio (WHT), sociodemographic data (sex and base disease) and biochemical parameters (HDL, LDL, Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Vitamin D, phosphorus, calcium, potassium and parathyroid hormone). Results: Fifty-nine patients with CKD were evaluated in a regular HD program. and males (54.2%). The majority of the population had an undetermined disease (44.1%). Regarding anthropometry, it was observed that there was a predominance in the change in waist circumference (57.6%) and waist/height ratio (59.3%). Regarding the biochemical profile, through pearson’s correlation, it was observed that there was a significant positive association of WC and WHT with phosphorus (ρ*=0.305 and 0.329). In the correlation of WC and WHT with vitamin D, it was seen that as these anthropometric indices increase, vitamin D decreases, making this correlation significant (ρ*=-0.435 and -0.368). Conclusion: It can be concluded that most patients presented inadequate nutritional status, as well as decreased serum vitamin D levels and changes in serum phosphorus levels. These changes may result in increased risk for cardiovascular events in this population.