American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews

  • SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION REFERRED TO AS HIV/AIDS

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of common infections like tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who have working immune systems. These late symptoms of infection are referred to as AIDS. This stage is often also associated with weight loss. HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV.

  • Domestic Violence Against Women in the Effutu Municipalityin the Central Region of Ghana: Implications for Counselling

    The study investigated the prevalence of domestic violence within the Effutu Municipality, it also examined how counselling programmes can assist in addressing domestic violence within the municipality. The study employed a cross sectional survey design and collected both quantitative and qualitative data. A simple random sampling technique was used in the selection of 300 respondents for the quantitative study, while purposive sampling technique was used in the selection of 12 interviewees for the qualitative aspect of the study. Quantitative data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential analysis while qualitative data was analysed using content and thematic analyses. The study revealed that Christians and traditionalists differed in their views with regards to cultural and life-time perceptions about domestic violence. Additionally, educational level attained also influenced respondents’ perceptions on domestic violence against women in the Effutu Municipality. It was also revealed that though, there are institutions that offer services to reduce or forestall the incidence of domestic violence; both victims and perpetrators did not receive any counselling in any form. It is therefore recommended that Effutu municipal assembly hire professionally trained counsellors, and attach them to the various institutions that deal with issues bordering on domestic violence.

  • An Assessment of Quality Issues in the provision of Early Childhood Development B in Zimbabwe

    The study sought to assess the quality of service delivery for the Early Childhood Development B (ECD B) programme in Zimbabwe. The study covered all the ten provinces of Zimbabwe and adopted both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative approach was largely used to elicit views on quality provision of ECD B in Zimbabwe through the use of Focus Group Discussions, interviews, document analysis and observations. Questionnaires were used to solicit information from key informants such as head teachers, teachers-in-charge and teachers. The population from which the sample was drawn included all primary schools, Education officials at district, provincial and head office levels as well as registered ECD B centres in Zimbabwe. Random, convenience and purposive sampling procedures were used to select the study sample. The study used two types of quality indicators for Early Childhood Development programmes namely structural and process quality indicators. According to Lamb (2000) structural quality indicators of ECD programmes include: teacher-pupil ratio (number of children per teacher), qualifications, experience and working conditions of teachers. Process quality indicators of ECD programmes include: the physical environment (consisting of indoor and outdoor facilities), curriculum and assessment. Findings revealed that quality is compromised because most ECD B classes in Zimbabwe are manned by unqualified teachers because qualified teachers are still very few. Teacher effectiveness which is brought about by knowledgeable and qualified teachers is a key component of quality ECD B provision. The study also revealed that it is a challenge to get qualified teachers to work in poor rural and otherwise difficult-to-reach communities thus compromising the provision of quality ECD B in these areas. The teacher-pupil ratio at ECD B level in most parts of Zimbabwe is high, that is, it is way above the stipulated ratio of 1:20. A desk study of the Zimbabwean ECD curriculum indicates…

  • Critical Thinking Skill and Academic Achievement Development in Nursing Students: Four-year Longitudinal Study

    Many studies have demonstrated that critical thinking skill increases the academic achievement (Tümkaya, 2011) and improves problem-solving skills (Bowles, 2000; Küçükgüçlü and Kanbay, 2011) and that students with high critical thinking scores are more successful in professional practices (Bowles, 2000). In addition to these, critical thinking skills take an important place in terms of nursing education as they enable providing reliable, effective and quality nursing care (Daly, 1998; Oerman, 1998; Paul and Heaslip, 1995). It is observed that university education, which constitutes the step before individuals go into the professional life, does not develop critical thinking skills adequately although it has an important function in the personal and professional lives of individuals (Kanbay et al., 2012, Kanbay and Okanlı, 2017). Many studies have shown that critical thinking skills of university students are at a low level (Kantek et al., 2010; Akkuş et al., 2010; Arslan et al., 2009; Bulut et al., 2009) or generally at a medium level (Beşer and Kıssal, 2009; Küçükgüçlü and Kanbay 2011; Korkmaz, 2009; Şen, 2009; Çetin, 2008; Kanbay et al., 2013). Critical thinking skills enable individuals to question and accept the information and to make effective decisions by developing alternative points of view. In this respect, individuals should gain critical thinking skills to be able to critically approach the information at all stages of education from pre-school education to higher education (Akça and Taşçı, 2009). This can only be achieved through an educational system aimed at critical thinking (Kökdemir, 2003). For this reason, critical thinking should be explained and developed in the objectives of higher education programs (Ennis, 1997). Based on this whole literature, critical thinking was thought to have significant effects on nursing education, and the answers to the following questions were sought by planning this study with the aim of determining the development…

  • Measure for Assesing Religious Teacher’s Perception of Intention to Adopt Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)

    This study was conducted to produce empirical evidence of validity and reliability of a set of questionnaire. Questionnaire drawn from the results of previous studies and the validity of the tests will determine whether all aspects of the construct domain were represented, thus ensuring the high objectivity level of the questionnaire. In addition, an alternative approach was used to assess the discriminant validity, using heterotrait-monotrait ratio of correlations. The study empirically proves that the questionnaire used is unchanged by culture. This is important because if not, its use will be restricted to a population in which the questionnaire was developed.

