American Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Assessment Of Heritable Variation And Best Combining Genotypes For Grain Yield And Its Attributes In Bread Wheat

    Grain yield in wheat is the resultant of several plant attributes. It is very important to assess heritable variation involved in the inheritance of these attributes in addition to find best combining genotypes. For this purpose, the present study involving 5×5 full diallel analysis was performed. Twenty F1 hybrids along with their parents were planted in field using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in the research area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 2015-2016. Plant characters like plant height, flag leaf area, spike length, No. of fertile tillers per plant, No. of grains per spike, No. of spikelets per spike, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant were studied in this experiment. Mean squares due to GCA were highly significant for all the traits except for spike length for which GCA effects were significant. Mean squares due to SCA and RCA were highly significant for all the characters studied. GCA variance was higher than the SCA variance for spike length and No. of grains per spike exhibiting the predominant role of additive genetic variation in the inheritance of these traits. However, for the characters like plant height, flag leaf area, No. of fertile tillers per plant, No. of spikelets per spike, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant, the value of SCA variance was higher than the value of GCA variance showing non additive gene action for these traits. The variety Chakwal-50 proved to be the best general combiner for plant height, spike length, No. of spikelets per spike, No. of grains per spike and grain yield per plant. The cross, 9802×Chakwal-86 was the best specific combination for grain yield and most of the yield attributes. The good general and specific combiners are important breeding resources for the initiation…

  • Beef Production and Marketing in Nigeria: Entrepreneurship in Animal Agriculture

    The objective of the study is to survey the current beef production systems and marketing in Nigeria as a means of encouraging entrepreneurship in animal agriculture. One hundred (100) beef producers and marketers were randomly selected for interviews and discussion on beef production and marketing dynamics. Data generated were subjected to descriptive statistics to explain the trend of beef production and marketing in the study area. Beef are produced in the area majorly by pastoralism (75%), home fattening (15%) and government institutions (10%). Market prices of beef cattle in Mubi are determined by visual evaluation which incorporates element of indicators such as breed, age, sex, colour, body condition score, temperament, anus stain and the purpose of buying the animals. Inadequate market information, manipulative ways of market intermediaries, high cost of transportation, lack of infrastructure and credit facilities, fluctuation in demand and supply, cattle rustling and buying of stolen animals, inadequate security within the market place and on the roads and payment of heavy taxes and clearing of checkpoints on the roads formed constraints faced by the producers and marketers. Therefore, beef cattle production and marketing in the study area and Nigeria, in general, are predominantly controlled by intermediaries who benefit more, while primary producers and the end consumers do not get the desired value for their efforts. It is recommended that, since beef cattle production and marketing is not isolated from national and international political and socio-economic policies, the interactions between the producers, marketers and broader sectors should be taken into account in order to generate holistic and reliable data that would inform effective interventions.

  • Effect of between plants space on Seed yield potential of cow pea at Dilla sub- station, Southern Ethiopia

    The study was conducted in Dilla substation with objective of identifying optimum between plant space for optimum seed yield and quality seed. Planting one high yielding which is in seed multiplication status was used as experimental material. Four different between plant space( 10 cm, 20cm, 30cm and 40cm with constant between row space(40cm) were used as experimental treatments in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Plot size was 3 x 2m with an inter-row spacing of 40cm and 1m between replication and plots. Dry matter herbage yield has shown significantly higher in between plant space of 20cm than other treatments (30 and 40 cm) at (p

  • Abiotic Stresses and their Effects, Responses, and Adaptations in Grapevines (Vitis vinifera): Overview of Modern Research: a Review

    Grapevines are cultivated throughout the world and face environmental fluctuations due to changing climatic and abiotic conditions. Temperature stress, hormonal imbalance, salinity and drought stress are the most damaging abiotic stresses that affect the metabolic processes, physiological structure and yield of the plants. This review focuses on the recent advancement in the study of various abiotic stresses on grapevines, their responses and the development of tolerance in them. Grapevines are also very sensitive to these abiotic stresses and have adaptations such as increase in abscisic acid synthesis, ascorbate peroxide concentration and genes expression for the development of resistance to overcome the harsh environment. According to the recent research, the exogenous application of kaolin is very useful in the control of harmful effects of heat stress and hormonal imbalance in grapevines. The study of the different stable genes expression in grapevines under sanity drought and cold stress is also helpful in the synthesis of the most resistant transgenic plants. The further study of the application of the different protective chemicals on the grapevines under abiotic stresses will open new ways for their management. The future genetic study of grapevines for the identification of different reference genes will result in the synthesis of the most stable transgenic plants.

