American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews

  • Analysis of Non-parametric Qualities of Undergraduate Biology Examination Questions in a Nigeria University: Implications for Quality Assurance and Students’ Learning

    This study employed ex-post facto research design to ascertain non-parametric qualities of past undergraduate biology examinations questions in a Nigeria university. The study covered a period of five years examination sessions from 2012/2013 to 2017/2018 but excluded 2016/2017.One hundred and seven examination question papers with a total One thousand one hundred and ninety eight mainly essay and sub-essay questions were collected for this study. Using descriptive content analysis method, the study analysed the content validity and the cognitive content of the biology examination papers. Descriptive statistics, mainly percentage was used to determine the proportion of the questions set on the content of each course in context of the National Universities Commission (NUC), Abuja, Nigeria, Benchmark for Minimum Academic Standard (BMAS, 2007) and the in-use university academic prospectus undergraduate biology curriculum. The analysis revealed; i.80% of the content of the biology curriculum was tested and ii.(ii) the examination tested more of lower order cognitive abilities; knowledge and comprehensive (76.11%) with deviation +36.11, application/problem solving (1.83%) and cognitive abilities; analytical, creative and evaluative thinking (22.02%); higher order total 23.85% with deviation -36.15 The implications of the findings to quality of students learning were discussed. Appropriate recommendations that could lead to improvement of the content validity of the examinations questions, increasing proportion of problem solving/application and broad range of higher level analytical, creative and evaluative thinking questions were made. It was concluded that the examination question papers could be considered suitable assessment tool that satisfy content validity but low towards the attainment of cognitive objectives of biology of the undergraduate programme. The overall finding calls for further improvement in the qualities of the examination questions.

  • A study of “Micro STEM” Physics Classroom Teaching

    This paper explores the “Micro STEM” physics classroom teaching from the two aspects of pre-class design ideas and teaching links, and conducts an investigation on the teaching effect of students after class. The study finds that “Micro STEM” classroom enables students to understand and use the target knowledge better than traditional classroom, and students’interest in learning and classroom participation are higher. It is helpful to cultivate students’ability to discover and solve problems and sense of teamwork, and to improve students’ core scientific literacy.

  • Factors influencing the Pursuit of IT Certifications

    This quantitative study attempted to understand the factors that influence students at the large university in south-eastern United States to pursue Information Technology (IT) certification. The study investigated the problem of determining the factors that influence college students to pursue IT certification along with their academic degree and thereby increase their chances of gaining employment and increasing completion rates for the college resulting in increased state funding. This influence may lead to higher job placement after graduation resulting in an increase in completion rates for each college. The results showed that 91.7% of the respondents were inclined to take the certification exam if it means job security. Of all the participants, 88.4% indicated that they would take the certification exam if their future job requires it. A statistically significant difference was found between students’ rank and their perception on the statement “Schools prepare me for the certification exam.” A statistically significant difference was also found between students’ GPA and their perception on the statement “I am inclined to take the certification exam if I get reimbursed for my testing fee after passing the test.” The goal of the study was to provide information that can be used to improve students’ perceptions of the importance of certifications as well as to identify and address weaknesses in curriculum and/or interaction with students that can be addressed to improve students’ perceptions related to the importance of certificates. It also created a foundation for administrators and instructors in IT programs throughout the educational system to influence students in pursuing IT certification.

  • Technological Pedagogical Selection Content Knowledge (TPSACK) framework on the Achievement of Pre-service Mathematics Teachers in Mathematics Education

    The role of Mathematics educators in teaching – learning process cannot be exaggerated. This paper presents Technological Pedagogical Selection Content Knowledge (TPSACK) framework on the achievement of pre-service Mathematics teachers in College of Education Mathematics. One hundred and fifty (150) Pre-Service Mathematics teachers in Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto – Ijanikin, in Lagos State, Nigeria were chosen for this research. Random Sampling technique was used to select the sample. The sample chosen includes second year male and female pre-service mathematics teachers in the Department of Mathematics. Seventy five (75) of them were placed in an Experimental Group and the other seventy five (75) were placed in Control Group without any bias. The experimental group was exposed to the lectures taught with a well-organized TPSACK framework on some selected Mathematics courses in college mathematics while the Control Group was subjected to the traditional lecture method (constructivist instruction mode) on the same selected Mathematics courses in college mathematics. The duration of the pilot test last for ten (10) weeks. Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) instrument was used to measure the performance of the students in the two specified groups. 2 tailed t-test statistics was used to analyse the numerical data got from the Mathematics Achievement Test. The result shows that the students in the experimental group taught subject to TPSACK framework outperformed their counterparts in the control group taught with traditional lecture mode. Hence, the adaptation of TPSACK framework in teaching and learning process has significant positive effect on the achievement of Pre-service mathematics teachers in mathematics. It then becomes a key reference for the Mathematics educators to equip themselves with TPSACK framework adaptation to enhance teaching and learning process in Colleges of Education.