  • Analysis on Occupational Self-Efficacy of Elementary Mathematics and Science Teachers

    In this study, the purpose is to analyze the self-efficacy beliefs of the elementary mathematics and science teachers according to a group of variables. For this purpose, “Teacher Occupational Self-Efficacy Scale” developed by Kahyaoğlu and Yangın (2007) and personal information form that is composed by the researcher are used as the data collection tool to measure the self-efficacy of teachers. The study is conducted in the spring semester of the 2016-2017 school year. The sample of the study consists of a total of 91 teachers, of which 44 are Elementary Mathematics Teacher and 47 are Science Teacher serving in public schools in Bitlis’s Tatvan district. For the analysis of the collected data, the unpaired t-test and ANOVA were applied. According to the results of the analysis, it is found that occupational self-efficacy levels of prospective teachers are on “Very Efficient” level. In addition, it is determined that there are no statistically significant differences in mean scores of teachers’ occupational self-efficacy beliefs in terms of gender, education type, and the graduated department but in terms of the types of high schools which they graduated from. Only this variable shows a statistically significant difference.

  • Social Justice and Social Justice Leadership: Perspectives of Women and Disables in one of Public Universities in Ethiopia

    This qualitative research was aimed at exploring prevailing scenarios related to social justice and social justice leadership as perceived by women and disables in selected public university of Ethiopia. Interpretive phenomenological research method was employed. Ten research participants, including women and people with disabilities, were selected using purposive sampling technique. Data were also collected using semi-structured interviews and focus-group discussions, and analyzed qualitatively using narrations. Accordingly, the research result indicated that participants were not so strange for the concepts related to social justice and social justice leadership albeit their understanding differs. Participants pointed out that community perception towards women and disable people are not so fair and progressive, and tailored policies and strategies are not made available and being implemented in the study context. It was also indicated that different forms of sexual harassments, discomfited classroom buildings, toilets, shower rooms, dining rooms, and distances between classrooms and dormitories were enumerated as major inconveniences and reflection of injustices encountering women and people with disabilities in the study context. On top of this, unjust practices in areas of staff recruitment and promotion in the study context were major challenges identified in this research result. Hence, it is high time for the study context to realize and look critically those discriminatory practices resulting in a lot of injustices among members; and take actions pertinent to national and international agreements and legal frameworks and thereby, ensure social justices in its compound.

  • Investigation of the Effects of the Different Training Program to the Success Applied to Long Distance Athletes With Athletics Sports in Ağri

    The main purpose of this research is to demonstrate the alternative training programs applied to professional national athletes performing athletics in Ağrı and the effects of such training programs upon the athletes’ success. For this purpose, the related literature has been examined in order to give detailed information about the research problem. Within the scope of the research, an alternative training program was applied to national athletes performing athletics and a solution to the research problem is sought through the obtained findings. 10 male national team athletes among 23-25 age group, regularly exercising the alternative training program developed by M. Şirin Gönen participated in the study. The study is divided into 2 phases. The first phase is taken as the Preparation Phase while the second one is the Competition Phase. 1st and 2nd phases continued for three months (November-December-January) during which same training programs were repeated by the athletes each month. At the end of January, the athletes were given a 5.000 meters of a test run and the results obtained were recorded. In the Competition Phase, a new training program for the competition period was developed and applied to the athletes through the obtained data. The grades obtained before and after the practice have been determined, compared and evaluated. The Preparation Periods and the Competition Periods of the training athletes and the time intervals they have achieved after the training are shown in Table 1-2-3-4. The results of the competition has been announced on Turkish Athletics Federation official web page.

  • Comparison of Doping Knowledge Levels of Two Different University Learning Students

    The aim of this study was to determine the doping knowledge levels of the students of Ağrı İbrahim Chechen University School of Physical Education and Sports and Atatürk University Faculty of Education Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department. Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University 200 students studying at the School of Physical Education and Sports 334 students studying at the Department of Physical Education and Sports Teaching at Ataturk University Faculty of Education have been applied and a total of 534 questionnaires have been evaluated. The scope validity, comprehensibility and reliability of the questionnaire consisting of 32 questionnaires in order to determine the level of doping information was made by enthusiasm and cronbach alpha reliability coefficient in the 2006-2007 school year was determined as 0.92. (0.80

  • CUBISM, STRAVINSKY AND RITE OF SPRING

    Each art period or movement has been an effective form of expression for its time and mostly emerged as reaction to the previous art movement. This study discusses the emergence cubism as a form of artistic expression and its style through the works and examines the composer Igor Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring in the context of cubism. For cubism, the deformation of the usual, objective order of the universe appears as an inevitable mandatory principle. With this movement, it is possible to reshape the form in different ways through formlessness, to distort all and reincorporate all known forms and achieve new forms. In the heart of cubism, there lies the principle of expressing the idea of imagining and describing the things that happen in separate places together as if they are happening at the same time, by combining it with the pleasure of confusion. Cubism is a window opening to modern art and the most important step taken on this path. The influences of cubism have manifested themselves in the different musical structure of Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring. His music (the main theme) has been built on a rhythmic structure that can be defined as complex. The spontaneous and intuitive and impulsive reflection of artist’s impressions regarding the object, is evident in the intuitive rhythm, chord and unique texture of Stravinsky’s work. It is expressed that there is no intellectual system used in the formation of the harmonic language of the “Rite of Spring”, that it is only based on inner perception.