American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology


Review Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology The vasculature of the stomach and intestinal tract during compression stenosis of the celiac axis Babayeva R. E. Azerbaijan Medical University. Department of Human Anatomy and Medical Terminology. Baku. Azerbaijan At the current moment, there is no single approach regarding diagnostics and after-treatment of compression stenosis of the celiac axis. This work aims to study the state of the vasculature of the stomach and intestinal tract during compression stenosis of the celiac axis. Compression stenosis of the celiac axis is a disease caused by extravasal pressure of the celiac axis of the abdominal aorta applied by the arcuate ligament of the diaphragm, diaphragmatic peduncle, or neurophibromatic tissue of celiac plexus. It presents in chronic abdominal pain, dyspeptic events, and neurovegetative disorders. This work aims to study the state of the vasculature of the stomach and intestinal tract during compression stenosis of the celiac axis. Materials and methods. Intraorgan vasculature has been studied – 18 specimens of stomachs and intestinal tracts, gathered during autopsies of dead bodies with compression stenosis of the celiac axis. Autopsie material has been studied sensu L. Reiner. Research has been conducted with angiology, roentgenologic and histologic methods. To achieve the set goal a universal method has been developed, based on classical impregnation methods: intravascular – Ranvier-Goyer, and immersional – Belschowsky-Gros. Results. The conducted research has allowed locating significant changes of histostructure of microcirculation vessels’ vascular wall: wall shredding, edema of basal membrane, swelling of perivascular connective tissue. Overall the stomach and intestinal tract looked paralytically dilated. The most prominent morphologic changes of microvasculature have been revealed in the pyloric part of the stomach and first intestinal segment of dodecadactylon. In addition to diffuse atrophic changes of the stomach lining and intestinal lining, observed during stenosis of the ...


Review Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology The Possible Effects of Asiatic Herbs in SARS-COV-2 and their Mechanism of Action Ferro M.*, Graubard A., Ledezma R., Escalante P., Channan G., Dotres V. and Bencomo Y. Department of Sciences, Nutrition Formulators Inc., Miramar, Fl, USA. In 2019, a new virus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) gave rise to an unknown outbreak that spread in China’s Hubei province, triggering a new epidemic known as coronavirus-19 (COVID -19). Several studies have demonstrated the metabolic pathways of SARS-COV-2 in angiotensin-converting enzyme receptors 2 (ACE2). With this, others have been considering an approach with drugs that bind to ACE2 receptors as well as antiviral activity as a possible treatment option for the disease. Thus, the objective of this present review was to evaluate some Asiatic herbs for both the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Some herbs, such as the extract of Artemisia annua (Artemisinins) and the extract of Isatis indigotica (Emodin), showed to be effective as inhibitors of adhesion of some viruses. Some studies observed this in the SARS-CoV S / ACE -2 protein interaction in which it inhibited the adhesion of the virus to the cell surface. Similarly, Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (Licorice) showed significant inhibiting action on the influenza virus and was shown to be an effective antiviral in many other viruses by weakening virus activity, such as inhibiting virus gene expression and replication, reducing adhesion force and stress through the reduction of high-mobility-group box1 (HMGB1) binding to DNA. Additionally, one of the best herbs in effective concentration value (EC50) found in this study was Lycoris Radiata with EC50: 2,4 ± 0.2 μg / ml. The results presented in this review are promising in the search for prophylactic treatment in a viral pandemic such as SARS-VOC-2. However, more clinical ...


Review Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology Frontal branch of Facial Nerve and the Temporal Region Badr M I Abdulrauf MD, FRCSC Section of Plastic Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center Jeddah Saudi Arabia. Several layers of various soft tissues with interchanging characteristics exist below and above the zygomatic arch, this makes the temporal region anatomy somewhat uneasy to comprehend and recall. The frontal (or Temporal) branch of facial nerve is however the ultimate reason why it becomes important to study this area. Apart from Plastic, aesthetic and Reconstructive surgery, few other surgical specialties often need to work on this region, some of the common procedures include Coronal approaches; Zygoma fracture reduction; Temporoparietal flap elevation; Face and brow lift. There was a need for thorough review of this area from a surgeon’s perspective and to come up with as clear possible messages to be made in regard this topic. After an extensive literature search, we came up with few conclusions and three key illustrations that we strongly believe are crucial to be remembered. The rationale of following certain path of dissection in the temporal region, depending on the planned operation is explained. Eponyms used in literature for various structures have been discussed and clarified. The relationship of the frontal nerve to its surrounding fasciae within the zygomatic zone and Temporoparietal fascia is further explored. This updated review and guidelines are specifically been developed and recommended as an educational tool for in training surgical residents of concerned specialties, as well as for practicing surgeons in those areas to update their anatomy knowledge of this critical region. Keywords: Temporal region; Frontal branch; Temporal branch; Facial nerve; Face lift; Brow lift; Temporparietal fascia; Flap; Deep temporal fascia; Anatomy; Relations ...


Review Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology METABOLISM: PANCREAS AND GLYCEMIC REGULATING HORMONES Francisco Henrique da Silva1, Matheus Alves Siqueira de Assunção2, Alamisne Gomes da Silva3, Evandro Valentim da Silva4, Aline Fernanda Carneiro Cardoso3, Fálba BernadeteRamos dos Anjos2 1Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil 2Department of Histology and Embryology, Federal University of Pernambuco,  Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil 3Pharmaceutical of University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil 4Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Pernambuco,  Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Understanding the physiology of the metabolic regulation of hormones responsible for glycemic control is of fundamental importance for a thorough understanding of Diabetes Mellitus. In this scenario, this chapter is intended to explain this regulation, as well as the main hormones that participate in this metabolic process. Keywords: Insulin, Glucagon, Hormone Regulation ...

Dr. Pallavi Kamra
Pediatrician, Clinicas del Camino Real, Camarillo, CA, USA

Dr. Ayanabha Chakraborti
Senior Researcher, Department of Surgery, THT-1066, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Dr. Gelase Fredy Nsonde Ntandou
Faculty of Science and Technology, Marien NGOUABI University

Dr. Divyanshu ( Divy) Dua
Royal Australasian College of Physicians

Dr. Prakash Prajapat
Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Mehsana Urban Institute of Sciences, Ganpat University, Mehsana-384012, Gujarat, INDIA

Dr Divya R
Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Karpagam Faculty of Medical Science & Research Centre

Dr. Kabita Mishra
Senior Research Fellow (Homoeopathy), D.D.P.R.-Central Research Institute for Homoeopathy , (Ministry of A.Y.U.S.H., Government of India)

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American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology