American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology

  • Comparative Myoarchitectural Orientation of the Extrinsic Lingual Muscles of the Egyptian Cattle (Bos Taurus), Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) and Camel (Camelus Dromedarius)

    Comparative myoarchitectural anatomical studies were adopted on twelve tongues of apparently health of both adult sexes of cattle, buffalo and camel. The study was aimed to describe the architectural orientation of the extrinsic lingual muscles for each species. As well as statistical data between the tongue and extrinsic lingual muscles. The work declared the properties of potent tongue which allowed the cattle and buffalo to perform their behavioral prehension of food. The study described the extrinsic lingual muscles and spotted a light on the role of the geniohyoid muscle on the tongue. The work concluded that the tongue of cattle was the stronger than the buffalo while both able to depend up on their tongue for food prehension. On the other hand the tongue of camel adapted for introral function.

  • The Role of Maternal Stress, Cortisol and Interleukin-12 in Cases of Missed Abortion in the First Trimester of Pregnancy in Saudi Women

    Missed abortion in early pregnancy is a common gynecological condition, and the incidence has been increasing presenting itself as a public health problem. This study aimed to examine stress, cortisol concentration, and altered IL-12 levels in women who experienced missed abortions. Women with missed abortions (n = 40) were matched with control women of the same age in the same stage of pregnancy (n = 30). Participants filled out a survey about common stress factors. Venous blood samples were taken from the patients at 7:00 a.m. ELISA detected IL-12 concentrations, and serum cortisol was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Women with missed abortions reported significantly more common stressors, and their serum cortisol and IL-12 concentrations were significantly higher than those of the women with healthy pregnancies (all P< 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the power of the studied parameters to predict women at risk for missed abortion. IL-12 performed the best in predicting women with missed abortions as it had the highest area under the curve (AUC), followed by cortisol. Stress and changes in the immune system may play a role in the etiology of missed abortion in Saudi women in early pregnancy.

  • Analysis of the Effects of the Physical Activity in the Gait of the Bearers of Parkinson: Literature Review

    Introduction:Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder, which causes a decrease in dopamine in the striatum body, occurring so the PD’s primary signs, among them, bradykinesia and postural instability are those that most interfere in the gait quality of PD patients. Physiotherapy uses physical activity as a therapeutic resource, it doesn’t lead to the disappearance of the disease, but it can help slow its progression. Objective: To analyze, through a review of literature, the effects of the physical activity in the gait of the bearers of the PD. Methodology: The study used scientific articles indexed in the bases of data LILACS, MEDLINE, PUBMED and SCIELO. For discussion, articles were included randomized what used the physical activity like resource therapeutic and when those who had not quite definite protocols and what had several wrapped techniques were excluded. Results and Discussion: In the included studies, patients were initially assessed for functional disability through the scale Hoehn & Yahr or Hoehn & Yahr modified, excluding those at a severe stage of the disease and to evaluate the effects of therapeutic interventions, UPDRS (Unified Scale for PD Assessment) was one of the scales applied before and after treatment in most studies. In view of the four different interventions investigated in the present study: treadmill exercises, resisted and balance, associated with external sensory cues and associated with music therapy, all of them proved to be directly or indirectly effective in the progression of PD patients of the research carried out. Conclusion: It was verified the beneficial effect of physical activity programs on the gait of PD patients, however, they are necessary more studies randomized and with a good quality methodological, because a great variety of techniques have been used by the physiotherapy, there being no a consensus as for the form and necessary duration…

  • Regulatory T Lymphocytes: a Powerful Regulator of the Immunological System

    Introduction: The immune system works by stimulating direct action against various antigens and also by means of “immune memory”. When the organism is induced by a responder to an antigenic aggression, action of several cells occurs by modeling this response, among them they are like regulatory T cells (Tregs). These represent a sub-population of CD4 + T lymphocytes characterized by the expression of the CD25 + molecule and by the nuclear factor FOXP3. Objective: To review the mechanisms of action of Tregs cells in the containment of the immune system. Methodology: The present work consists of a literature review. A localization of the articles was performed in the electronic databases Pubmed, Scielo and Lilacs, between 2012 and 2017. Results and discussion: currently, it is postulated that there are three mechanisms used by Treg cells for their abilities. What is the control of suppressive factors, including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), suppressive cytokines such as TGF-β, direct cytolysis or negative signaling through the CTLA-4 molecule, which will inhibit cell proliferation and differentiation. The second method, soluble suppression factors, such as IL-10 cytokines, TGF-β and IL-35, or secretion of suppressive factors from antigen-presenting cells such as adenosine. The third mechanism is based on the competition for cytokines that signal through common γ-chain receptors (IL-2, IL-4 and IL-7), leading to immune cell apoptosis by growth factor deprivation. Conclusion: Tregs cells are potent regulators of the immune system that act by decreasing an immune system’s action excessively. It is believed that with a better understanding of the mechanism of action such as cells, such as Tregs seriously manipulated with a purpose to aid in the treatment of diseases with immune dysregulation.

