Climate change is a complex problem involving varied interactions between the environment, natural resources (land, crops, animals and water) and peoples. Global climate change poses the threat of serious social upheaval, population displacement, economic hardships and environmental degradation (ESAP, 2009). Agriculture and livestock are amongst the most climate sensitive economic sectors in the developing countries whilst the rural poor communities are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of the climate change (Kimaro and Chibinga, 2013). Climate change may affect livestock disease through several pathways both direct and indirect. It may facilitate establishment of novel imported infectious diseases in regions that were previously unable to support endemic transmissions. Most vector borne diseases that are expected to emerge because of climate change are zoonotic diseases. Climate change may cause amplification of the parasite population and have profound effects on the host-parasite assemblages. Another aspect of climate change is that an effect on the pathogen microorganism by increasing their virulence. Climate change also modify the disease ecology by complicating the life cycles of the different hosts and vectors and the microorganism, that make vector borne diseases difficult to predict and control. Stress caused due to the effect of climate change e.g. increased temperature, increased population density; high density of biting insects or lack of food may induce suppression of the immune response and lead to increased susceptibility of organisms to opportunistic pathogens.
B-Zn interaction modifies the nutritional dynamics of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in cotton. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of B and Zn concentrations on the absorption of Cu, Fe and Mn in cotton plants cultivated in nutrient solution. The experimental design was completely randomized with three replicates, in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, corresponding to four concentrations of B (0, 20, 40 and 80 µM L-1) and five concentrations of Zn (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 µM L-1). At 115 days after emergence, the plants were collected, divided into roots, shoots and fruits, and subjected to chemical analysis. The results allowed to conclude that the Cu content and total Cu in the fruit, total Cu in the roots, Cu use efficiency, Fe content in the roots, Fe absorption efficiency, Mn content in the fruit and Mn absorption efficiency of cotton are influenced by the concentrations of B in the solution. The interaction between B and Zn affected total Fe in the roots, Fe content and total Fe in the fruit, Fe transport efficiency, total Mn in the shoots and Mn transport efficiency; in addition, Zn acts differently according to the supply of B and vice versa.
Two samples of wheat flour from different source; namely, ration card system flour-supplied by Ministry of Trade- Iraq and Hilal brand flour–Turkey; were subjected for quality assessment to making flat bread, using a simple modified technique to ratify baker’s claims. Results illustrated that the Hilal flour exhibited superior characteristics indices than the ration card flour in producing total liberated, retained CO2 gas, final dough volume after 90 minutes fermentation, dough raising capacity and volume expansion ratio, although both flour were close in wet and dry gluten content %. Accordingly, the results of this test are coincident with the baker’s claims as they always praised Hilal flour and hated ration flour; meantime these results revealed to the suitability of this technique as rapid, easy and accurate in ratifying flour types for making flat bread.
Cratoxylum formosum is an indigenous Thai vegetable, mostly grown in the North-East of Thailand., It has been reported that the leaf extract showed strongly antioxidant and antimutagenic properties when compared with 108 species of indigenous Thai plants. The point toward of this do research was analyzed anthocyanin inhibit in Cratoxylum formosum. The means was assessment in dissimilarity exaction solutions (water, acetone, ethanol and methanol) and divergence era (0 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes). The scrutinize chemically was weighed samples 5 g with modification exaction solutions and divergence era afterward absorbance samples at 535 nm by spectrophotometer. The fallout create that at 0 minutes in diversity exaction solutions (water, acetone, ethanol and methanol) were 909.136±75.010, 737.743±734.871, 704.216±2.313and 825.006±14.226 mg/L respectively. At 30 minutes in modification exaction solutions (water, acetone, ethanol and methanol) were 873.886±8.626, 788.503±17.094, 720.98±30.786 and 758.686±37.772 mg/L correspondingly and to finish period at 60 minutes in divergence exaction solutions (water, acetone, ethanol and methanol) were 903.96±75, 764.53±49.984, 735.236±45.783 and 824.38±14.718 mg/L respectively. The highest anthocyanin in Cratoxylum formosumwas exaction with water at 0 minutes (909.136±75.010mg/L). Cratoxylum formosum is an local Thai vegetable, regularly developed in the North-East of Thailand., It has been reported that the sheet take out showed formidably anthocyanin properties Thai plants.
