American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews

  • Perceptions of Ghanaian Migrant Mothers Living in London towards Postnatal Depression during Postnatal Periods

    The concept of postnatal depression might be constructed differently by people with different cultures resulting in the adoption of different coping mechanisms. Ghanaian migrant mothers living in London are no exception. The aim of this paper is to examine the perception of Ghanaian migrant mothers living in London towards postnatal depression during the postnatal period. In-depth interviews, augmented with informal conversations, were conducted with 25 Ghanaian migrant mothers who were within the postnatal period in London. Data were thematically analysed and presented. The study found that although Ghanaian migrant mothers reported experiencing stressful situations due to breastfeeding, infant temperament, lack of social support and housing problems, they were reluctant to seek help from maternal mental health services because they did not trust those health professional they encountered. Ghanaian migrant mothers appreciated the support of health visitors but the absence of family support increased their stressful situations. They, therefore, sought help when they are depressed mostly from religious leaders, friends, and distanced relatives while in London. We argue that since the Ghanaian migrant mother is a subsystem of her larger family which consist of individual elements such as the spouse or partner and her child and also relates with the wider UK environment including the health care system and the church, a change in one has an effect on all. Thus, health professionals must clarify their roles to mothers and take measures to assess migrant mothers on all aspects that influence their postnatal experiences. Identifying additional support needs of these mothers by health professionals is also paramount.

  • Theoretical Framework And Its Relevance To Geographic Studies: An Application Of Innovation Diffusion Theory In CWM

    This paper examines the meaning of concept, theory and theoretical framework and their relevance in geographic studies. In particular, the paper discussed the rationale behind the formulation and application of theoretical framework in carrying out a reliable geographic study. A categorical distinction in the use of ‘concept’ and ‘theory’ interchangeably was established and it was reiterated that every science has a goal, especially in the understanding and explanation of the real world phenomena. The paper also reiterated that although geography is short on theories and long on facts, yet development of theory seems to be vital both to satisfactory explanations and to the identification of geography as an independent field of study. An empirical application of innovation diffusion theory in geographic study (collaborative web mapping – CWM) is presented. The paper concludes that, like the human body, a theoretical framework plays a central role in geographic studies because it is the skeleton on which principles, methods and overall research goals are hinged.

  • Role of Geospatial technology in Crime Mapping: A case study of Jharkhand state of India

    Crime is a social stigma which needs to be addressed beyond talks. In developed country Geospatial technology has become well established within the criminology and forensic fields in recent past. In order to achieve this proper database of various crimes (state/ district level) should be available for decision making. The present study was an attempt made to study the district wise crime data (IPC crime registered) for murder, rape, kidnapping, dacoity, burglary, theft and riots of state of Jharkhand for the year 2013 to understand the crime trend. We have generated various maps including crime density map of Jharkhand based on crime types using ARC/ GIS Software and MS EXCEL. The crime density such as murder, rape, kidnaping and riots were found in the range of (2.2 to 17.8), (1.6 to 12.6), (2.3 to 10.4) and (1.0 to 17.5) respectively. Murder crime density was highest in Gumla district whereas it was found to be lowest in Gridih district. Sahebganj district has high crime density for rape and kidnapping. Palamu district had low crime density in rape, whereas Ranchi district recorded low crime density in kidnapping. Crime density for riots was found lowest for district Simdega whereas highest for Koderma. The Indian police and law enforcement departments has not yet exploited the GIS aspect which will fetch better result as far as crime control is considered.

