Bioagents colonized vermicompost can be a crucial alternative natural biological control of stalk rot diseases of sorghum because of the hazardous effects of agrochemicals on non-targeted organisms and soil health. To study the interaction among bioagents colonized vermicompost with stalk rot disease of sorghum caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi, and earthworms of rhizospheric soil, pre-plant soil application of bioagents colonized vermicompost @ 2.5 kg/4 m2 and chemicals viz. Blitox-50, Bleaching powder, Streptocyclin and Tetracyclin @ 2.5% were done under field conditions. In analysis of earthworm’s population dynamics, maximum numbers of young earthworms per plant rhizosphere were observed with vermicompost colonized isolate Th-2 followed by vermicompost alone and vermicompost colonized isolate Psf-24. However, minimum number of young earthworms per plant rhizosphere was obtained with Bleaching powder. Maximum seed germination was recorded with vermicompost colonized isolate Th-2 followed by Th-R, Th-14, and Psf-12. Maximum number of earthworm’s heap of cast per plant rhizosphere was obtained in plants treated with vermicompost colonized isolate Th-2 followed by Psf-19, Psf-12 and Psf-18. Significant increase in biomass yield of sorghum plants were observed among all the treatments. However, maximum biomass yield was observed with vermicompost colonized isolate Th-2 followed by Psf-24. Maximum reduction of disease severity was recorded with vermicompost colonized isolate Th-2 followed by Th-14, Th-R and Psf-3. Present investigation suggests the effect of bioagents colonized on the dramatic increase in earthworm’s population (young and adult), earthworm’s body length, sorghum plant biomass yield and reduction in stalk rot disease severity. Our experiments have shown that bioagents colonized vermicompost have considerable potential not only improving plant growth, suppression of stalk rot disease severity significantly but also increasing soil earthworms when used as pre-plant soil amendment.
This study examines the vulnerability of fishery-based households in Ethiopian rift valley lakes Chamo and Hawassa. The vulnerability assessment approach used vulnerability indicator method which is composed of both biophysical and socioeconomic indicators of fishery-based households. The indicators selected were classified into exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to give weight to the vulnerability indicators. The result shows that the fishery-based households around Lake Chamo are more vulnerable to climate change than in Lake Hawassa. The result of this study stresses the immediate need for appropriate adaptation and/or mitigation measures to help the livelihood of the fishermen in the study areas. The results of this study should be considered for future decision making when mitigation and adaptation mechanisms are selected.
Survey of plant parasitic nematodes were carried out in some sweet potato growing areas of Nigeria. The research was design to assess the plant parasitic nematode pests of sweet potato in sweet potato growing areas in Nigeria. Soil samples and sweet potato tubers were randomly sampled from selected farm sites in Oyo, Osun, Kaduna, Kwara, Kogi, Abia, Cross Rivers, Benue, Taraba and Plateau States of Nigeria. Plant parasitic nematodes were extracted from soil and sweet potato tubers following standard methods and identification key for agriculturally important plant-parasitic nematodes was used for the nematode identification. Nematodes were extracted and identified in the laboratory. The plant parasitic nematodes identified in the soil samples and sweet potato tuber were root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, lesion nematode Pratylenchus species, brown ring nematode Ditylenchus destructor and D. dipsaci, stubby root nematode Paratrichodorus spp. and dry rot nematode Scutellonema bradys. Plant parasitic nematodes infected sweet potato tubers have unappealing appearances, cracks, internal lesions and dry rot.
The seed dormancy limits seedling production and the potential for using them. This study aimed to determine the best method for breaking dormancy in seeds of Mimosa hostilis Benth. and Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong.) Steud. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Food Science, State University of Alagoas (UNEAL) Campus II, located in the municipality of Santana do Ipanema, Alagoas State, Brazil. Five treatments were studied (T): T1 – immersion in water at 100 ° C until cooling thereof; T2 – immersion in water at 50 ° C until cooling thereof; T3 – immersion in sulfuric acid for 5 minutes, followed by washing in water for 10 minutes; T4 – mechanical scarification by sandpaper for 2 minutes, and T5 – Witness. Where it came to evaluating the germination speed index (GSI) and germination percentage (G%). Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means compared by Tukey test at 5% significance level. The immersion in sulfuric acid was the best method to break seed dormancy of Mimosa Hostilis Benth., now for Bauhinia cheilantha bong. Steud in the chiseling was the best method for breaking dormancy.
The experiment was conducted at Isfahan East Waste Water Treatment in 2011 growing season by using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were managed for irrigation: municipal water, untreated waste water and treated waste water. Results showed irrigation with untreated and treated waste water had significantly higher biomass (86.00 t/ha) than municipal water (66.00 t/ha). Highest ethanol yield (6540 l/ha) was obtained for sweet sorghum irrigated with raw waste water. Both pH and P was accumulated in the soil irrigated with untreated and treated waste water. At the end of growing season the amount of Cd, Pb and Ni were accumulated in these soils. The amount of measured heavy metals in sweet sorghum grain, leaf and stem were significantly higher in untreated waste water than both municipal water and treated waste water. Number of coliform in untreated waste water was significantly higher than treated and municipal water. The number of coliform in grain, leaf and stalk for surface non- sterilized was higher than surface sterilized but it was less than 100 MPN 100 ml-1. Based on the results, in order to produce bioethanol without accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, it is suggested to plant sweet sorghum and irrigated with treated waste water.
The influence of bio-stimulant Aquasap powder derived from the red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii was applied at 0.2% through foliar application on bellary onion at the establishment, vegetative, bulb formation and bulb development stage. Bulb yield and quality parameters such as total soluble solid, moisture content, ash content, organic content, pyruvic acid content, physiological loss and rotting percentage were studied. The crop yield in terms of bulb in treated plant was 31.65% over control with no statistical significant in the content of pyruvic between treated and control plants.
