American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews

  • Teachers’ Perception and Implementation of Constructivist Learning

    A special attention has been given to education system in Ethiopia especially in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion design, Bahir Dar University after Educational Sector Development Program (ESDP I, 2003) was developed and implemented. Initially, before ESDP I, the ways of teaching and learning were mainly based on behaviorist approaches. This behaviorist approach to learning and teaching is gradually changed to cognitive and constructivist approaches which are mostly used in advanced education systems. These approaches to learning and teaching are mainly focused on learners themselves. Therefore, student-centered and active learning became the slogans in education system in Ethiopia. This study investigates the teachers’ perception and implementation of constructivist learning and teaching methods in Ethiopia specifically in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion design Technology, Bahia Dar University. It is vast to investigate each and every aspect of constructivist learning. So, the researcher selected to investigate the mostly used methods (question-answer, individual and group-work) considering constructivism in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Design Technology (EiTEX). The mentioned methods are investigated in the light of constructivism. The researcher investigated the methods considering four criteria of constructivist method given by Navistar et.al, (2009). The criteria are: assessing student’s prior knowledge, differentiating what is already known and what should be learnt, changing students pre-concept in the context of new knowledge and reflection on learning. To examine teachers’ use and implementation of constructivist learning and teaching methods, the questionnaire was employed. The findings showed that around half of the teachers have positively perceived and implemented the mentioned methods in line with constructivism, while remaining teachers still implement these methods as a traditional way of teaching. Moreover, teachers seem to be more constructivists in perception and applying individual work method as compared to group-work activities. In some cases, teachers who participated…

  • Teacher Variable and Academic Performance of Learners in Public Elementary Schools

    Researchers agree that teachers are one of the most important school-based resources in determining students’ future academic success and lifetime outcomes, yet have simultaneously had difficulties in defining what teacher characteristics make for an effective teacher. This paper reviews the large body of literature on measures of teacher effectiveness, underscoring the diversity of methods by which the general construct of “teacher quality” has been explored, including experience, professional knowledge, and opportunity to learn. Each of these concepts comprises a number of different dimensions and methods of operationalizing. Despite a voluminous research literature on the question of teacher quality, evidence for the impact of teacher characteristics (experience and professional knowledge) on student outcomes remains quite limited. There is a smaller, but more robust set of findings for the effect of teacher support on opportunity to learn. There are measures which may be associated with higher student achievement: teacher experience, teacher professional knowledge, and teacher provision of opportunity to learn.

  • The effectiveness of a proposed training program in the development of the linguistic outcome of students of mental retardation in the first grades of the program of intellectual education in the city of Arar

    The aim of the current study was to develop the linguistic outcomes of people with a simple mental retardation (55 – 70) degree. The existence of a mentally retarded child is a problem facing the family as well as the society due to the difficulty of dealing with this child with limited abilities. The current study is of practical importance in the development of the linguistic outcome of mentally retarded children especially in the class in which the study deals and which need programs to qualify them and enrich their language. The proportion of mentally retarded in Saudi Arabia is about 3%. Use the researcher’s experimental approach to consider the relevance of this research following the experimental design and Study Tools Student data form Testing the drawing of the man to Godfn – Harris The validity of the test was verified and validated the test of the linguistic crop preparation Dalia Mostafa, Before and after training on the program until it took its final form and applied the program to the same number (17) students in the city of Arar in the first three grades in the schools of Abdullah bin Abbas and Ibn Jubair primary and indeed was investigated the first purpose of the existence of differences of statistical significance between the performance of mentally retarded students before training on the program The results also showed that there were no statistically significant differences between mentally retarded people with mental disabilities and those who were mentally retarded in the linguistic yield test in response to this program according to the results of the test.

  • Early reading skills in English as a foreign language via ICT in Vietnam: Early childhood student teacher’s perceptions

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is an effective tool which can support young children’s reading skills in English as a foreign language (EFL), while teachers’ perceptions influence their classroom practices; however, there is limited empirical evidence on students’ perceptions on the use of ICT to enhance early reading skills in EFL. This study investigated early childhood student teachers’ perceptions regarding children’s reading skills in EFL via ICT, in Vietnam. A questionnaire was administered to 100 students. Students expressed positive perceptions indicating their willingness-intention to use ICT in teaching reading in EFL to young children. The skills and strategies most reported were that they will use computers high percentage of agreement in their classrooms for the extension of children’s vocabulary and the motivation of children to read and to like reading. Students perceived as major barriers the technical support and the availability of resources. The greater the year of study, the more positive were their perceptions. Implications for early childhood pre-service teacher training and educational policy are discussed.

  • Praxis of Assessment for Learning in Ethiopian Higher Education Institutions: The Case of Dire Dawa University

    Improving the quality of teaching and learning is an ultimate goal of continuous assessment (CA). This study attested that the perceived opportunities of continuous assessment for quality teaching and learning in Dire Dawa University, Ethiopia. To this study purpose survey research design was employed. A sample of 73 instructors and 289 students were involved in this study. The data collected through five-point Likert’s scale questionnaire was analyzed using SPSS 20 and one-sample t-test was used as data analysis method. The reliability of instruments was computed using Cronbach alpha and therefore, all instruments had presumably acceptable liability coefficients. The study found that the instructors and students have acknowledged the opportunities of CA to improve the quality of teaching and learning in HEIs. If CA is to fit for purpose the need to re-balance assessment for grading (summative assessment) and assessment for learning (formative assessment) and to design competency-based assessment rubric was recommended.

