American Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Effect of planting space and fertilizer rate on productivity of Desho grass

    The study was conducted in Jinka agricultural research center south agriculutural research institute Southern Ethiopia with objective of identifying effect of planting space and fertilizer rate on productivity of desho grass. Planting of Desho grass has been conducted in four planting space (level1= 0.25cm between plants and 0.5cm between rows, levele2= 0.5cm b/n plants and 0.75 b/n rows, level 3= 0.75cm b/n plants and 1meter b/n rows, level 4= 1 meter b/n plants and 1.25 meter b/n rows) and five fertilizer rates (control, 0.5 DAP and 0.5ql urea, 1 ql DAP and 1.5 ql urea, 1 ql DAP and 2 ql urea, 1.5 ql DAP and 2 ql urea ). The experiment has used a plot size of 3m x 4m. Field trial was arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Plant height, number of tiller per plant and dry matter yield were recorded. The results indicated that planting space evaluated showed statistical significant variation (p

  • Seed viability and emergence depths of Ageratum conyzoides L.

    Ageratum conyzoides is a major weed among food crops in Ivory Coast. The viability of its seeds and the depth of emergence of its seedlings were studied in order to understand its distribution and to develop effective management strategies. Generally, less than 50% of the seed of this plant remains viable after one year of soil burial. However, the viable seed rates of this species vary according to depths of burial. The lowest viable seed rates were noted at burial depths of 0 cm and 0.5 cm (5.25% and 8.5% viable seeds, respectively), intermediate rates were at burial depths of 2.5 cm and 10 cm (28% and 26.5% viable seeds, respectively) and the highest rates were at burial depths of 5 cm (43% viable seeds). The highest rates of seedlings of Ageratum conyzoides (75%) were obtained at soil surface. These results indicate that the lifetime of seeds of Ageratum conyzoides depends on their position in the soil. Seed stocks on soil surface are ephemeral while those depths between 2.5 and 10 cm from soil surface may be persistent. For this, after all tillage to a depth of between 2.5 cm and 10 cm from soil surface, regeneration of Ageratum conyzoides must be prevented by destroying raised plants before they reach fruiting.

  • FORAGE DRY MATTER YIELD OF INTERCROPPED MAIZE (Zea mays) AND COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) IN VARIOUS SPRAY REGIMES AND SEASONS

    The demand for crop residues is rising in response to increasing consumption of animal protein while productivity of natural pastures is declining due to adverse effects of climate change, overgrazing and population pressure on land. Although the use of forage crop can complement natural pastures, it is essential that the fodder potential of these crops be assessed. Five varieties of cowpea and one variety of maize were studied with the aim of evaluating their forage dry matter yield under different cropping systems, sowing dates and agro-chemical treatments. Treatments were laid out in split-split plot and arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications across the two years in Ako, South Eastern Nigeria. The results obtained indicated that intercropping cowpea with maize produced more total forage dry matter than sole crop of cowpea and maize. Early season cropping and long duration cowpea significantly (P=0.05) supported higher cowpea fodder dry matter yield in both years. Lowered application of agro-chemical (≤one spray) resulted in higher cowpea fodder production. Significantly (P=0.05) higher dry matter yield was obtained in maize when two insecticide sprays was applied in both sole and intercropping. The higher stover yield obtained in maize with higher insecticide application as against lower cowpea fodder yield with higher chemical application suggested the existence of physiological compensation among the component crops used in this study.

  • Agricultural Susceptibility to Climate Change in Varied Ecological areas of Northwest Ethiopia

    Agriculture is the most susceptible sector to climate change-induced hazards due to the fact that it affects the two most important direct agricultural production inputs, such as precipitation and temperature. Therefore, this study analyzed the susceptibility of agriculture to climate change in three purposively selected agro-ecological area of Northwest Ethiopia. The quantitative climate data were obtained from Global Weather Data for Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) from 1979 to 2010 while data on crop production and perception of households towards crop yield trend were collected using structured questionnaire complemented with informants’ interview and field observation. Analytical techniques such as simple regressions (SR), standardized precipitation index (SPI), one-way-analysis of variance (ANOVA), crop diversification index (CDI) and index of trend of yield (ITY) supported with descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The meteorology data reveal that climate is characterized by increasing annual temperature trend, greater inter-seasonal variation of rainfall, and alteration of wet and dry years in a periodic pattern over the past 32 years (1979 – 2010). Rainfall also showed decreasing tendency at a statistically non-significant trend. Huge unproductive land was reported in the fragile lowland (41 %) distantly followed by Dabat (21.32 %). These ecological contexts have worsened the susceptibility of agriculture to climate change-induced risks. The trend of crop yield stability index was found to be high in the fragile lowland against the official statistics. In fact, places located nearer to the sources of climatic risks continue to suffer from pervasive poverty. In conclusion, ecologically designed agricultural systems that can provide a buffer against extreme events need to be the primary concerns of the regional government to minimize climate change-induced risks thereby increasing resiliency of rural households. Local leaders should enforce green laws through integrated land management practices that enable to regulate the local climate; sequestrating…

  • Study on genotype x environment interaction of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil yield

