American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews

  • Rubrics 101: What, When and How

    Alternative assessment is any type of assessment other than standardized tests/ achievement tests. Alternative assessments include observations, interviews, record reviews, and performance reviews that are less structured than formal assessments and may not be validated or tested for reliability. Examples of alternative assessments include portfolios, interest inventories, work samples, journals, observations, checklists, teacher made tests, and anecdotal records. This article pertains to the scoring of these types of alternative assessment using rubrics. As the title of this article implies, creating rubrics, rules for writing, scoring systems (checklists, rating scales, and holistic) will be provided along with a comparison of the three and errors that can be found that will decrease the validity of findings.

  • The Positive Influence of Professional Practice on the Professional Identity of Social Work Major Students

    Based on the in-depth interviews with ten social work major students in Inner Mongolia university, a qualitative research was conducted on the positive impacts of professional internship on their professional identity. The research results show that professional practice can significantly affect the professional identity of social worker major students, and its impact is as follows: First, helping students strengthen self-knowledge and professional identity; Second, useful for students to integrate theoretical knowledge and practical skills and enhance their sense of achievement and career cognition. In addition, internship supervision helps students to improve professional skills and service capability.

  • PhD Students Participate in the Worlds Highest Academic Conference A Study on the Difference Between Taiwan and Croatia

    In this study, as doctoral graduate students who participated positive action in international academic presentation between the International Conference on Engineering Education (ICEE2015), and 2015 International Symposium on Cultural Differences (ISCD2016) and 2016 International Symposium on Urban Construction of Rural Culture (ISUCRC2014). This study aims to investigate the impact of International Conference between Taiwan and Croatia Country. After the participation, there are summarized at detailed records, observation, analysis, and aggregate, study research of the three conferences in industry, government, academic research and training of situation. It gets ideas and thoughts to participate in international learning experience, academic exchanges worldwide situation in the region of the countries. This study found that three sessions of proceeding from the paper submission, modification, transportation arrangements, booking travel and accommodation, applying grant, the agenda of Conference and workshop, welcome reception, opening ceremony and thematic papers published seminars, site management, exchange of experts, visiting travel event, banquet dinner party they also have a significant different. This study is tangible to enhance citizen diplomacy, international perspective, and national academic standards. On the intangible outcomes of self-learning attitude adjustment, the spirit of action research, the assist of essay writing, the potential help of international perspective, the effectiveness and inspiration are unmatched. All of experiences to participants in the process cumbersome procedures login, application, registration and other detailing the process are learn. This information should help graduate students and scholars participated in similar International activities and Conference.

  • Class Size and Quality Academic Achievement Among Girls in Mathematics in Secondary Education in Kisumu County

    Female students tend to take fewer mathematical courses at higher education level due to low performance in mathematics at secondary school level. A number of studies both qualitative and quantitative have attempted to find out causes of low achievement in mathematics among females, Researchers have majorly focused on school environment, biological factors and attitude. There was therefore need to conduct a study to establish the influence of class size on academic achievement among girls at form four level in public secondary schools in Kisumu County. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of class size on academic achievement among girls in mathematics at form four level. Correlation research design was applied to examine the degree of influence that exists between class size and academic achievement in mathematics. The study was conducted in Kisumu County of Kenya. The target population of the study consisted of 142 public secondary schools which presented female candidates for KCSE examinations between 2010 and 2014, 142 Principals, 142 Heads of mathematics department and 390 mathematics teachers who taught the girls under study. Stratified random sampling technique was applied whereby schools were categorized as girls’ secondary schools and mixed secondary schools. Purposive sampling was done to select all the 18 girls’ secondary schools in Kisumu County while random sampling was applied to select 38 out of 124 mixed secondary schools in Kisumu County. Data was collected using questionnaires, interviews and document analysis. Instruments of data collection were validated by the researcher’s supervisors and reliability of the instruments was established through test retest method by carrying out a pilot study in 5 schools which were not part of the study sample. Quantitative data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics in form of frequency counts, percentages, means, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and regression analysis. Qualitative…

  • Acquisition of New Competencies of Science Teachers and Pre-graduate Physics Teachers in the Community of Practice

    The aim of this paper is to present the outcomes of the project that is solved at the Faculty of Science in Olomouc, Czech Republic. One of the key activities of the project is to find critical themes of secondary school science subjects and prepare methodological materials according a deep analysis in the frame of the community of practice. It can be demonstrated that the community of practice (universities, secondary schools and non-profit organizations) can be of great importance for acquisition of new competencies of teachers so as students. 120 skilled teachers identified a set of critical sites of the secondary school science subjects curriculum. A number of key needs of in-service teachers have been identified too – the development of teachers’ competences in the field of didactics, in the field of reflection of their own teaching activities, the implementation of new teaching forms and methods of work with emphasis to the individual needs of learners within a heterogeneous group, the implementation of interdisciplinary relations.

  • Extent of Implementation of ECE Programme by County Governments: The Case of Public Preschools in Eldoret West Sub-County, Kenya

    Kenya Constitution (2010) devolved the management of Early Childhood Development Education (ECE) to county governments. The 2014 County ECE Education Bill mandated the Country Governments with several responsibilities of managing ECE services. These included ensuring: all schools have a functional feeding programme; safety of all children; more teachers are employed to reduce the teacher-pupil ratio; quality assurance services are provided promptly; teachers undertake professional development courses including those of handling learners with special needs; all preschools are registered; and teachers are appropriately remunerated. However, various challenges continue to undermine implementation of ECE programmes at county level. Emile Durkheim’s Structural Functionalism Theory (1858-1971) informed the study and so points out that an institution should be structured in a way that various bodies are put in place so that each functions on behalf of the society. Findings indicate that Uasin Gishu County Government needs to put in more effort in order boost its current ECE provision services.

