American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology


Comparative Myoarchitectural Orientation of the Extrinsic Lingual Muscles of the Egyptian Cattle (Bos Taurus), Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) and Camel (Camelus Dromedarius)

Research Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology Comparative Myoarchitectural Orientation of the Extrinsic Lingual Muscles of the Egyptian Cattle (Bos Taurus), Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) and Camel (Camelus Dromedarius) Mohamed A. Naziha aDepartment of anatomy, faculty of veterinary medicine, New Valley University, El-Kharge, New Valley, Egypt Comparative myoarchitectural anatomical studies were adopted on twelve tongues of apparently health of both adult sexes of cattle, buffalo and camel. The study was aimed to describe the architectural orientation of the extrinsic lingual muscles for each species. As well as statistical data between the tongue and extrinsic lingual muscles. The work declared the properties of potent tongue which allowed the cattle and buffalo to perform their behavioral prehension of food. The study described the extrinsic lingual muscles and spotted a light on the role of the geniohyoid muscle on the tongue. The work concluded that the tongue of cattle was the stronger than the buffalo while both able to depend up on their tongue for food prehension. On the other hand the tongue of camel adapted for introral function. Keywords: Comparative, orientation, lingual muscles, cattle, buffalo, camel ...

The Role of Maternal Stress, Cortisol and Interleukin-12 in Cases of Missed Abortion in the First Trimester of Pregnancy in Saudi Women

Research Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology The Role of Maternal Stress, Cortisol and Interleukin-12 in Cases of Missed Abortion in the First Trimester of Pregnancy in Saudi Women Khulood S. Husseina* aDepartment of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA Missed abortion in early pregnancy is a common gynecological condition, and the incidence has been increasing presenting itself as a public health problem. This study aimed to examine stress, cortisol concentration, and altered IL-12 levels in women who experienced missed abortions. Women with missed abortions (n = 40) were matched with control women of the same age in the same stage of pregnancy (n = 30). Participants filled out a survey about common stress factors. Venous blood samples were taken from the patients at 7:00 a.m. ELISA detected IL-12 concentrations, and serum cortisol was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Women with missed abortions reported significantly more common stressors, and their serum cortisol and IL-12 concentrations were significantly higher than those of the women with healthy pregnancies (all P< 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the power of the studied parameters to predict women at risk for missed abortion. IL-12 performed the best in predicting women with missed abortions as it had the highest area under the curve (AUC), followed by cortisol. Stress and changes in the immune system may play a role in the etiology of missed abortion in Saudi women in early pregnancy. Keywords: Stress marker, Cortisol, IL-12, Missed abortion, Saudi women, Early pregnancy ...

Analysis of the Effects of the Physical Activity in the Gait of the Bearers of Parkinson: Literature Review

Review Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology Analysis of the Effects of the Physical Activity in the Gait of the Bearers of Parkinson: Literature Review Corrêa D.I.M1, Júnior M.A.C.C2, Luna S.L.M3, Santos J.C.A4, Lima C.F5, Barros A.L.S6 1Docente da FASUP e da FUNESO. 2Estudante do curso de medicina da UFPE; 3Estudante do curso de enfermagem da FUNESO; 4Estudante de especialização em saúde coletiva da FUNESO; 5Docente do Departamento de Fisioterapia da UNICAP; 6Ex-Docente da UNICAP. Introduction:Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder, which causes a decrease in dopamine in the striatum body, occurring so the PD’s primary signs, among them, bradykinesia and postural instability are those that most interfere in the gait quality of PD patients. Physiotherapy uses physical activity as a therapeutic resource, it doesn’t lead to the disappearance of the disease, but it can help slow its progression. Objective: To analyze, through a review of literature, the effects of the physical activity in the gait of the bearers of the PD. Methodology: The study used scientific articles indexed in the bases of data LILACS, MEDLINE, PUBMED and SCIELO. For discussion, articles were included randomized what used the physical activity like resource therapeutic and when those who had not quite definite protocols and what had several wrapped techniques were excluded. Results and Discussion: In the included studies, patients were initially assessed for functional disability through the scale Hoehn & Yahr or Hoehn & Yahr modified, excluding those at a severe stage of the disease and to evaluate the effects of therapeutic interventions, UPDRS (Unified Scale for PD Assessment) was one of the scales applied before and after treatment in most studies. In view of the four different interventions investigated in the present study: treadmill exercises, resisted and balance, associated with external sensory cues and associated with music ...

Regulatory T Lymphocytes: a Powerful Regulator of the Immunological System

Review Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology Regulatory T Lymphocytes: a Powerful Regulator of the Immunological System Souza P.C1, Júnior A.S.A.A2 1Estudante do Curso de Biomedicina – UNINASSAU; 2Docente – UNINASSAU. Introduction: The immune system works by stimulating direct action against various antigens and also by means of “immune memory”. When the organism is induced by a responder to an antigenic aggression, action of several cells occurs by modeling this response, among them they are like regulatory T cells (Tregs). These represent a sub-population of CD4 + T lymphocytes characterized by the expression of the CD25 + molecule and by the nuclear factor FOXP3. Objective: To review the mechanisms of action of Tregs cells in the containment of the immune system. Methodology: The present work consists of a literature review. A localization of the articles was performed in the electronic databases Pubmed, Scielo and Lilacs, between 2012 and 2017. Results and discussion: currently, it is postulated that there are three mechanisms used by Treg cells for their abilities. What is the control of suppressive factors, including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), suppressive cytokines such as TGF-β, direct cytolysis or negative signaling through the CTLA-4 molecule, which will inhibit cell proliferation and differentiation. The second method, soluble suppression factors, such as IL-10 cytokines, TGF-β and IL-35, or secretion of suppressive factors from antigen-presenting cells such as adenosine. The third mechanism is based on the competition for cytokines that signal through common γ-chain receptors (IL-2, IL-4 and IL-7), leading to immune cell apoptosis by growth factor deprivation. Conclusion: Tregs cells are potent regulators of the immune system that act by decreasing an immune system’s action excessively. It is believed that with a better understanding of the mechanism of action such as cells, such as Tregs seriously manipulated with a purpose to aid ...

Dr. Pallavi Kamra
Pediatrician, Clinicas del Camino Real, Camarillo, CA, USA

Dr. Ayanabha Chakraborti
Senior Researcher, Department of Surgery, THT-1066, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Dr. Gelase Fredy Nsonde Ntandou
Faculty of Science and Technology, Marien NGOUABI University

Dr. Divyanshu ( Divy) Dua
Royal Australasian College of Physicians

Dr. Prakash Prajapat
Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Mehsana Urban Institute of Sciences, Ganpat University, Mehsana-384012, Gujarat, INDIA

Dr Divya R
Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Karpagam Faculty of Medical Science & Research Centre

Dr. Kabita Mishra
Senior Research Fellow (Homoeopathy), D.D.P.R.-Central Research Institute for Homoeopathy , (Ministry of A.Y.U.S.H., Government of India)

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1.Souza P.C, Júnior A.S.A.A. Regulatory T Lymphocytes: a Powerful Regulator of the Immunological System. American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, 2018, 1:4 

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American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology

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