Perceived obsolescence has been displayed experimentally in many situations, but remains understudied theoretically. We develop a model of consumer demand, where ﬁrms aim to maximize their proﬁt from consumers who enjoy network beneﬁts from updated products. Firms face two key choices, pricing and whether to obsolete their product through introducing a new mod-el. In this paper, we demonstrate that perceived obsolescence can be an eﬀective strategy for ﬁrms, but must be employed with caution. We then use our ﬁndings to derive several testable implications that enable businesses to determine for themselves whether perceived obsolescence can be a viable strategy for them. In particular, we categorize the key diﬀerences in optimal strategies between ﬁrms that sell products with network beneﬁts, such as social media products, as opposed to those that sell status symbols, such as watches.
This effort suggests that aberrant social behavior found in school-age seen as a Symbolic Interaction issue.
The milk – cheese cycle with alpha emitters – pulmonary contribution to the refeeding of the hormonal system in unoptimal conditions
There is a material truth behind the expression “French people are cheese-eating surrendering monkeys” that involves the higher natural radioactivity in France (averaged) in comparison with the USA, the United Kingdom, Spain and Poland. This comes from the hormone loss related to internal alpha emitting nanoparticulate contamination and involves a compensation with among other things milk drinking and cheese eating. The basic hormone loss can be related to the “surrendering” reputation entirely (testosterone for instance was shown to be destroyed in uranium miners). A secondary cycle emerges to re-establish the sexual difference, where women in these regions typically drink fresh milk whereas men typically eat cheeses that have stayed long in caves and where the hormones have disappeared. This is globally spontaneous. Inhalation of cheese odors serve for cerebral confirmation that hormones have disappeared. That general theorem is a subpart of what was already denominated earlier the meat-pollution cycle for reasons of desire to adopt an easily memorizable name, due to the essentiality of the concept for humankind.
Successful treatment for intra-abdominal bleeding due to spontaneous rupture of huge liver cyst using transcatheter arterial embolization: a case report
Background: Non-parasitic simple liver cysts are one of the most common benign hepatic lesions. Although most liver cysts are asymptomatic and remain silent throughout the patient’s life, extremely large cysts can become symptomatic by direct compression to adjacent organs. Herein, we report a case of a spontaneously ruptured simple liver cyst, which is a rare presentation of a benign liver cyst. The patient’s liver cyst re-ruptured and was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Case report: A 62-year-old man presented to our hospital complaining of acute-onset lower abdominal pain. He had undergone laparoscopic fenestration of a huge liver cyst in another hospital 2 years prior. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed spontaneous rupture of a large liver cyst. Laparoscopic exploratory laparotomy showed no signs of ongoing intra-abdominal bleeding from the liver cyst; therefore, the operation was completed with peritoneal lavage. The patient was discharged from our hospital on postoperative day 5. Twelve days after the initial presentation, the patient was re-admitted to our hospital complaining of recurrence of lower abdominal pain. CT scan showed an enlargement of the previously ruptured liver cyst, with intra-abdominal bleeding and massive hematoma in the cyst. Extravasation of the cyst’s wall was also detected. Under the diagnosis of intra-abdominal bleeding from the artery in the wall of the huge cyst, emergent TAE was performed. Although the exact spot of extravasation was not detected, the anterior segment branch of the right hepatic artery, which corresponds to extravasation shown on the CT scan, was embolized. The patient was discharged from our hospital after 7 days, and the liver cyst remained stable without abdominal pain for more than 2 months. Conclusions: This case highlights a rare presentation of spontaneous rupture of a liver cyst with massive bleeding and the efficacy of TAE for the conservative treatment of ruptured liver…
Dislocation of the Mandible Condyle Towards the Middle Cranial Fossa: Case Report and Review of Literature
Introduction: Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is extremely rare in patients with craniofacial trauma. Methods: This report documents a case of an intact mandibular condyle intrusion into the middle cranial fossa in a 17-year-old woman following a traumatic incident treated by an intraoral approach that was performed to do an open reduction by condylectomy. Results: The causative mechanism, diagnostic features and a management option for reduction and treatment of these cases by performing a multidisciplinary approach involving neurosurgery and oral maxillofacial surgery are presented in this report. Conclusion: Adequate radiographic examination, including Tomography and Magnetic Resonance, is necessary to obtain the proper diagnosis and to determine an effective management.
Few cases of anal canal Merkel cell Carcinoma have been reported in the literature. Merkel Cell Carcinoma is rare neuroendocrine tumor which commonly found in sun-exposed areas such as extremities. We describe a case of 74-year-old male with anal canal Merkel Cell Carcinoma. He presented with peri-anal pain, tenesmus and itching. Besides, he was found to have chronic anemia. An anal nodule was found during per-rectum physical examination that was excised during endoscopy. Histological examination of the nodule confirmed the diagnosis of Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Thenceforward, patient died 7 months after diagnosis with marked metastatic disease despite initiation of Pembrolizumab therapy.