  • Here We Go Again: An Analysis of Re-Segregation in Georgia Charter Schools

    Scholars note that failing public schools are the civil rights issue of our day (Frankenberg, 2011; Orfield, 2004). The current discussion about school reform in the U.S. over the past two decades has shifted from one of equity to one based on excellence in the form of student achievement. A primary solution for student achievement has been popularized and made into dominant discourse through legislation such as No Child Left Behind (2001) and Race to the Top (2009). In this analysis, the author provides a historical context of the charter school movement as a backdrop for charter school enrollment trends and policy in Georgia. As charter schools in Georgia continue to gain popularity as a primary school choice option for African American students, it is essential that policymakers create charter legislation that encourages the creation of socioeconomically and racially diverse schools. Moreover, both policymakers and stakeholders in education need to decide to what end are we expanding choice, and what kinds of choice might get us closer to more integrated, and ultimately, democratic schools?

  • The concepts of Lifelong Learning, Lifelong Training and Adult Education

    The concepts of learning and education, even if they have common semantic starting points, are synonymous, and in recent decades, there has been a shift towards the notion of learning as a dominant concept (Jarvis, 1995). Many scholars have tried to define the complex nature of learning. Jarvis (1995) considers that “learning is the process of transforming experience into knowledge, skills, attitude, values, feelings”. According to UNESCO, education is “organized teachings designed to convey a combination of knowledge, skills and understanding, valuable to all activities of life” (Jarvis, 1995). From the above we can conclude that education as a concept and as a process is more structured and more organized than learning, yet the concept of learning is wider and encompasses the concept of education, taking into account the fact that not all forms of learning have an educational character.

  • Design of reverse logistics network for the end-of-life automobiles based on sustainable development

    From the point of view of sustainable development, a multi-objective mixed integer model to solve the problem of location and flow distribution of reverse logistics network of end-of-life automobiles. To reflect the various aspects of sustainable development, not only to minimize the objectives of economic cost and environmental cost, at the same time with the maximization of social benefits as the goal. Combined with the case, using the ideal point method by using lingo, it is concluded that the sustainable of scrapped automobile reverse logistics network optimization scheme. In addition, the impact of government subsidy on the sustainability of reverse logistics network is analyzed. In addition, the uncertainty of product recovery and the influence of government subsidy on the sustainable development of reverse logistics network are analyzed. The results show that end-of-life automobiles with more dismantled products have a greater impact on the sustainability of reverse logistics network, and government subsidies have an ideal interval to make the sustainability of reverse logistics network reach the best state.

  • Discussion on the Benefits of Port and Shipping Enterprises Based on Game Theory

    In the field of port and shipping, the mutual interest relationship between the port and the shipping company has always been a hot topic.On the one hand, the port needs the shipping company to park its port operations to obtain economic benefits and social benefits.On the other hand, shipping companies have their own considerations when facing different types of ports, and must consider them from the perspectives of maximizing their own interests and optimizing service levels.In this paper, the Stackelberg model and the Nash equilibrium model in game theory are used to analyze the basis of the choice of the interests of the port and shipping enterprises to establish a multi-influence factor and multi-targeted model of the profit distribution of the port and shipping enterprises.According to the research in this paper, the appropriate cooperation between the two parties can further enhance the efforts of the port and shipping companies, and realize the rational distribution of interests between the port and the shipping company, so as to achieve a win-win situation in the entire port supply chain.

  • Investigation of Aggression Status of Fans

    The purpose of this study is; It was aimed to determine the level of aggression of football fans in Bingöl. The sample of the study consists of 480 football fans who were selected by random sampling method in 2018-2019 season. The sampling of the study consisted of 480 participants, who were selected randomly from among football fans in Bingol in 2018-2019 season.In the study, “Aggression Inventory developed by İpekİlter KİPER and personal information form developed by the researcher were used as data collection tool.The Aggression Inventory that was developed by Ipek ILTER (Kiper) consists of 30 items and includes three sub-tests, which are;destructive aggression, reckless aggression, and passive aggression. Each sub-test consists of 10 questions in the inventory.SPSS 23.0 statistical package program was used to evaluate the data. Data were interpreted by giving mean and standard deviations. Data were interpreted by giving mean and standard deviations. Non-parametric Mann Whitney-U Test was used to test the significance of the difference between T test and ANOVA and aggressive behavior scale scores in independent groups. In addition, the Tukey test was used from multiple comparison tests to determine which group was the cause of the difference. The significance level was taken as p 0.05). In addition, no statistically significant difference was found between the parental occupation group and the parents’ self and stepmother status (P> 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the passive aggressive behavior of the fans according to the family income level (P

  • Perception of college students regarding the use of ICT: A case study in Monterrey, México

    The presenWe often take for granted that students have the basic skills and mastery of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), however, it has been confirmed that not all students are equally competent in this regard. From the theories of socialization and acceptance of the technology, a structural equation model (SEM) is built to explore the variance in basic ICT skills levels of students at a business school. With the application of a questionnaire that measured in detail ICT skills of new students in a higher education institution in Mexico, the main findings show that according to the tables of impact value between constructs and the significance between constructs, the skills have a significant and significant negative impact on the side of anxiety / behavior and on the side of the utility there is a strong, significant impact.