Animal dung availability and their fertilizer values in a context of low soil fertility conditions for forage seed and crops production in Benin (West Africa)
Livestock manure, feed biomass fed to animals that pass through digestive tract undigested and urine excreted from subsequent tissue metabolism, is conventionally termed as wastes. To optimize the use of animal manure for the purpose of agronomic processing or valorization, it is essential to know its availability and plant nutrients composition. The use of reference values is a quick method of estimation. However, books on farm fertilizers generally offer only an average value that is not representative of the diversity of situations. The aim of this study was to (1) estimate the quantity of manures from cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry, (2) determine the physico-chemical characteristics and plant nutrient contents of these droppings and (3) identify the inter-relationships between the physical characteristics (pH, EC and dry matter(DM)) and the most essential macronutrients (N, P and K). A total of 30 animal groups (herds or flocks) were survived per species and a total of 30 samples were collected over twelve months (January 1st to December 31, 2016) for DM, pH, electrical conductibility, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium contents for each sample. According to animal population of the country, the results of the study showed that, an amount of 1.630600 tons DM of cattle manure, 227800 tons DM of sheep dung, 136,900 tons DM of goat dung, 122,400 tons DM of pig dropping and 36,500 tons of poultry excreta are annually available in Benin. Physico-chemical and analyzes of droppings showed significant differences (P˂0.01) between mineral compositions of these dropping. Poultry manure are richer in macronutrients than other types of animal manure (N = 11.7 ± 3.9, P = 4.6 ± 2.3, K = 7.6 ± 1.3, Ca = 41.2 ± 16.7 g/kg), followed by goat and sheep manure (N = 6.0 ± 3.7, P = 4.9 ± 3.9, K…
Influence of cow manure and row spacing on growth, flowering and seed yield of Centro (Centrosema pubescens Benth.) on ferralitic soils of Benin (West Africa)
Centrosema pubescens (Benth) is identified as a tropical forage legume of considerable promise which can improve pasture in West Africa. A study on the influence of rates of cattle manure in combination with plant row spacing on the growth, phenology and seed yield of Centro (Centrosema pubescens) was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agronomy Science of University of Abomey-Calavi in South Benin. The site is located at latitude 6° 30’ N and longitude 2° 40’ E with elevation of 50 m above sea level. The area is characterized by ferralitic soils with low fertility, rainfall range of 1200 mm with relative humidity from 40 to 95 % and means annual temperature varying between 25 and 26 °C. Field experiments were conducted during 2014, 2015 and 2016 seasons. Five cattle manure rates (0, 4 tons, 8 tons, 12 tons and 16 tons/ha) and 40 kg P2O5/ha in combination with three plant spacings (40cm x 40cm, 80cm x 80cm, 120cm x 120cm) were evaluated in a 6×3 factorial laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Each treatment was replicated 4 times. The growth and flowering characteristics measured in the field included number of branches 90 days after sowing, number of leaves 90 days after sowing, plant girth 90 days after sowing, flower initiation, date of first flower appearance, date of 50% flowering, pod ripping time and efficiency of flower for pod production. Seed components evaluated are pod length, pod wide, number of seed/pod, 100 seed-weight and seed weight/pod weight ratio. Seed yield were evaluated each year by harvesting pods from 4 randomly plants per plot. Pods were shelled and seed collected were weighed for seed yield calculation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine degree of variability at 5% probability level. Result obtained from…
Contemporary literatures are awash with Heavy metal contamination in soils as a source of global environmental concern. Cultivation of crops on these contaminated soils may result in accumulation of heavy metals resulting in possible risks on human health. For this reason, a pot experiment was conducted between May and August 2016 at the green house of the Department of Forestry and Environmental Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. The experiment was specifically aimed at evaluating the influence of kaoline mined soil samples on the growth of three herbaceous plant species (Chromolaena odorata, Ipomoea involucrata and Mariscus alternifolius) commonly found at abandoned kaolin mining site at Ohiya in Umuahia South East, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with Six (6) replicates. Data were collected on Plant height, Number of leaves, fresh and dry weight. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Mean separations were done using Fisher LSD at 0.05% probability. Two mean values were subjected to studentized-t-test using statistical analytical system (SAS) software, version 8.0. The result showed that the kaolin mined soil sample significantly affected all the growth parameters measured during the study.
It has been around two decades that the food desert concept was introduced to assess the geographic accessibility of healthy food stores in deprived urban and rural communities. Despite the contribution of this strong tool in evaluating food insecurity, the methodological aspects especially in rural areas have been less discussed in the literature. The aim of this study is to explore and compare different methodologies in identifying rural food deserts based on the related major elements. A systematic review was conducted on published English language studies that used quantitative methods to identify rural food deserts up to December 2015. Twenty studies met the criteria and were included in this study. The results from these studies indicated the four major key elements (food availability, geographic accessibility, deprivation indicator(s), and geographic unit of analysis) were used and quantified by researchers in their methodology to identify rural food deserts. We also found out that measuring food deserts involves a high degree of sensitivity, as any changes in quantifying the elements may significantly impact the final results. Thus, the advantages and disadvantages of quantifying each element is discussed in a greater detail in this study. This will help researchers to develop a better food desert methodology which produce more comprehensive and accurate results in future.
The study was conducted in Jinka agricultural research center south agriculutural research institute Southern Ethiopia with objective of identifying effect of planting space and fertilizer rate on productivity of desho grass. Planting of Desho grass has been conducted in four planting space (level1= 0.25cm between plants and 0.5cm between rows, levele2= 0.5cm b/n plants and 0.75 b/n rows, level 3= 0.75cm b/n plants and 1meter b/n rows, level 4= 1 meter b/n plants and 1.25 meter b/n rows) and five fertilizer rates (control, 0.5 DAP and 0.5ql urea, 1 ql DAP and 1.5 ql urea, 1 ql DAP and 2 ql urea, 1.5 ql DAP and 2 ql urea ). The experiment has used a plot size of 3m x 4m. Field trial was arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Plant height, number of tiller per plant and dry matter yield were recorded. The results indicated that planting space evaluated showed statistical significant variation (p
Ageratum conyzoides is a major weed among food crops in Ivory Coast. The viability of its seeds and the depth of emergence of its seedlings were studied in order to understand its distribution and to develop effective management strategies. Generally, less than 50% of the seed of this plant remains viable after one year of soil burial. However, the viable seed rates of this species vary according to depths of burial. The lowest viable seed rates were noted at burial depths of 0 cm and 0.5 cm (5.25% and 8.5% viable seeds, respectively), intermediate rates were at burial depths of 2.5 cm and 10 cm (28% and 26.5% viable seeds, respectively) and the highest rates were at burial depths of 5 cm (43% viable seeds). The highest rates of seedlings of Ageratum conyzoides (75%) were obtained at soil surface. These results indicate that the lifetime of seeds of Ageratum conyzoides depends on their position in the soil. Seed stocks on soil surface are ephemeral while those depths between 2.5 and 10 cm from soil surface may be persistent. For this, after all tillage to a depth of between 2.5 cm and 10 cm from soil surface, regeneration of Ageratum conyzoides must be prevented by destroying raised plants before they reach fruiting.