American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology

  • THE VASCULATURE OF THE STOMACH AND INTESTINAL TRACT DURING COMPRESSION STENOSIS OF THE CELIAC AXIS

    At the current moment, there is no single approach regarding diagnostics and after-treatment of compression stenosis of the celiac axis. This work aims to study the state of the vasculature of the stomach and intestinal tract during compression stenosis of the celiac axis. Compression stenosis of the celiac axis is a disease caused by extravasal pressure of the celiac axis of the abdominal aorta applied by the arcuate ligament of the diaphragm, diaphragmatic peduncle, or neurophibromatic tissue of celiac plexus. It presents in chronic abdominal pain, dyspeptic events, and neurovegetative disorders. This work aims to study the state of the vasculature of the stomach and intestinal tract during compression stenosis of the celiac axis. Materials and methods. Intraorgan vasculature has been studied – 18 specimens of stomachs and intestinal tracts, gathered during autopsies of dead bodies with compression stenosis of the celiac axis. Autopsie material has been studied sensu L. Reiner. Research has been conducted with angiology, roentgenologic and histologic methods. To achieve the set goal a universal method has been developed, based on classical impregnation methods: intravascular – Ranvier-Goyer, and immersional – Belschowsky-Gros. Results. The conducted research has allowed locating significant changes of histostructure of microcirculation vessels’ vascular wall: wall shredding, edema of basal membrane, swelling of perivascular connective tissue. Overall the stomach and intestinal tract looked paralytically dilated. The most prominent morphologic changes of microvasculature have been revealed in the pyloric part of the stomach and first intestinal segment of dodecadactylon. In addition to diffuse atrophic changes of the stomach lining and intestinal lining, observed during stenosis of the celiac axis, these changes take the form of helcoid process in separate parts of it. As a result, the conducted research has allowed exposing prominent changes of histostructure of vascular walls of stomach and intestines during compression stenosis of…

  • THE POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF ASIATIC HERBS IN SARS-COV-2 AND THEIR MECHANISM OF ACTION

    In 2019, a new virus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) gave rise to an unknown outbreak that spread in China’s Hubei province, triggering a new epidemic known as coronavirus-19 (COVID -19). Several studies have demonstrated the metabolic pathways of SARS-COV-2 in angiotensin-converting enzyme receptors 2 (ACE2). With this, others have been considering an approach with drugs that bind to ACE2 receptors as well as antiviral activity as a possible treatment option for the disease. Thus, the objective of this present review was to evaluate some Asiatic herbs for both the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Some herbs, such as the extract of Artemisia annua (Artemisinins) and the extract of Isatis indigotica (Emodin), showed to be effective as inhibitors of adhesion of some viruses. Some studies observed this in the SARS-CoV S / ACE -2 protein interaction in which it inhibited the adhesion of the virus to the cell surface. Similarly, Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (Licorice) showed significant inhibiting action on the influenza virus and was shown to be an effective antiviral in many other viruses by weakening virus activity, such as inhibiting virus gene expression and replication, reducing adhesion force and stress through the reduction of high-mobility-group box1 (HMGB1) binding to DNA. Additionally, one of the best herbs in effective concentration value (EC50) found in this study was Lycoris Radiata with EC50: 2,4 ± 0.2 μg / ml. The results presented in this review are promising in the search for prophylactic treatment in a viral pandemic such as SARS-VOC-2. However, more clinical trials to validate the processes of the effectiveness of both plants and their extracts, as well as the synergy between the plants themselves are needed to validate future herbal treatments against SARS-VOC-2.

  • FRONTAL BRANCH OF FACIAL NERVE AND THE TEMPORAL REGION

    Several layers of various soft tissues with interchanging characteristics exist below and above the zygomatic arch, this makes the temporal region anatomy somewhat uneasy to comprehend and recall. The frontal (or Temporal) branch of facial nerve is however the ultimate reason why it becomes important to study this area. Apart from Plastic, aesthetic and Reconstructive surgery, few other surgical specialties often need to work on this region, some of the common procedures include Coronal approaches; Zygoma fracture reduction; Temporoparietal flap elevation; Face and brow lift. There was a need for thorough review of this area from a surgeon’s perspective and to come up with as clear possible messages to be made in regard this topic. After an extensive literature search, we came up with few conclusions and three key illustrations that we strongly believe are crucial to be remembered. The rationale of following certain path of dissection in the temporal region, depending on the planned operation is explained. Eponyms used in literature for various structures have been discussed and clarified. The relationship of the frontal nerve to its surrounding fasciae within the zygomatic zone and Temporoparietal fascia is further explored. This updated review and guidelines are specifically been developed and recommended as an educational tool for in training surgical residents of concerned specialties, as well as for practicing surgeons in those areas to update their anatomy knowledge of this critical region.

  • METABOLISM: PANCREAS AND GLYCEMIC REGULATING HORMONES

    Understanding the physiology of the metabolic regulation of hormones responsible for glycemic control is of fundamental importance for a thorough understanding of Diabetes Mellitus. In this scenario, this chapter is intended to explain this regulation, as well as the main hormones that participate in this metabolic process.

  • SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY: CLINICAL CASE

    Acute mesenteric ischemia refers to a sudden onset of intestinal hypoperfusion, which can be due to a reduction or cessation of arterial inflow leading to cellular damage, intestinal necrosis and eventually death if untreated.[1] The incidence is low, estimated at 0.09-0.2% of all acute surgical admissions [2] , this incidence increases with age having a median age of presentation of 70 years old and has a predispose for women at a 3:1 ratio.[3] Prompt diagnostic and innervation are necessary due to increase mortality rates from 50-80%. Mayor risk factors include atrial fibrillation, recent myocardial infarction, cardiac valvulopathies, hypertension, atherosclerosis, obesity, and tabaco. [4]

  • HUTCHINSON-GILFORD SYNDROME: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Introduction: To review several studies and reports regarding the causes, diagnoses and characteristics of the study and development of Hutchinson-Gilford Syndrome (HGPS) or progéria. Methodology: Through articles found in the following databases: PubMed Central, Scielo, BVS, Bireme, Scientific Electronic Library Online. Discussion: The approach follows from its genetic origin to its progressive stage of incurable aging along with Therapeutic Strategies for greater well-being and longevity for the patient, in the search to minimize the various pathologies that are submitted throughout their life, trying to increase their expectation average of 13.6 years. Conclusion: Because it is a rare and incurable disease, only palliative treatments for this syndrome are found.

  • RELATIONSHIP OF NASAL DIMENSIONS AND THUMBPRINT AMONG STUDENTS OF DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY, ABRAKA

    Introduction: CKD is also called Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and, when installed, compromises renal functions in a slow, progressive and irreversible manner. Therefore, in some cases, renal replacement therapy treatments are necessary, including hemodialysis (HD). The family, in turn, also experiences changes in their roles and dynamics of functioning that influence the act of taking care of themselves and others. Objective: To promote reflections on the life projects of family members/caregivers of Pediatric Nephrology Hemodialysis patients at a reference hospital in Integral Medicine in the Northeast. Methods: Experience report through a group meeting with host intervention, listening directed to life projects aimed at family members and or companions of hemodialysis patients. Results: It was perceived from the reports that the task of caring is complex and permeated by diverse and contradictory feelings, but that many of the people who experience this experience felt emotionally weakened. We also verified that responsibility is transferred as an additional action to the family, which in its daily life is obliged to accumulate the function of “living for” the patient’s dialysis treatment. Surrounded by fears and uncertainties, they “abdicated” from work, studies, friends, leisure, personal care, despite nurturing a common feeling, present in all expressions: faith. Considerations: With this intervention, although brief, one can understand the importance of providing the family member or companion with a moment of reflection and exchange of experiences.

  • EXPERIENCE REPORT: EXPERIENCE OF FAMILY AND OR CAREGIVER PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY PATIENTS IN AN INTEGRAL MEDICINE REFERENCE HOSPITAL IN THE NORTHEAST

    Introduction: CKD is also called Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and, when installed, compromises renal functions in a slow, progressive and irreversible manner. Therefore, in some cases, renal replacement therapy treatments are necessary, including hemodialysis (HD). The family, in turn, also experiences changes in their roles and dynamics of functioning that influence the act of taking care of themselves and others. Objective: To promote reflections on the life projects of family members/caregivers of Pediatric Nephrology Hemodialysis patients at a reference hospital in Integral Medicine in the Northeast. Methods: Experience report through a group meeting with host intervention, listening directed to life projects aimed at family members and or companions of hemodialysis patients. Results: It was perceived from the reports that the task of caring is complex and permeated by diverse and contradictory feelings, but that many of the people who experience this experience felt emotionally weakened. We also verified that responsibility is transferred as an additional action to the family, which in its daily life is obliged to accumulate the function of “living for” the patient’s dialysis treatment. Surrounded by fears and uncertainties, they “abdicated” from work, studies, friends, leisure, personal care, despite nurturing a common feeling, present in all expressions: faith. Considerations: With this intervention, although brief, one can understand the importance of providing the family member or companion with a moment of reflection and exchange of experiences.

  • DAYS OF ACADEMICS OF A COURSE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION, GOIÂNIA, GOIÁS, BRAZIL

    Introduction: Sleep is a psychobiological phenomenon that represents the moment that the body restores the processes performed by the body during the wake, influencing the well-being and the physical and mental health of the individual. Objective: In this sense, the objective of the study was to analyze the factors associated with daytime sleepiness in university students. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional, analytical, quantitative analysis study conducted with students of the three shifts of the Physical Education course, UEG / Eseffego. Data were collected using a socio-demographic record and the Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale (EPWORTH, 1991). In this, adding the scoring of the scale has up to nine individual points without signs of sleepiness (SS), between 10 and 15 with signs of drowsiness (SDS) and from 16 points with excessive daytime sleepiness (SDE). Results: 305 students were evaluated, mean age 22.01 ± 4.64 years. In the evaluation of the socio-demographic profile, the majority of the sample consisted of men (52.1%), morning (56.4%), no work and / or paid internship (61.6%) and in the first two course (56.4%). When the drowsiness level was verified, 64.9% (198) presented BDS, 18.4% (52) SS and 16.5% (51) did not present BDS. SDE was higher among women (72.6% / p = 0.001), students in the last period (82.4% / p = 0.001) and morning shift (60.2% / p = 0.001). Considerations: This data is worrying since BDS can influence daily activities and, persisting, is a risk factor for the emergence of sleep disorders. In addition, this condition can interfere with the hormonal cycle and trigger more serious pathologies.

  • Comparative Myoarchitectural Orientation of the Extrinsic Lingual Muscles of the Egyptian Cattle (Bos Taurus), Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) and Camel (Camelus Dromedarius)

    Comparative myoarchitectural anatomical studies were adopted on twelve tongues of apparently health of both adult sexes of cattle, buffalo and camel. The study was aimed to describe the architectural orientation of the extrinsic lingual muscles for each species. As well as statistical data between the tongue and extrinsic lingual muscles. The work declared the properties of potent tongue which allowed the cattle and buffalo to perform their behavioral prehension of food. The study described the extrinsic lingual muscles and spotted a light on the role of the geniohyoid muscle on the tongue. The work concluded that the tongue of cattle was the stronger than the buffalo while both able to depend up on their tongue for food prehension. On the other hand the tongue of camel adapted for introral function.