    Sesame is an oilseed crop grown for its seed and oil for local and export markets and is a great source of income for farmers, traders, processers and the national economy of Ethiopia. However, its productivity and production are influenced by environmental factors. This experiment was, therefore, carried out to estimate the nature and magnitude of interaction of genotypes with the environment and to identify stable sesame genotypes in Eastern Amhara Region. Twelve sesame genotypes were studied in five locations at eight environments in 2010 and 2011 main cropping seasons. The highest oil yields were obtained from genotypes Acc.00047, NN-0143 and Borkena (339.2, 306.0 and 287.5 kg ha-1), respectively. There were highly significant difference (P

  • Climate change, biodiversity and agro-biodiversity

    Climate change is a real global threat. The main cause of the current global warming trend is human expansion of the “greenhouse effect”. The biodiversity is a perfect design freely offered for well-being of all humanity; it provides benefits such as food security, resil­iency, health…etc. Agrobiodiversity which is a vital sub-set of biodiversity playing a key role in food security will be increasingly threatened by climate change worldwide. Algeria is among the countries that will be most vulnerable to climate change due to its predominance of arid and semi-arid regions. Despite many efforts taken per Algeria to preserve biodiversity in general, genetic erosion of different ecosystems remains an alarming fact caused by several factors linked for climatic conditions, socio-cultural upheaval, difficulties for application of legislations, lack of consistent programs and adequate mechanisms for the effective implementation of the various strategies to safeguard biodiversity in the widest possible context. Awareness-raising campaigns on the need to preserve local resources with their diversity, in situ and ex situ conservation, the promotion of resilient crops and systems, the support of research in general and that of development in particular, participatory approach and better collaboration between the various actors in the agricultural and environmental sectors are some options for sustainable development and to lift the challenge of climate change in Algeria.

  • Distributed Storage of Remote Sensing Data Based on Hadoop Platform

    A distributed remote sensing data storage system based on Hadoop platform is designed to solve the problem of low storage efficiency and low security of mass remote sensing data. Uesd virtualization technology to PC as hardware based virtual computing node the Hadoop Cluster required, without increasing the dedicated server clusters and does not change the original PC use conditions, built the Hadoop platform by the virtual machine cluster. Using LandSat-8 satellite image data as the experimental object, through the design of file tree structure, the remote sensing image data according to the band and split into several blocks of image coordinates, combined with the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) characteristics of block storage data block, the remote sensing data stored in the distribution of the whole virtual computer cluster in. Build Hadoop platform remote sensing data distributed storage system with low cost.

  • Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Use of Improved Technologies by Smallholder Paddy Farmers in Kilombero District, Tanzania

    The study on which the paper is based was carried out in Kilombero district, Morogoro Region. Specifically it aimed at; identifying smallholder paddy farmers use of improved technologies (i.e. improved seeds and fertilizers) in their production; determining socio-economic factors influencing their use or none-use of the above, and identifying inputs access challenges faced by the farmers. To address the above a cross–sectional research design was adopted whereby data were collected only once. Simple random sampling was used to obtain 120 respondents, 40 from each of the selected villages. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Collected primary data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), whereby descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were determined. In addition, a binary logistic regression model was used to determine association of some key socio-economic factors and farmers use of improved technologies. Generally, results from the logistic regression show that, availability of extension officers, involvement in other income generating activities, access to credit, household size, annual income, education level and farm size were significantly associated with the use of improved seeds and fertilizers. Results further show that, major technology use challenges faced by farmers were high inputs prices, poor availability of inputs, long distance to agro–input shops, lack of adequate input use knowledge and low quality inputs. Therefore, the paper recommends that, the Ministry of Agriculture, Local Government and other stakeholders work on ways to increase smallholder farmers’ access and use of improved technologies hence improvement of their paddy productivity.

  • Effect of temperature on bean seed germination: vigor and isozyme expression

    This research aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds and isozyme expression in seedlings of bean’s genotypes under influence of germination temperatures. Seeds of Carioca, BRS Expedito and IPR Tuiuiú genotypes were subjected to five germination temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C). Seeds were submitted to tests of germination, first count, germination speed index, cold test, isozyme expression and the total dry matter of seedlings. Germination was altered due to the different temperatures. As the temperature rose, seeds of IPR Tuiuiú and BRS Expedito had reduced germination. The increase on temperature significantly affected the germination speed index of the three genotypes, leading to a greater increase in the values of this attribute. Bands of esterase from the cold test showed less intensity compared to other tests. Due to the exposure to different temperatures, there are similarities between the number and intensity of bands on esterase, with lower enzyme expression at 30 and 35 °C, changes in the number and intensity of peroxidase expression at all temperatures, and practically none expression of the acid phosphatase enzyme in higher evaluated temperatures. Therefore, the seeds exhibit better performance when exposed to temperature of 30 °C compared to use of lower temperatures, while on temperatures above 30 °C isozymes expression is reduced for both genotypes.

  • Characterization of fire occurrences (2010-2014) in the southeast of Brazil

    The periodic occurrence of forest fire is common in some places of Brazil. Mostly in places, that has a specified dry station, these fires can damage the forestry ecosystems, and their occurrence may affect the wild life and bring economic losses, as well in CO2 global emission. The aim of this study was define the fire season occurrence in Viçosa – Minas Gerais state Brazil, using five years data of fire and rainfall collected by the Fire Fighters. The study was made through the data from the firefighters from UFV, this data was evaluate for a period between 2010 and 2014, collecting the days and months that occurred fire in Viçosa city and outskirts, also the average precipitation data for the period. The observations showed that to Viçosa city, the occurrence of fire is mostly common in the July to October months, and August is the most susceptible month.