  • Evaluation of Seasonal Streamflow Forecasting

    Long-term streamflow forecasts are essential for optimal management of water resources for various demands, including irrigation, fisheries management, hydropower production and flood warning. In this paper, a probabilistic forecast framework based on Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) technique is presented, with the basic assumption that future weather patterns will reflect those experienced historically. Hence, past forcing data (input to hydrological model) can be used with the current initial condition of a catchment to generate an ensemble of flow predictions. The present study employs the ESP-based approach using the TopNet hydrological model. The objective of this present paper is to evaluate and assess the uncertainty due to initial condition of the catchments and forcing (meteorological input to the model) data for (ESP) based streamflow forecasting using the TopNet hydrological model in New Zealand catchments. An ensemble of streamflow predictions which provide probabilistic hydrological forecasts, reflecting the intrinsic uncertainty in climate, with lead time up to three months is presented for the four catchments on New Zealand’s South Island. Verification of the forecast over the period 2000-2010 indicates a Ranked Probability Skill Score of 23% to 69% (over climatology) across the four catchments. In general, improvement in ESP forecasting skill over climatology is greatest in summer for all catchments studied. The major uncertainty associated with ESP forecast is combination of uncertainty due to initial state and climate forcing. The analysis indicates that the sensitivity of flow forecast to initial condition uncertainty depends on the hydrological regime experienced by the basin during the forecast period. On average, the relative importance of initial condition is greatest within two weeks to months of the start of the simulation for all catchment and all season. After this time period uncertainty in forecast is mainly due to uncertainty in forcing data. Finding of this study can be valuable…

  • From Micro- to Satellite Gravity: Understanding the Earth

    The main physical principle of gravity method application is the difference in densities between the various geological, environmental, archaeological and other targets and host media. Gravity is one of the oldest geophysical methods and it is widely applied for knowledge of subsurface and deep Earth’s domains. The present review displays multiscale examples of gravity field examination: from very detailed (delineation of karst terranes and archaeological targets) to regional investigations (development of 3D physical-geological models and satellite data examination of giant regions). Geographically the examined areas include the South Caucasus, the Dead Sea region, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Arabian-African region. Diverse methodologies of the gravity data processing, qualitative and quantitative interpretation, and results of 3D gravity field modeling are shown. It is demonstrated that integration of gravity field analysis with other geophysical methods (magnetic, paleomagnetic, thermal, seismic, etc.) significantly increases accuracy and reliability of developed physical-geological models. The further ways of evaluation of gravity data analysis are considered.

  • Remote Sensing and GIS Assessment of a Typical African Urban City: A Case Study of Ibadan, Nigeria

    Ibadan, a typical West African City, emerged from a traditional rural land use as a result of its socio-economic, educational, traditional and political uses. The perceived rapid growth of the now peripheral areas from the core Central Business District (CBD) tends to undermine a regimented planned land use system and as such constituting a menace to government zoning plans. This paper, therefore, synthesizes three epochs remotely sensed satellite images: 1972 Landsat (MSS), 1986 Landsat Thematic Mapping(TM) and 2000 Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) obtained from the USGS glcf website to examine the observed changes in land cover and land use pattern as well as urban growth process in Ibadan. GIS and remote sensing methods were used for image-processing, classification, and results from analyses. The study showed that in 1972, the buildup was 107 km2, it increased to 192 km2 in 1986 and almost doubled in 2000 (381 km2). The 2010 projection was 760 km2 and it is projected to 1520 km2 in 2020. The study further indicates that the city follows a trend of doubling in area size at least in every ten years. Decongesting the CBD through the provision of social amenities in the proximal urban fringes and rural areas are considered the most potent ways to remedy the seemingly urban menace

  • Analysing the effects of alternative livelihood on cocoa farmers in the Atwima Nwabiagya district

    This study was conducted in the Atwima Nwabiagya district; and it provides an empirical example of how a community integrates alternative livelihood activities as part of their livelihood through their own initiatives. A qualitative case study approach was used in this study. Snowball sampling technique was used to select 20 respondents for this study. Interview guide was used to glean data from the cocoa farmers. This was augmented with observation. Results show that alternative livelihood activities have significantly improved household income and consequently increased household standard of living. The study also found that the benefits of alternative livelihood activities are distributed across all households within the community as all households were engaged in at least one alternative livelihood activity. Households benefit directly from alternative livelihood through access to cash. Access to cash opened up opportunities for households to venture into other livelihood activities within the study community; and also use part to maintain their traditional livelihood. The study recommends to the district assembly to provide technical back‐up support systems to enhance the long‐term effects of any planned alternative livelihood on farmers’ incomes. Again, any planned intervention must avoid the handout syndrome so as to ensure it sustainability.