American Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Efficacy of Deep Placement of Nitrogen Fertilizers on N Use Efficiency and Yield of Boro Rice (cv. BRRI Dhan29)

    The efficiency of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in rice culture is low due to their losses in different ways. An experiment was, therefore, conducted at the Soil Science Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during boro season of 2016 to evaluate the effect of deep placement of N fertilizers on N use efficiency and yield of BRRI dhan29 under alternate wetting and drying (AWD) condition. The soil was silt loam in texture having pH 6.07, organic matter content 1.10%, total N 0.055%, available P 3.6 ppm, exchangeable K 0.22 me% and available S 11.76 ppm. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. There were eight treatment combinations including T1 (Control), T2 (PU, 130 kg N/ha), T3 (USG, 130 kg N/ha), T4 (USG, 104 kg N/ha), T5 (USG, 78 kg N/ha), T6 (NPK briquette, 129 kg N/ha) and T7 (NPK briquette, 102 kg/ha) and T8 (NPK briquette, 78 kg N/ha). All the treatments except T6, T7 and T8 received 25 kg P and 64 kg K /ha as TSP and MoP, respectively. Treatments T6, T7, T8 received NPK briquette fertilizer. Prilled urea (PU) was applied in three equal splits. Urea super granule (USG) and NPK briquettes were applied at 10 day after transplanting (DAT) and the briquettes were placed at 8-10 cm depth in the centre of four hills in alternate rows. The results demonstrate that all the yield components except 1000-grain weight responded significantly to the deep placement of N fertilizers in the form of USG and NPK briquette. The grain and straw yields of BRRI dhan29 were also influenced significantly due to deep placement of N fertilizers under AWD condition. The highest grain yield (6163 kg/ha) was recorded for T3 [USG, 130 kg N/ha) which was statistically similar with T4 (USG, 104…

  • Impact of application of rock phosphate (RP) inoculated with phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) as a fertilizer on total nitrogen (TN), total organic carbon (TOC) and microbial count (MC) in clay soil

    In this study the effect of four treatments of phosphate fertilizers (NS, RP, SP & RP inoculated with PSF (A. niger & A. fumigatus) using three doses (RD, 1/2 RD&2RD) on TN, OC and MC of Nile delta clay soil and its impact on some growth parameters of phasoleous vulgaris was monitored. The Results indicated that OC content of clay soil was positively affected by the amendment of soil with inoculated RP. Inoculation of RP with A.niger culture increased the OC content of the soil by 4.91%, 18.28%, 14.38% and 19.61% comparing to A.fumigatus, NS, RP and SP respectively. the highest soil organic carbon content obtained when soil was amended with inoculated RP in 1/2RD it increased by 1.02% and 7.232% comparing to the amendment of with RD and 2RD. RP inoculated with A.niger culture clay soil showed the highest TN content when amended with 2RD the presence of phasloeus vulgaris plant it was 19.19%. Different phosphate treatments affected MC in clay soil to reach the highest count when inoculated rock phosphate with the RD as a fertilizer it increased by5.66% & 20.75% case of A.fumigatus & A.niger respectively comparing to NS. The lowest count obtained when SP was used as a fertilizer, it decreased by 26.4% comparing to NS.

  • Assessing Vegetable Growth and Yield Response to Graywater Irrigation

    The impacts of graywater irrigation on soil properties and vegetable yields were assessed through a three-year field experiment for Bell Pepper, Chile, and Tomato in El Paso, Texas in the United States. Two irrigation treatments including freshwater (well water and sand filter effluent) and graywater (laundry water) with three replications were utilized in the study. Duncan’s multiple range test at the significance level of 0.05 was used to test changes in soil properties including soil pH, salinity, and sodicity, and mean differences in vegetable growth and yields in terms of fruit height, fruit count, weight, and fruit sizes under freshwater and graywater irrigation treatments. The statistical analysis suggests that no evident salt accumulations or changes in salinity and sodicity were observed at the soil surface in the depth of 0-15cm, while soil pH is increased significantly with graywater irrigation. The growth and yield of Bell pepper and Chile under graywater irrigation tend to increase as compared to freshwater irrigation although the results for the third year were not significant. No yield decreases regarding fruit weight, fruit counts and fruit sizes were observed for all vegetables. It can be concluded from the experimental research that the graywater has shown promising potential as an alternative water supply for vegetable production in the El Paso region, Texas.

