Triticum aestivum L. (Bread Wheat) is a graminoid species of plant in the family true grasses, with a self-supporting growth habit. It is second staple food for the people living in Nepal. Total 45 weed species were collected from wheat field belonging to 19 families and 39 genera. Triticum aestivum L. is greatly affected by different weeds. Most of the weeds can be used as fodder.
Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment through Coping Strategies Index in Tillaberi region in Niger
Climate change vulnerability of four villages in the Tillaberi Region of Niger was analyzed through a coping strategy index (CSI) determination. It concerned the villages of Dioga and Magou, in the commune of Torodi and those of Zori Bangou and Tokobinkani Zarma in that of Hamdallaye. Two types of indices were measured, one in relation to food security, and the other with assets and livelihoods. They reflected different values between the villages of the two municipalities and the two municipalities from 2015 to 2106. The value of the CSI in relation to the food security of the two municipalities in 2016, represents half of the score 2015, reflecting a decline in food vulnerability for this period. The CSI for assets and livelihoods for 2016 is 6.93, higher than 2015 one (6.32), indicating a greater diversification of livelihoods. In addition, the coping strategy index for the food aspects is higher in the villages of Hamdallaye with 55.5 and 41.9 respectively in 2015 and 2016, than in those of Torodi respectively 46.91 and 22.6, for 2015 and 2016, reflecting a higher vulnerability in Hamdallaye. For the CSI in relation to the assets and livelihoods, there is no significant difference between the two villages of Torodi and one of the two villages of Hamdallaye (Zori Bangou). Torodi, located further South with higher rainfall and greater livelihood diversification, has lower vulnerability criteria in relation to the food aspects than Hamdallaye in the north. Thus, there is an increase in vulnerability from south to north inversely proportional to the increasing rainfall gradient.
Most of the wax produced now-a-days are used in the manufacture of cosmetics, such as hand and face creams, lipsticks and depilatory wax and many uses. To become competent both in local and export markets the quality of the beeswax has to be maintained. However pre- and post-harvest handling and processing of crude beeswax may affect its quality and quantity. Hence, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of beeswax obtained from different sources and compares the effectiveness of different beeswax extraction methods for rendering pure and quality beeswax. Three bees wax sources (comb, sefef and crude honey) and three extraction methods (manual, submerged and solar) were arranged in complete factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Ten kg each of comb, sefef and crude honey were used for extraction and the average amount of pure beeswax obtained was compared. The analysis of variance indicated that there were significant difference among beeswax sources, extraction methods and interaction between beeswax sources and extraction methods on the yield of beeswax and slum gum ((P
The major objectives of this study were to describe the selected characteristics of the farmers cultivate vegetable with IPM farmers; to determine the level of profitability of vegetable cultivation with Integrated Pest Management (IPM) farmers and to identify the factor that significantly influences profitability of vegetable cultivation. The study was conducted with randomly selected 115 farmers in Tetuljhora union under savar upazila of Dhaka district. A pre-tested interview schedule was used to collect data from the respondents during 25th August to 25th September, 2018. Profitability of vegetable cultivation by the IPM farmers was the dependent variable and it was measured based on benefit cost ratio. Eeleventh selected characteristics of the respondents considered as independent variables of the study. The interview survey revealed that majority (74.8 percent) of the respondents had medium level of profitability while 14.8 percent and 10.4 percent of them had high and low profitability respectively. Out of selected eleven characteristics, five namely number of vegetable grown, training in vegetable cultivation, organizational participation, annual family income and education had significant positive contribution to their profitability of vegetable cultivation by the IPM farmers. Therefore, to motivate the vegetable farmers for using IPM practices, the policy makers should consider the above mention significant factors
Yield Response of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on Substrate Composed from Wheat Straw and Cotton Seed Waste
Mushroom production has been gaining uppermost interests from scientific point of view due their nutritional values and medicinal importance’s. In this report, the effect of substrates’ composed from different mix ratio of wheat straws and cotton seed waste on growth, yield and yield related parameters of oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus) mushroom were presented. The experiment was lied out in different mix ratio of wheat straws and cotton seed waste for ten treatments with two replications in randomized complete design. The quantitative data including days taken for full colonization, days from colonization to primordial formation and days after primordial emergences to first harvest were recorded. The measurements of growth and yield parameters viz. cap-diameters, stipe length, number of fruits, aborts, bunches, biological efficiencies and total biomass were also recorded. The shortest days of primordial emergences 2.88days (T10) after mycelium fully colonize the substrates, days of first harvesting after primordial emergences 3days (T7), longest cap-diameters 11.35cm (T3), stipe length 4.39cm (T9), maximum number of bunches 5(T3,T5 and T8), maximum fresh weight 593.5g (T3) in 1st flush, were produced under different mix ratio of wheat straws supplemented with cotton seed wastes. Treatments T2 and T6 of wheat straw and cotton seed waste substrate where gave higher total biomass and biological efficacy 1382g and 183.65% respectively so that it could be recommended for pilot scale and large scale production of oyster mushroom.