  • The Effect of Different Irrigation Cycles and Salicylic Acid on Certain Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Viola tricolor L.

    The influence of salicylic acid on environmental stress tolerance has been known since many years, but owing to the impact of drought stress on green space plants in Iran, for the first time, was utilized this hormone on viola cornuta Rebel in Shiraz. The experiment was factorial in a completely randomized design, with twelve treatments and four replications in each treatment. Three levels of irrigation cycle [0, 3, and 5 daily] were used for this seasonal flower and four levels of salicylic acid [0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mM] were sprayed three times on the violets. The results represented salicylic acid at rates of [0.5, 0.75, and 1 mM], which, in interaction with the levels of the irrigation cycle [3, and 5 daily], can reduce the drought effect. Plant height, leaf area, leaf width, Chlorophyll a and b, proline content, and RWC increased and only the electrolyte leakage diminished. In the traits leaf length and carotenoid content, cannot be seen a noticeable difference; but, generally from the above findings, it can be concluded that salicylic acid declines water-stress effect on the majority of the pansy traits.

  • Evaluation of Compost Integrated with Chemical Fertilizer for better production of Maize in Shashemene District of West Arsi Zone, Oromia

    The effect of integrated use of compost and urea on yield of and yield component was assessed in a field experiment in Shashemene district during 2016-2018. In this experiment, compost was replaced UREA at different rate depending on its quality. Compost quality was analyzed mainly for Total nitrogen to compute its equivalency with UREA. Accordingly, It was identified that average total nitrogen in compost was 1%.Therefore, 100kg UREA (46kg N) is equivalent to 4600kg compost (4.6ton). The treatments were control (100kg DAP+100kg UREA), 100%compost (4.6ton) +100kg DAP, 75% compost (3.45ton)+25%UREA+ 100kg DAP, 50% compost (2.3ton) +50%UREA+100kg DAP, 25%compost (1.15ton) +75%UREA +100kg DAP. Maize (variety: Shano)) was planted in rows. Data on grain yield and yield components were analyzed. Soil samples were also collected to evaluate the residual effect of compost on soil properties. The results indicated that maximum grain yield (93kunt ha-1) of maize was obtained in treatment (2) that received sole compost plus 100kg DAP ha-1. The next higher yield was obtained in treatment 3 and 4 that received both compost and UREA with the ratio of 75:25 and 50:50 respectively. Comparing with sole chemical fertilizer treatment, the crop yield was significantly higher and different (p≤0.05) in all treatments. The residual soil fertility after maize harvest was proportional to the level of compost used. Except for total nitrogen, available potassium and phosphorous in sole chemical fertilizer application is smaller and highly significantly different (p≤0.05) from the rest of the treatments indicating that all total nitrogen in compost is available for crop in the first year of application while potassium and phosphorous availability for the crop is partially delayed. Based on the result, it was economically and environmentally recommended to use ISFM for sustainable maize production in the area.

  • Use of natural products for weed management in high-value crops: An Overview

    Over the last five decades, weed management systems have relied primarily on synthetic herbicides. Due to the concerns over the potential impact of chemicals on human health and the environment, efforts are being made to reduce the heavy reliance on synthetic herbicides. To reduce synthetic herbicides, use of natural products such as essential oils, plant extracts, allelochemicals, agricultural by-products, and some microbes are gaining attention because they are safe due to their short environmental half-life and low toxicity. These natural product bioherbicides are a good alternative to synthetic herbicides especially in organic agriculture since they focus on environmental protection, practical viability, compatibility for integrated programs, and ecological stability. Most of the commercially available natural herbicides are non-selective and require careful application in order to preserve the crop of interest. Although many studies in this direction have been undertaken, the use of these natural products is still not common because of the difficulties in their synthesis due to their complex structure, cost effectiveness, poor results in field trials, and rapid degradation. No single above mentioned natural product has the potential to comprehensively replace chemical weed management; however, an integrated approach may provide better results. Thus, the role of bioherbicides in modern weed management is complementary rather than exclusive.

