American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews

  • The Need for Pre-retirement Vocational Education Training for Workers in Tertiary Institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    This study examined the need for pre-retirement vocational education training for workers in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. Descriptive research design was used for this study. The population of the study was 9,523, made up of academic and non-academic members of staff in the four public tertiary institutions in the state. Five per cent (5%) of the total population was used as the sample for the study using proportionate sampling technique. Thus, the sample for the study was 476 members of staff. A set of questionnaire titled “Questionnaire on Pre-retirement Education Training for Tertiary Institution Workers in Ekiti State (QPETTIW) was administered on the respondents. All the administered questionnaires were returned, mean and standard deviation were used to answer the four research questions. The finding revealed that there were economic, social and psychological needs for pre-retirement vocational education training for workers in public tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. Thus, it was recommended that institutional authorities should incorporate pre-retirement vocational training/education into their staff development programme, among others.

  • A Brochure Describing the Drama of Rumelian Turks: Bulgaristan’daki Osmanlıların Âh ü Figânı

    As of the end of the 18th century and parallel to the Ottoman Empire’s decline, the Rumelian Turks who had inhabited Balkan lands for centuries began to suffer persecution at the hands of Balkan Christians and the unrest they created. While paving the way for Bulgarian and Russian aggression towards Balkan Turks, the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 also triggered the initial migrations towards Istanbul and Anatolia. As stated in Namık Kemal’s letters, Balkan Christians were further agitated against Turks, and separatist activity increased. The Balkan War of 1912-1913 and the purge of Balkan Turks and Muslims carried out by Bulgarian and Greek guerillas in this war have been recorded in domestic and foreign sources. Further evidence that such practices preceded the Balkan Wars is the 14-page brochure titled Bulgaristan’daki Osmanlıların Âh ü Figanı, published in 1906. This brochure describes the various acts of aggression carried out towards the Turks in Bulgaria. Attacks against Turkish writers and the Balkan newspaper that was published in Turkish and defended the rights of Muslim Turks are also touched upon. This study will introduce the brochure titled Bulgaristan’daki Osmanlıların Âh ü Figanı, which we will evaluate within the scope of a cautionary/propagandistic/informative work.

  • Assessment of Students’ Satisfaction: A Case Study of University of Gondar

    Universities in the modern world are expected to seek and cultivate new knowledge, provide the right kind of leadership and strive to promote equality and social justice. The general objective of the analysis is to investigate the satisfaction level of undergraduate level students enrolled in regular program of University of Gondar and there by understand Gondar University’s level of service quality perceived by the students. A cross-sectional study design was conducted on students of the university selected using stratified random sampling technique. The analysis was anchored on the model developed by Parasuraman et al. (1988) known as SERVQUAL. Results revealed that the satisfaction level of students in the overall service of the university is 65.4%. Additionally there is significant variation in students’ satisfaction across sex regarding student-instructor interaction, administrative student support service and facility supervision whereas no significant variation was seen regarding satisfaction due to undergraduate and post-graduate programs. Therefore it could be possible to conclude that majority of the students are satisfied with the service that the university offers. However it was also found that the number of the dissatisfied group was not insignificant and therefore more effort should be made to make the satisfaction level of the students much better than the current level.

  • Article Critique: “The Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Job Satisfaction”

    This paper provides a critical review of the article published under the title of “The relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction”. The reviewed article intended to determine the relationship between transformational leadership of government secondary school principals and teachers’ job satisfaction. Though not mentioned in the reviewed article, a descriptive survey research design was employed to attain its objective. The transformational leadership questionnaire and the teachers’ job satisfaction questionnaire were employed as instruments of data collection. Therefore, the reviewer followed theoretical, epistemological and statistical assumptions of quantitative research while critically review the article. Accordingly, despite some flaws existed in the study that might lessen its empirical power and reputation, the study was worthwhile in examining the transformational theoretical leadership paradigm in the Ethiopian context. It was suggested that audiences need to consider its shortfalls while using the study findings and future studies need to consider such inaccuracies.

  • Teachers’ Perception and Implementation of Constructivist Learning

    A special attention has been given to education system in Ethiopia especially in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion design, Bahir Dar University after Educational Sector Development Program (ESDP I, 2003) was developed and implemented. Initially, before ESDP I, the ways of teaching and learning were mainly based on behaviorist approaches. This behaviorist approach to learning and teaching is gradually changed to cognitive and constructivist approaches which are mostly used in advanced education systems. These approaches to learning and teaching are mainly focused on learners themselves. Therefore, student-centered and active learning became the slogans in education system in Ethiopia. This study investigates the teachers’ perception and implementation of constructivist learning and teaching methods in Ethiopia specifically in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion design Technology, Bahia Dar University. It is vast to investigate each and every aspect of constructivist learning. So, the researcher selected to investigate the mostly used methods (question-answer, individual and group-work) considering constructivism in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Design Technology (EiTEX). The mentioned methods are investigated in the light of constructivism. The researcher investigated the methods considering four criteria of constructivist method given by Navistar, (2009). The criteria are: assessing student’s prior knowledge, differentiating what is already known and what should be learnt, changing students pre-concept in the context of new knowledge and reflection on learning. To examine teachers’ use and implementation of constructivist learning and teaching methods, the questionnaire was employed. The findings showed that around half of the teachers have positively perceived and implemented the mentioned methods in line with constructivism, while remaining teachers still implement these methods as a traditional way of teaching. Moreover, teachers seem to be more constructivists in perception and applying individual work method as compared to group-work activities. In some cases, teachers who participated…