Business Plan for the establishment of Animal Feed storage and retailer warehouse with future expansion to processing factory in Assosa Town Benishangul Gumuz Regional State Ethiopia
Background: – The major constraint of animal productivity in Benishangul Gumuz Region State Ethiopia is absence of concentrate feed, breed and presence of epidemic diseases. Trypanosomiasis is the major epidemic disease affecting animals in the region as identified by different literatures. To solve this problem, veterinary clinics established by government almost in each kebeles of the woreda. There are two additional private veterinary clinics. To improve breed of animals cross breeds of Holstein Friesian is increased by artificial insemination service together with required extension service for small scale farmers. However, there was no animal feed distributor until this business organization is established in 2018 E.C by our organization Objective: – the major objective of this proposal is to get land for constriction of warehouse that enable to reduce cost of rent; store safely and to start mixing according to proportion. Opportunities: – There is no animal processing company in Assosa area. Owner has required qualification and experience. There are different enterprises and cooperative organizations engaged in livestock getting financial support from government and NGOs. The feed byproduct from oil and food factory can be used and there is plenty of ingredients like maize and oil seeds for future processing. Significance: -Precence animal feed distributor engages continues supply of concentrate feed that able to improve animal productivity and health so that improve economy of farmers, enterprises and region. In addition to this, farmers get knowledge and skill animal feed preparation. Source of feed: – the manager of this organization is signed as dealer of Alema Kaudjis Feed PLC located at Debrezeit and other feed processing plants in Addis Abeba. The future project expansion plan is to establish animal feed processing plant within this town Required capital:- totally 300,000Ethiopian birr)ETB) is needed for this were house construction and running business. 100,000 ETB…
Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers Rate on Yield and Yield Components of Tef at Adola District, Guji Zone, in Southern Ethiopia
An experiment was conducted at Adola District, Southern Ethiopia to investigate the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus rates on yield and yield components of tef. Four rates of nitrogen (0, 46, 69, 92 kg ha-1) and five rates of phosphorus (0, 23, 46, 69 and 92 kg ha-1) were combined in 4×5 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data collected on phenology, growth and yield parameters were analyzed using SAS 9.2 computer software. Analysis of the results revealed that panicle length were highly significant (P
Agriculture has been the foundation of the national economy since ancient times. With the development of the era, the total agricultural economy has continued to increase. The proportion of the economy is decreasing. This paper analyzes the agricultural value added by analyzing the GDP of China in 2017 (including 31 provinces). After using EViews10SV software to analysis regression, found that there is a positive correlation between agricultural added value and GDP, that is, every percentage point change in agricultural added value, GDP will increase by 0.146543 percentage points, indicating that agriculture has a positive effect on GDP growth.
The major purposes of the study were to determine and describe some selected characteristics of the bean farmers, to determine the extent of use of communication media and to identify the factors that influence use of communication media by the bean farmers. The study was conducted in four villages of two unions under Atghoria upazilla of Pabna District. Data were collected from a random sample of 106 bean farmers by using an interview schedule during 15 Dec, 2017 to 15 Jan, 2018. Overwhelming (88.8%) of the farmers had medium to high use of communication media. Step wise multiple regression analysis indicated that knowledge on bean cultivation, training exposure, organizational participation and education had significant positive contribution with their use of communication media by the bean farmers. Overwhelming (86.8%) of bean farmers use medium to high communication media. therefore, it may be said that use of communication media by the bean farmers is a serious issue to be addressed to maximize bean cultivation.
Gender Differentials in Climate Change Adaptive Capabilities Among Small- scale Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria
Gender differentials in climate change adaptive capabilities among small- scale farmers in Abia State was assessed using a sample size of 70 male and 70 female respondents generated via a multi- stage method. Data collected from the respondents through the use of questionnaire and interview schedule were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Z – Test analysis. Results showed 46 years and 44 years as the mean ages of male and female respondents respectively. About 29 %, 43 % and 21 % of the male respondents and 50 %, 36 % and 11 % of the female respondents were into farming, trading and other professions respectively. About 86 % of the male respondents and 69 % of the female respondents were literates and had mean monthly income of ₦32,871.143 and ₦28,642. 854. Result equally, shows a mean farm size of 1.7 and 1.3 hectares for the male and female respondents with mean years of farming experience of 11 years and 12 years respectively. About 57 %, 14, 12 and 7 % of male respondents acquired their farm lands through inheritance, lease, communal ownership, and outright purchase respectively as against 7 %, 57 %, 7 % and 29 % for the female respondents. About 90 % of the male respondents had between once every 2 years and once every 6 months of extension contacts as against 82 % of the female respondents. Also 86 % of the male respondents belonged to social associations as against 93 % of the female respondents. Result further shows that a high proportion (X ≥ 50 %) of male and female respondents have high level of awareness on adaptive measures but negative (X< 2.5) and low practice (X< 2.5) level of adaptive measures on climate change. The study equally shows that there is a remarkable difference between...