  • Contribution of Cover Crops and Reduced Tillage Systems for Weed Management in Organic Vegetable Production

    In recent years, organic vegetable production systems have become an increasingly important segment of agriculture; and weed control is a principal concern for organic vegetable growers. In the absence of herbicides, tillage and cultivation are the most commonly used tools by vegetable growers for managing weeds in organic systems; however, intensive tillage may have adverse effects on soil and environmental health. In recent times, to reduce intensive soil tillage and achieve successful weed management, integration of cover crops with conservation tillage (reduced or no-tillage) is emerging as an innovative alternative production practice in organic farming. Research over the globe has shown that cover crops can be used to control weeds in vegetable fields, and also play an important role in improving productivity of subsequent crops by improving soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. In agronomic crops, the benefits of cover crops in conjugation with reduced tillage on weed management are well documented but, such information is scarcely available for vegetables grown in organic production systems. This review focuses on different types of cover crop species and conservation tillage systems for weed management in organic vegetable production.

  • Field performance of Solid Manures and their Slurries on Growth, Yield and Quality of Potato in Old Brahmaputra Floodplain Soils

    Continuous use of chemical fertilizers declines crop yield and deteriorates soil fertility. For sustenance of crop productivity and soil fertility integration of chemical fertilizers with manures is a timely approach. An experiment was, therefore, conducted to evaluate the field performances of different types of manure including cowdung (CD), cowdung slurry (CD slurry), trichocompost (TC), vermicompost (VC), poultry manure (PM) and poultry manure slurry (PM slurry) with integrated use of chemical fertilizers during 2011-12 and 2012-13 at Bangladesh Agricultural University farm. The field trials comprised eight treatments which included T1: Control (no manure or fertilizer), T2: High yield goal (HYG) based 100% chemical fertilizers (CF), T3: CD + CF (IPNS basis), T4: CD slurry + CF (IPNS basis), T5: PM + CF (IPNS basis), T6: PM slurry + CF (IPNS basis), T7: TC + CF (IPNS basis) and T8: VC + CF (IPNS basis). Cowdung, CD slurry, TC and VC were added to soil at 5 t ha-1 while PM and PM slurry were applied at 3 t ha-1. The results revealed that TC and VC containing treatments produced higher crop yield and next to them PM slurry and CD slurry performed better in respect of potato yield. Integrated use of manure and fertilizers gave on an average 6.7-33.7% yield increase in potato over sole chemical fertilizers treatment. The lowest yield was observed in control. These results show that Trichocompost and vermicompost in combination with chemical fertilizers are suitable for quality potato production.

  • Response of Growth and Yield of Potato to Neb-26 as a Source of Nitrogen

    This Urea is a vital source of nitrogen (N) to be supplied for plants but most of it is lost through processes including volatilization, denitrification, leaching and run-off. So, it is timely to find out an alternative source of nitrogen fertilizer. A field experiment was, therefore, carried out at Soil Science Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during 2016-2017 with a view to investigating the effectiveness of NEB-26 (a liquid N fertilizer introduced by Advanced Chemical Industries (ACI) Limited) in combination with urea on the growth and yield of potato. The soil was silt loam in texture having a pH 6.4, organic matter 1.55%, total N 0.091%, available P 3.30 mg kg-1, available K 0.08 me 100-1 g soil, available S 6.46 mg kg-1 and available Zn 0.86 mg kg-1. The experiment consisted of five treatments laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The treatments were T1: Control (no N fertilizer), T2: 100% N from urea, T3: 50% N from urea, T4: 50% N from urea + 500 ml ha-1 NEB-26 and T5: 50% N from urea + 750 ml ha-1 NEB-26. The potato variety used in the experiment was ‘Diamant’. The recommended doses of N (140 kg ha-1), P (25 kg ha-1), K (135 kg ha-1) and S (15 kg ha-1) were supplied from urea, TSP, MoP and gypsum, respectively. All the fertilizers except urea were applied as basal dose. Urea was applied in three installments and the NEB-26 was applied as per treatment at the time of second installment of urea application. The crop was harvested at maturity and the yield components and yields were recorded. The results indicate that the yield attributes, tuber yield and haulm yield of potato were significantly influenced by N supplied from urea and NEB-26. The tuber yield…