  • Instructors Responsiveness to Peer Led Team Learning pedagogical Initiative and Its Contributing Factors in Higher Education Institutions

    This manuscript was intended to investigate instructors’ responsiveness to cooperative learning or PLTL change initiative and its contributing factors such as instructors’ attitude, work culture, leadership styles, and instructional delivery models. The study employed mixed method research design. 91 instructors were participated to fill in 5 point Likert and rating scale item questionnaires. An interview with key informants were conducted. The three HEIs instructors’ responsiveness to PLTL overall mean 2.8254 rested in disagree scale which implies instructors’ responsiveness to cooperative learning or PLTL was below average expectation. Thus, cooperative learning/PLTL pedagogical model application by the three HEIs did not achieve desired learning goals on learners . Transformational and servant leadership styles as well as communal culture showed more prediction and relationship with instructors responsiveness to cooperative learning and PLTL. Positive interdependence, individual and group accountability, interaction, and group process principles of cooperative learning were not implemented in the right way and did not result in desired learning goal. Pre, during and post instruction task categories were poorly implemented. Hence, instructors’ responsiveness to PLTL needs attention of instructors and institutional leaders for its improvement. Adjustments on instructors’ attitude, institutional leadership and culture styles with other situational factors may enhance PLTL practice and performance.

  • Neuroanatomy teaching: an example of active teaching applied to medical formation

    The paradigm shift from traditional teaching to new methodologies faces the challenges of current implementation in universities, especially in health courses where it is necessary to adequately train professionals in ethical and moral aspects for social work and working in teams with social responsibility, with the capacity to adapt to technological challenges and the incessant search for knowledge. Active teaching methodologies are one of the options that can be applied to higher education in order to improve the training of students, preparing them to solve the problems that are bound to present themselves in professional activities. To verify whether or not an active methodology can improve learning within the difficult circumstances of traditional teaching of the neural pathways and structures of the spinal cord and encephalon in the basic discipline of neuroanatomy. Simple materials such as wood, A4 paper, cardboard, colored pencils or pens, colored threads and adhesive tapes were used to produce three-dimensional models that represent the pathways and structures of the medulla, brain stem, cerebellum and brain. The students were divided into groups of 5 and built the models after studying the textbook, internet sites and atlas. Another process was the condensing of various data to construct structure schemes, with free access to the websites in all cases. The models were made and studied, as well as the schemes. Spontaneous information from the students showed positive acceptance of the method, with few negative points being cited, at least not directly to the professor. The use of three-dimensional model constructions, two-dimensional schemes and digital technology in the teaching of neuroanatomy, integrated with an active methodology process, allowed the students to gain autonomy in the studies and develop a more comprehensive view of the content, to the extent that they felt satisfied in seeing the final model generated by their…

  • Perspective of Teachers on the Influence of Textbook Ratio on Quality Academic Achievement among Girls in Secondary Education in Kisumu County

    A number of studies both quantitative and qualitative have attempted to find out causes of challenges of low achievement in mathematics among girls. There was therefore need to conduct a study to establish the influence of textbook ratio as an independent variable on academic achievement in mathematics among girls at form four level in secondary schools in Kisumu County. Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education examination results of girls who sat for the examinations between 2010 and 2014 constituted the dependent variable. The objective of the study was to establish the influence of textbook ratio on girls’ academic achievement in mathematics at secondary level. Correlation research design was applied to examine the degree of influence between the independent and dependent variable using statistical data. The study was conducted in Kisumu County Kenya. The target population of the study consisted of 142 public secondary schools which presented female candidates for KCSE between 2010 and 2014, 142 Principals, 142 Heads of mathematics department and 390 mathematics teachers who taught the girls under study. Stratified random sampling was applied whereby schools were categorized as girls’ secondary schools and mixed secondary schools. Purposive sampling was done to select all the 18 girls’ secondary schools in Kisumu County while random Sampling was used to select 38 out of 124 mixed secondary schools in Kisumu County. The sample constituted 39% of the study population. Data was collected using questionnaires, interviews and document analysis guide. Instruments of data collection were validated by the researcher’s supervisors and reliability of the instrument was established through test retest method by carrying out a pilot study in 5 schools which were not part of the study sample. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics in form of frequency counts, percentages, means, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and regression analysis. Qualitative data from interview…

  • Education Policy in South Sudan: Between the Peace Agreement, the Armed Conflict, the Villages and The Camps for the Internally Displaced People

    The government of South Sudan is struggling to organize the education system of this new country during the war that ended with the signing of peace agreement in 2005. Initiating the educational policy, reinforcing the education administration, creating a practical curriculum and training teachers are the basic problems needed to solve to insure a good learning future for all. But while searching for the solution to these crucial problems, another rebellion broke up from the sharing power between the president and the vice-president since 2013 undermining the success plan according to the international education plan of education for all, EFA. This war sent many adults and children in the camps where there are no educational structures welcomed by a deep poverty which obliged everybody to lose or to restart their life full of hopeless.