  • Analysis of Non-parametric Qualities of Undergraduate Biology Examination Questions in a Nigeria University: Implications for Quality Assurance and Students’ Learning

    This study employed ex-post facto research design to ascertain non-parametric qualities of past undergraduate biology examinations questions in a Nigeria university. The study covered a period of five years examination sessions from 2012/2013 to 2017/2018 but excluded 2016/2017.One hundred and seven examination question papers with a total One thousand one hundred and ninety eight mainly essay and sub-essay questions were collected for this study. Using descriptive content analysis method, the study analysed the content validity and the cognitive content of the biology examination papers. Descriptive statistics, mainly percentage was used to determine the proportion of the questions set on the content of each course in context of the National Universities Commission (NUC), Abuja, Nigeria, Benchmark for Minimum Academic Standard (BMAS, 2007) and the in-use university academic prospectus undergraduate biology curriculum. The analysis revealed; i.80% of the content of the biology curriculum was tested and ii.(ii) the examination tested more of lower order cognitive abilities; knowledge and comprehensive (76.11%) with deviation +36.11, application/problem solving (1.83%) and cognitive abilities; analytical, creative and evaluative thinking (22.02%); higher order total 23.85% with deviation -36.15 The implications of the findings to quality of students learning were discussed. Appropriate recommendations that could lead to improvement of the content validity of the examinations questions, increasing proportion of problem solving/application and broad range of higher level analytical, creative and evaluative thinking questions were made. It was concluded that the examination question papers could be considered suitable assessment tool that satisfy content validity but low towards the attainment of cognitive objectives of biology of the undergraduate programme. The overall finding calls for further improvement in the qualities of the examination questions.

  • A study of “Micro STEM” Physics Classroom Teaching

    This paper explores the “Micro STEM” physics classroom teaching from the two aspects of pre-class design ideas and teaching links, and conducts an investigation on the teaching effect of students after class. The study finds that “Micro STEM” classroom enables students to understand and use the target knowledge better than traditional classroom, and students’interest in learning and classroom participation are higher. It is helpful to cultivate students’ability to discover and solve problems and sense of teamwork, and to improve students’ core scientific literacy.

  • Factors influencing the Pursuit of IT Certifications

    This quantitative study attempted to understand the factors that influence students at the large university in south-eastern United States to pursue Information Technology (IT) certification. The study investigated the problem of determining the factors that influence college students to pursue IT certification along with their academic degree and thereby increase their chances of gaining employment and increasing completion rates for the college resulting in increased state funding. This influence may lead to higher job placement after graduation resulting in an increase in completion rates for each college. The results showed that 91.7% of the respondents were inclined to take the certification exam if it means job security. Of all the participants, 88.4% indicated that they would take the certification exam if their future job requires it. A statistically significant difference was found between students’ rank and their perception on the statement “Schools prepare me for the certification exam.” A statistically significant difference was also found between students’ GPA and their perception on the statement “I am inclined to take the certification exam if I get reimbursed for my testing fee after passing the test.” The goal of the study was to provide information that can be used to improve students’ perceptions of the importance of certifications as well as to identify and address weaknesses in curriculum and/or interaction with students that can be addressed to improve students’ perceptions related to the importance of certificates. It also created a foundation for administrators and instructors in IT programs throughout the educational system to influence students in pursuing IT certification.

  • Technological Pedagogical Selection Content Knowledge (TPSACK) framework on the Achievement of Pre-service Mathematics Teachers in Mathematics Education

    The role of Mathematics educators in teaching – learning process cannot be exaggerated. This paper presents Technological Pedagogical Selection Content Knowledge (TPSACK) framework on the achievement of pre-service Mathematics teachers in College of Education Mathematics. One hundred and fifty (150) Pre-Service Mathematics teachers in Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto – Ijanikin, in Lagos State, Nigeria were chosen for this research. Random Sampling technique was used to select the sample. The sample chosen includes second year male and female pre-service mathematics teachers in the Department of Mathematics. Seventy five (75) of them were placed in an Experimental Group and the other seventy five (75) were placed in Control Group without any bias. The experimental group was exposed to the lectures taught with a well-organized TPSACK framework on some selected Mathematics courses in college mathematics while the Control Group was subjected to the traditional lecture method (constructivist instruction mode) on the same selected Mathematics courses in college mathematics. The duration of the pilot test last for ten (10) weeks. Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) instrument was used to measure the performance of the students in the two specified groups. 2 tailed t-test statistics was used to analyse the numerical data got from the Mathematics Achievement Test. The result shows that the students in the experimental group taught subject to TPSACK framework outperformed their counterparts in the control group taught with traditional lecture mode. Hence, the adaptation of TPSACK framework in teaching and learning process has significant positive effect on the achievement of Pre-service mathematics teachers in mathematics. It then becomes a key reference for the Mathematics educators to equip themselves with TPSACK framework adaptation to enhance teaching and learning process in Colleges of Education.

  • Here We Go Again: An Analysis of Re-Segregation in Georgia Charter Schools

    Scholars note that failing public schools are the civil rights issue of our day (Frankenberg, 2011; Orfield, 2004). The current discussion about school reform in the U.S. over the past two decades has shifted from one of equity to one based on excellence in the form of student achievement. A primary solution for student achievement has been popularized and made into dominant discourse through legislation such as No Child Left Behind (2001) and Race to the Top (2009). In this analysis, the author provides a historical context of the charter school movement as a backdrop for charter school enrollment trends and policy in Georgia. As charter schools in Georgia continue to gain popularity as a primary school choice option for African American students, it is essential that policymakers create charter legislation that encourages the creation of socioeconomically and racially diverse schools. Moreover, both policymakers and stakeholders in education need to decide to what end are we expanding choice, and what kinds of choice might get us closer to more integrated, and ultimately, democratic schools?