  • The Effect of N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) on the Germination of Raphanus sativus (Radish Plants)

    DEET is one of the major chemical constituents of bug repellant with an estimated global use of 7 million liters in 2016. While there has been research concerning the health safety of bug repellent, research concerning its environmental impact is very limited. This study was designed to determine the impact bug repellent on the germination of plant seeds. The build-up of bug repellent found in water and soil was simulated by exposing radish seeds to various concentrations of repellent during the germination process. This two-phased experimental set up demonstrated a significant correlation between higher bug repellent concentrations and lower germination rates. Even in the group containing 0.01% concentration of repellent, only 60% of seeds germinated comparing to 93.3% in the control group on day 10. The differences in germination rates was found to be statistically significant (P=0.0025). The experimental groups with repellents also delayed the process of germination.

  • Natural resource modelling: accounting for gillnet size selectivity in dynamic deterrence model

    This paper applied the two times dynamic deterrence model (DDM) and relax the assumption of perfect size selectivity in gillnet in order to specify factors that determine violation rate. The method of comparative statics is employed to derive analytical results on the sensitivity of optimal violation to a number of key factors of high relevance to compliance with regulation designed to protect against over fishing. Analytical results obtained with this extended DDM confirm findings of earlier empirical studies. The study concludes that in developing country artisanal fisheries where probability of detection, enforcement and levels of fine are typically low, and poverty levels deriving high impatience about the future (discount rate) violation rates are bound to be high. The relative magnitude of the effects of each of these factors on compliance with regulation however, remains an important empirical question that requires further investigation for prioritization of policy actions.

  • Crop Productivity of Wheat under Different Tillage Systems in Semi-Arid Conditions of Sudan

    This study was conducted at Tamboul Testing and Training Centre, Sudan located at 150km south east of Khartoum during two different seasons (1995 -1996) to investigate the response of wheat productivity to different tillage systems on a heavy clay soil in an area of 2.4ha. The treatments were deferent tillage systems (Zero tillage, ridging, shallow harrowing, heavy harrowing, disc ploughing, disc ploughing+harrowing, split ridging and ridging thrice). These treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. A computer program (SAS statistical package) was used to analyze the data while the variations among the means were checked by the least significant difference (LSD).The parameters tested were soil physical properties, crop water requirements (mm/day), plant height (cm), No. of tillering and crop productivity (kg/ha). The results indicated that, tillage systems significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affected clearly soil physical properties. Disc ploughing+harrowing decreased the bulk density (1.3g/cm3) as compared to zero tillage system (1.5g/cm3). Plant height, tillering and yield significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affected by the different tillage systems. Disc ploughing+harrowing gave the highest mean values of plant height (65.83cm), tillering (246) and crop productivity (1305kg/ha) as compared to zero tillage which ranked the least (43.26cm, 202 and 806.8kg/ha, respectively). It is concluded that for increasing the productivity of wheat crop, Disc ploughing+harrowing should be followed and adopted as one of the most important technical packages.

  • Demographic Profiling of Dogs and Dog Ownership in Nsukka Metropolis of Enugu State, Nigeria: a Case study using the Free Anti-Rabies Vaccination Campaign conducted at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka: January-April, 2015

    This Dog ownership in Nigeria, patterns a combination of supervised and stray dogs. The latter constituting Public health challenges. This study relates ecology; dynamics of dog breeds, ownership, management; adherence/non-adherence to extant laws on dog ownership with Rabies endemicity in Nsukka. It proffers recommendations for sustainable Rabies control & vaccination campaign Key Message Nsukka is endemic for Rabies. Statutory control and prevention strategies do not suffice. Understanding the human-dog-interactions as core risk factors for endemicity of Rabies and breaking this link can lead to a Rabies free environment. Abbreviations: FAO: Food and Agricultural Organisation; DFID: Department for International Development; PME: Planning Monitoring and Evaluation, WHO: World Health Organisation