Burkitt Lymphoma of Central Nervous System in an elderly-patient: A new approach with a modified classic regimen
Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) is one of the high-grade lymphomas, characterized by a rapid growth. They are usually treated with intensive chemotherapy regimens, being normally chemo-sensitive, but at the expense of high toxicity secondary to treatment. Additionally, the compromise of the central nervous system (CNS) implies a major risk as well as greater toxicity, taking into account a worse clinical prognosis with a requirement of more intensive schemes to achieve control of the disease. This implies doubts in the management of older patients with BL with CNS compromise, in whom toxicity is a limitation to these therapies, and there are no other alternatives that offer better benefit in terms of less frequent or severe adverse events, with similar outcomes in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS). Therefore, clarifying cases such as the one we report below allows us to provide a therapeutic alternative for older or unfit patients, in whom the intention of treatment should be to seek a good tumor response, but without ignoring the potential toxicity of chemotherapy.
Introduction: This manuscript will dealt with the outcome of emergency surgeries in COVID19 positive individuals. We are under the second wave of COVID pandemic. The research is ongoing regarding the outcome of patients who are undergoing, surgical treatment with COVID Rt-PCR positivity or become COVID positive during early postoperative period. Materials and Methods: All the patients who attended the emergency department of a tertiary care centre were screened for COVID -19 by RT-pcR and the patients who are COVID positive but needed emergency surgical procedure were included in the study. A cohort of 49 patients who were COVID positive and needed emergency surgical procedure due to various causes were included in the study. Results:The causes of acute surgical emergencies were acute appendicitis, appendicular perforation, perforative peritonitis, obstructed/ strangulated inguinal hernia, intestinal obstruction, diabetic foot and perianal abscess. Most of the patients belong to the age group between 40 – 70 years. 63.8% were males. The mortality rate was 12.8%. More than one co-morbid condition was present in 8.5% of individuals. Most of the patients got discharged in 10 – 12 days. 40.4% have co morbid conditions like diabetes or hypertension. 8.5% had more than one co morbid conditions. Diabetes was present in 27.7% of cases Conclusion: The mortality was high during the postoperative period of COVID positive cases, extreme care and precaution should be taken to avoid pulmonary complications
Heat stroke and heat exhaustion among pilgrims: common signs and symptoms, laboratory profile and methods of managements
Background: In the last few years, Hajj season is characterized by high temperature reached up to 46°C.Exposure to great hot environment accompanied with fatigue may result in different heat-related illnesses including heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Objectives: To investigate the types, symptoms, signs, laboratory parameters, associated chronic disease and medical management of heat illness experienced by pilgrims in the fields and emergency centers. Subjects and methods: It is an analytical cross sectional study conducted during Hajj season (2017-2018) including all patients exposed or attended the emergency departments or centers of management heat related medical problems in Ministry of Defense hospitals and centers in Makkah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A prepared checklist was used to collect data about demographic characteristics of patients, associated risk factors, signs and symptoms as well as data about managements of heat stroke and heat exhaustions. Results: The study included 73 patients diagnosed with either heat exhaustion (52; 71.2%) or heat stroke (21; 28.8%). Their age ranged between 30 and 80 years (57.8±12.7). Males represent 57.5% of them. History of vaccination against seasonal influenza and meningitis was observed among 60% of them.Majority of the patients (74%) exposed to heat for 2-4 hours. The most frequent encountered symptoms were headache (82.2%), extreme weakness (80.8%), and dizziness/vertigo (78.1%). Their body temperature ranged between 31.6-41.2 ˚C (37.4±1.7).Glasgow coma scale ranged between 10 and 15 (14.5±1.2). Dry tongue, sunken eyes, skin rash and complications were observed among 68.5%, 31.5%, 11% and 4.1% of them, respectively. Admission for two hours or more was reported among 20 cases (27.4%), with no significant difference between cases of heat stroke and those with heat exhaustion. Analgesics were given to 9 patients (12.3%); more significantly in cases of heat stroke (19% versus 9.6%), p=0.045. History of transfer was reported among 9 patients (12.3%);…
Social media effects on youth during COVID-19 have been studied in the context of excessive use and mental health. Although some positive effects have been reported including connecting and social support, the COVID-19 research has typically noted negative effects including sedentary behavior, limited social interaction, depression and anxiety. This narrative review of eighteen COVID-19 publications on social media effects on youth includes sections on prevalence, on effects and on mediators/moderators of those effects. The prevalence of social media use by youth during COVID-19 has varied between 5% and 97% across 22 countries as a function of location, quarantine/lockdown, and type of social media, although the overall prevalence has significantly increased by 27% during the pandemic and has averaged 38% across studies. The most popular social media have been Facebook, What’s App, Instagram and Twitter. The prevalence of mental health symptoms has also varied across countries but has averaged 27% for anxiety, 34% for depression and 35% for stress. Mediators for the relationships between excessive social media and mental health symptoms have included rumination, psychological capital, sense of control and active use and moderators have included mindfulness, academic burnout and “flow”. Limitations of this literature are its sampling of self-reports from university students via cross-sectional surveys and confounding variables including pre-existing psychopathology, lockdown conditions, and sedentary behavior. Research is needed on the specific reasons for excessive social media use (e. g. information seeking, social interaction and escape from negative feelings including loneliness and touch deprivation) to inform intervention protocols for reducing this addictive behavior and its negative consequences on mental health symptoms in youth.