  • Marker of Cardiometabolic Risk in Teenagers: the Influence in Excess of Weight

    Introduction: Usually teenagers present biopsychosocial transformations being expressed between childhood and adulthood. According to the National School Health Survey, the prevalence of overweight students was 25.1%. This can lead to health problems such as diabetes, heart problems and poor skeletal formation. So, this is why excess weight associated with inactivity and inadequate diet may trigger risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Objectives: To identify the prevalence of overweight for cardio metabolic diseases in teens. Methodology: A literature search was conducted in the Scientific Electronic Library Online and MedLine databases using the following descriptors: cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, teens, overweight and obesity. obesity. 89 articles were found. After applying the cut of the last 5 years (2013-2017), there were 14 articles that made up the review. Results and discussion: According to the bibliographical findings, it is verified that with the advent of technology, sedentary lifestyle at early ages is evidenced, affecting adulthood through cardio metabolic diseases. Data from Fiocruz reveals that out of the teenagers who are suffering from obesity; eight out of ten remain obese in adulthood. Thus, regular physical activity and a balanced diet contribute to the better development of adolescent metabolism. In addition, the family history of cardio metabolic diseases influences the excess weight of the adolescents, reflecting in subsequent generations. Conclusion: It was found that there is a shortage in the literature associated with the prevention and encouragement of a healthy way of eating and physical practices in this society. Thus, to achieve the efficiency of healthy aging it is necessary that preventive actions are applied from childhood.

  • Creation of a Validation Protocol of Anatomical Handmade Models for Human Anatomy in Higher Education

    Introduction: The creation of low cost anatomical pieces has been disseminated in Brazilian Universities in order to minimize the educational shortcomings of the lack of accessible didactic material. Objetive: This work aims at the creation of a validation protocol for anatomical handmade models, evaluating efficacy in teaching-learning and standardizing the anatomical models produced in the disciplines of Human Anatomy. Methodology: Initially a search of articles on models already created was done, and the methodologies of creation and practical evaluation of each model were indicated and formulated a general protocol. Results and Discussion: The protocol was divided into: 1) Initial considerations and 2) pre-test, aiming to classify the classes and identify systematic errors; 3) Testing and 4) Statistical analysis, practical test and statistical validation of the model’s efficiency for learning. Initial considerations and pre-test provide an overview of class performance. The test is a theoretical-practical exercise applied after the theoretical classes and presentation of the model. Conclusion: The protocol must be used in new models to test its efficiency for suitability in each discipline, maintaining a common trunk and logical sequence of data acquisition and validation of the handmade anatomical piece as additional tools for teaching.

  • Associated to the Proteinic Malnutrition on the Physical Mass and the Parameters Mices Cardiovasculares

    Introduction: The proteinic malnutrition perinatal is able to promote alterations cardiovasculares and in the corporal mass of the progeny. Experimental models of motherly voluntary physical activity (AFV) in cicloergômetro before and during the gestation it seems to reduce the effects of the malnutrition. Objetive: The objective of the work valued the effects of the proteinic malnutrition and AFV during the period perinatal on the corporal mass and the parameters cardiovasculares of the progeny. Methodology: Confirmed Wistar was used (n=8) originating from mothers who before the gestation were arranged individually in cages of AFV by a period adaptativo of 30 days. After this period the rats were classified in two groups in accordance with the daily level of physical activity: Inactive or Active. Next, same they were subjected to the mating and from the first day of pregnancy they received diet normoproteica (NP, 17 % of protein) or hipoproteica (HP, 8 % of protein). In the 30th day of life of the progenies the proceeding is carried out for implant of the catheters in the artery femoral, for subsequent register of the middle blood pressure (PAM), pressure sistólica (PS), pressure diastólica (PD) and cardiac frequency (FC). The results were expressed on average ± EPM. Test ANOVA one-way was used and p < 0.05 All the proceedings were approved by the CEUA/UFPE (23076.021679/2015-87). Result and Discussion: In 30ºdia of life, while analysing the corporal weight it was possible to notice that there was no statistical difference between the groups NP and active HP (NP=66.98 and HP=70.78), on the other side in the group HP and inactive NP it was possible to observe an increase of the corporal mass of the NP likened to the HP (NP=85.81 and HP=51.34). Regarding the parameters cardiovasculares it was noticed that in this age the malnutrition and…