The experiments were conducted in the laboratory of Plant Pathology Department, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute. The experiments were conducted during the period 15 January 2010 to 5 March 2012. Nine different types of containers viz. tin pot, plastic pot, poly bag, gunny bag, gunny bag lined with polythene, earthen pot, cloth bag, brown paper and IRRI poly bag, two level of moisture contents viz. farmers’ condition (13%) and recommended moisture condition (9.5%) by Bangladesh Gazette (2010) and seed treatment with Provax-200 and control (untreated) were used for the present study. Seeds were stored for 12 months and examined after 4. 8 and 12 months of storage. Among the nine containers, tin pot was found better in respect of moisture content, germination, mean germination time, vigour index and 1000- seed weight. Health condition of seeds was also superior compared to other containers. The poorest performance was observed in earthen pot regarding moisture content, germination, mean germination time, vigour index, 1000- seed weight and seed borne infection. The findings of the present study also reveal that recommended moisture content was better than farmers’ condition. Provax-200 treated seed also resulted better performance than non treated seed. So, Quality of jute seeds can be maintained by storage in tin pot with provax-200 treated and recommendation moisture content (9.5%).
In Ethiopia pulse crops are widely grown and Faba bean (Vicia faba L., 2n=12) is an old world grain legume of the family Leguminasae. This crop is one of the major pulses grown in the highlands of Ethiopia ranging from 1800-3000 m.a.s.l receiving an annual rainfall of 700-1100 mm, and the country is now considered as one of the secondary centers of genetic diversity. In eastern Amhara region high lands, faba bean is cultivated widely and thought to be an area for the largest collection of faba bean landraces. The production of faba bean is declined from year to year due to various production constraints such as diseases, soil acidity and weeds, particularly root parasitic weeds Broomrape (Orobanche species). These parasitic weeds cause very high levels of crop damage in terms of both yield and quality. Yield losses due to Orobanche weed ranges from 5 to 100% depending on the level of infestation and environmental conditions. Orobanche species are root parasitic flowering plants lack of leaves and totally dependent on their hosts for their life cycle. The parasitic is on a wide range of food legumes such as faba bean, field pea, lentil, vetch, Solanaceae crops, oil crops and root crops. The severe invasion of legume crops, especially faba bean and field pea are by Orobanche crenata. The physical attachment and the damage of the weed are under ground. The weed disperses by wind, flood, birds, animals, crop seeds, humans and farm machinery. It is propagated by seeds which can remain dormant and survive and able to viable in the soil for more than 20 years. Due to the complete devastation of faba bean by Orobanche crenata, farmers forced to replace pulse crops by cereals and spice in south Wollo (Kutaber, Dessie zuria, Tenta and Mekidela woredas); therefore, farmers lost…
The outstanding features of Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP) are the nutritional and sensory versatility in terms of its micronutrient contents and wide range of colours, taste and mouth feel. This study was carried out to evaluate the organoleptic properties and proximate composition of some Orange-fleshed sweet potato genotypes viz: Umuspo1, Umuspo3 and Ex-Igbariam. Estimation of moisture, ash, crude fibre, fat, protein and energy value was conducted using standard AOAC procedures. Twenty-eight sensory assessors were used to evaluate some sensory (organoleptic) attributes such as colour, aroma, taste, mouth feel and general acceptability of chips and shake made from the OFSP genotypes. Proximate analysis result showed that moisture content varied from 68.137 – 61.235%, 4.23 – 5.54% for protein, 0.542 – 1.265% for fat, 1.22 -2.25% for crude fibre, and 1.189 – 1.677 % for ash. The energy value ranged from 392.906 %- Umuspo1 to 390.74%-Ex-Igbariam. % moisture content and dry matter differed significantly with varieties (P < 0.05). The highest values of vitamin C, B3 and B2 were 24.03 mg/g (Umuspo3), 0.324 mg/g (Umuspo3) and 0.028 mg/g (Ex-Igbariam), respectively. The experimental OFSP genotypes had higher value of calcium than the other mineral content. Chips and shake prepared from the experimental OFSP genotypes were generally accepted for consumption and could serve for use as chips and shake.
This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the different varieties of creole and improved seeds of rice regarding the productive aspects and disease resistance in the experimental field of the Farm School of São Benedito and in area of farmer in Arari -MA. It was used improved seeds of rice (Primavera, Emeralds, Sertaneja, BR Irga 420, Serra Dourada, Arariba), and creoles (Palha Murcha, Rice Vermelho and Come Cru), which constituted the treatments in a randomized block design with four replications, plots of 10 m2 useful area of 2.70 m2. In the aspect of grain yield, the creole varieties Palha Murcha and Rice Vermelho presented respectively mean grain yield (x= 1.472 kg ha-1; x=1.374 kg ha-1), within the average expected for Maranhão and equal to the variety improved Arariba, in the municipality of Arari. In São Bento, the varieties Palha Murcha, BR Irga 420, Arariba, Sertaneja, Esmeralda and Primavera produced above average (1.580 kg ha-1) for Maranhão. As for the resistance to diseases, all varieties were moderately resistant to diseases brown spot and Grains spots. The varieties Primavera, Esmeralda, Sertaneja, BR Irga 420, Serra Dourada, Arariba and Palha Murcha had a high susceptibility to leaf scald in São Bento. There was incidence of narrow spot at the improved varieties Arariba and Br Irga 420, with behavior moderately resistant, the other varieties were resistant to this disease in Arari. Therefore, the rescue of creole seeds is important and enables the development of agro agriculture.