  • Constraints and Opportunities of Maize, Teff and wheat production: The case of Ambo s and Toke Kuttaye Districts, West Showa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    In Ethiopia, agriculture accounts for about 85% of the working forces, 90% of exports and 50% of the total gross domestic product (GDP). Agriculture is the main stay of the country. The study was initiated with the objective of Assessments of constraints and Opportunities of Maize,Teff and wheat production. The study used multi stage random sampling techniques. At first stage, from the existing districts in West Shawa Zone, two districts were selected based on their relative importance with respect to staple food crop production potential and their accessibility purposively. At the second stage, Six PAs, was selected randomly by random sampling method. At the third stage, probability proportional’s to size (PPS) were used to select respondents for interview. Accordingly a sample of 180 house hold heads was selected for interview. The major constraints of the study area were found to be: Crop worm and disease, Price problem, lack of inputs (chemicals, Fertilizers, Seed, etc.,). Lack of appropriate threshing facilities and storage facilities, high post harvest losses, lack of farming oxen, lack of rural credits, lack of education and lack of rural feeder roads. Major opportunities of the study area were found to be, availability of irrigable land, availability of fertile land, availability of motivated and hard working farmers, location of the districts for agricultural marketing’s and good weather condition. Policies, plans and programs should target this rural community. The construction of rural feeder roads, either, mechanization of the farming sector or provision of sufficient farming oxen is indispensible, provision of rural education programs are required, policy makers should focus in provisions of rural credit facilities with reasonable interest rates, crop worms and diseases should be controlled, price for inputs and outputs should be intervened.

  • Economic Appraisal of Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) Kano State, Nigeria

    The Kano River Irrigation (KRIP) is under the Hadejia Jamma’are River Basin Development Authourity (HJRBDA). It covers a total of 62,000.ha of land .The project was established to boost sustainable agricultural productivity of the climo-adaphic environment of the densely populated Kano in northwestern, Nigeria. The area receives a rainfall of less than 700 mm annually, this call’s for an alternative means of sustaining the population agriculturally. The general impression of irrigation project experience of Nigeria is that performance of most irrigation projects fall below pre-project expectation. Consequently irrigation project is viewed with circumspection in some quarters. The focus of the paper is to economically appraise growth of KRIP for 30 years from 1984. Modern discounting measures of Net Present Value (NPV) and Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) were used to assess the project’s four major crops: Rice, wheat, maize and tomato cultivated in the rainy and dry seasons. The result of the measures showed high positive values for both single and combined seasons. It was concluded that KRIP is the most economically viable, successful and sustainable project in Nigeria, and West Africa at large. It was recommended that remaining part of the project be completed in order to have full benefit of the project.

  • Assessment of farmers’ utilization of Soy food in Buno Bedele and Ilu Ababora zones of Southwestern Ethiopia

    The main objective of this study was to assess utilization of soybean based foods in Chawaka, Bedele and Darimu districts of southwestern Ethiopia. Primary data for the study was collected from 185 smallholder farmers of the districts. Descriptive, inferential and econometric models were used to analyze the data. Socio economic factors affecting utilization of soy food was identified using binary logistic model. The descriptive result of the study showed 62% of respondents use soy food at home. Concomitantly, 93.3% of female headed households use soy food. The study also pointed out only 32% of survey respondents got training on soybean food preparation. Out of the total respondents who got the training, 95.6% of them use soy food at home. Bureau of agriculture and natural resource management, Research centers and NGOs were organizations provided training on soybean food preparation. This enhanced farmers to use soy based foods such as soy milk, Dabo, Kolo and Shiro which are common on the study areas. The econometric result of the study showed that women headed households highly and significantly consume soybean food at home than male headed households. On other hands, both training on soybean food preparation and soybean production affect soy food consumption at home positively and significantly. Based on the findings, the study recommends concerning bodies including media, rural extension workers and NGOs to emphasize on creating awareness regarding nutritional importance of soybean so that production, consumption, processing and marketing of soybean will be promoted.