  • Teacher Variable and Academic Performance of Learners in Public Elementary Schools

    Researchers agree that teachers are one of the most important school-based resources in determining students’ future academic success and lifetime outcomes, yet have simultaneously had difficulties in defining what teacher characteristics make for an effective teacher. This paper reviews the large body of literature on measures of teacher effectiveness, underscoring the diversity of methods by which the general construct of “teacher quality” has been explored, including experience, professional knowledge, and opportunity to learn. Each of these concepts comprises a number of different dimensions and methods of operationalizing. Despite a voluminous research literature on the question of teacher quality, evidence for the impact of teacher characteristics (experience and professional knowledge) on student outcomes remains quite limited. There is a smaller, but more robust set of findings for the effect of teacher support on opportunity to learn. There are measures which may be associated with higher student achievement: teacher experience, teacher professional knowledge, and teacher provision of opportunity to learn.

  • The effectiveness of a proposed training program in the development of the linguistic outcome of students of mental retardation in the first grades of the program of intellectual education in the city of Arar

    The aim of the current study was to develop the linguistic outcomes of people with a simple mental retardation (55 – 70) degree. The existence of a mentally retarded child is a problem facing the family as well as the society due to the difficulty of dealing with this child with limited abilities. The current study is of practical importance in the development of the linguistic outcome of mentally retarded children especially in the class in which the study deals and which need programs to qualify them and enrich their language. The proportion of mentally retarded in Saudi Arabia is about 3%. Use the researcher’s experimental approach to consider the relevance of this research following the experimental design and Study Tools Student data form Testing the drawing of the man to Godfn – Harris The validity of the test was verified and validated the test of the linguistic crop preparation Dalia Mostafa, Before and after training on the program until it took its final form and applied the program to the same number (17) students in the city of Arar in the first three grades in the schools of Abdullah bin Abbas and Ibn Jubair primary and indeed was investigated the first purpose of the existence of differences of statistical significance between the performance of mentally retarded students before training on the program The results also showed that there were no statistically significant differences between mentally retarded people with mental disabilities and those who were mentally retarded in the linguistic yield test in response to this program according to the results of the test.

  • Early reading skills in English as a foreign language via ICT in Vietnam: Early childhood student teacher’s perceptions

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is an effective tool which can support young children’s reading skills in English as a foreign language (EFL), while teachers’ perceptions influence their classroom practices; however, there is limited empirical evidence on students’ perceptions on the use of ICT to enhance early reading skills in EFL. This study investigated early childhood student teachers’ perceptions regarding children’s reading skills in EFL via ICT, in Vietnam. A questionnaire was administered to 100 students. Students expressed positive perceptions indicating their willingness-intention to use ICT in teaching reading in EFL to young children. The skills and strategies most reported were that they will use computers high percentage of agreement in their classrooms for the extension of children’s vocabulary and the motivation of children to read and to like reading. Students perceived as major barriers the technical support and the availability of resources. The greater the year of study, the more positive were their perceptions. Implications for early childhood pre-service teacher training and educational policy are discussed.

  • Praxis of Assessment for Learning in Ethiopian Higher Education Institutions: The Case of Dire Dawa University

    Improving the quality of teaching and learning is an ultimate goal of continuous assessment (CA). This study attested that the perceived opportunities of continuous assessment for quality teaching and learning in Dire Dawa University, Ethiopia. To this study purpose survey research design was employed. A sample of 73 instructors and 289 students were involved in this study. The data collected through five-point Likert’s scale questionnaire was analyzed using SPSS 20 and one-sample t-test was used as data analysis method. The reliability of instruments was computed using Cronbach alpha and therefore, all instruments had presumably acceptable liability coefficients. The study found that the instructors and students have acknowledged the opportunities of CA to improve the quality of teaching and learning in HEIs. If CA is to fit for purpose the need to re-balance assessment for grading (summative assessment) and assessment for learning (formative assessment) and to design competency-based assessment rubric was recommended.

  • Analysis of Non-parametric Qualities of Undergraduate Biology Examination Questions in a Nigeria University: Implications for Quality Assurance and Students’ Learning

    This study employed ex-post facto research design to ascertain non-parametric qualities of past undergraduate biology examinations questions in a Nigeria university. The study covered a period of five years examination sessions from 2012/2013 to 2017/2018 but excluded 2016/2017.One hundred and seven examination question papers with a total One thousand one hundred and ninety eight mainly essay and sub-essay questions were collected for this study. Using descriptive content analysis method, the study analysed the content validity and the cognitive content of the biology examination papers. Descriptive statistics, mainly percentage was used to determine the proportion of the questions set on the content of each course in context of the National Universities Commission (NUC), Abuja, Nigeria, Benchmark for Minimum Academic Standard (BMAS, 2007) and the in-use university academic prospectus undergraduate biology curriculum. The analysis revealed; i.80% of the content of the biology curriculum was tested and ii.(ii) the examination tested more of lower order cognitive abilities; knowledge and comprehensive (76.11%) with deviation +36.11, application/problem solving (1.83%) and cognitive abilities; analytical, creative and evaluative thinking (22.02%); higher order total 23.85% with deviation -36.15 The implications of the findings to quality of students learning were discussed. Appropriate recommendations that could lead to improvement of the content validity of the examinations questions, increasing proportion of problem solving/application and broad range of higher level analytical, creative and evaluative thinking questions were made. It was concluded that the examination question papers could be considered suitable assessment tool that satisfy content validity but low towards the attainment of cognitive objectives of biology of the undergraduate programme. The overall finding calls for further improvement in the qualities of the examination questions.