Histology and Cytology

  • “TWO IN ONE”- A RARE CASE OF NEOPLASTIC COLLISION TUMOR

    Collision tumors are a rare group of tumoral pathologies characterized by their composition, which is based by the presence of two or more tumor types affecting the same anatomical site and separated by distinct tumor borders. These tumors may be a combination of either malignant or benign tumors [1]. Collision tumors are classified as independently coexisting neoplasms which have different genetic, behavioral, and histological features separated by a distinct demarcated border but coexist within the same organ [2]. These tumors tend to have distant immunohistochemical and morphological differences which aid in diagnosis, but can lead to confounding imaging findings, which in times, make diagnosis more challenging. According to literature this tumor tends to grow simultaneously or following each other in sequence of less than 2 months apart [3]. Accurate classification and diagnosis of these tumors is important for proper treatment options, as well as better patient outcomes. Here will be discussed a case of a rare form of collision tumor, compose of a primary lung adenocarcinoma with a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.

  • PATHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO PLEURAL MALIGNANT MESOTHELIOMA

    Exposure to asbestos can lead to asbestosis or malignancy 10-40 years after initial exposure [1]. Although its use has been banned in multiple countries, past occupational exposure leads to most cases that we see in present time. Malignant mesothelioma is an insidious and rare neoplasm that can arise from mesothelial surface cells, being Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) the most common type. Lifetime risk of developing mesothelioma among asbestos workers can be as high as 10 percent and latency period is approximately 30-40 years since time of exposure to development of disease [2]. Annual incidence in the united states is approximately 3,300 cases per year [3]. Median overall survival of patients with advanced unresectable disease is approximately 12 months [4]. Clinical suspicion should arise in patients with previous exposure to asbestos who present with pleural thickening and/or effusion with associated respiratory symptoms. Most symptoms are nonspecific such as chest pain, dyspnea, cough and night sweats. Initial evaluation includes chest x-ray, contrast enhanced CT of the chest to find pleural abnormalities, thoracentesis and closed pleural biopsy. However, difficulties establishing diagnosis have been illustrated on studies where thoracentesis and pleural fluid cytology only yields diagnosis in 26% of cases. The diagnosis, then, is established by morphologic and immunohistochemistry findings of cytologic and surgical specimens.

  • PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE RATS’ EYES AFTER THE ADMINISTRATION OF OIL MACHINERY FLUID THROUGH STEREOTAXIC SURGERY

    Purpose: To achieve a relationship between oil machinery fluid (OMF) and the damage this fluid produces in several eye structures. In neuro-oncology patients, we know there are several parasellar tumors; one of them is the craniopharyngiomas that can produce a cystic structure containing an oily material. It has been denominated as an oil machinery fluid (OMF); this fluid has not yet been widely studied. It is a widely held view that it produces toxic effects in the brain and other structures. This paper aims to see the toxicity of the OMF when administered directly in the brain and the changes produced in the rats’ eyes. Methods: 30 Wistar rats were divided into three groups, control, sham and experimental; the oil machinery fluid was obtained directly from human patients during surgery. The oil machinery fluid was administered to the rat thalamus by stereotaxic surgery. The subjects were under observation after the surgery for five weeks and sacrificed once the observation period ended. Finally, immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue recovered from the eyes. Results: We observed that in the experimental group, there was an increase in glucose levels, the coloration of the eyes changed to a pinkish color, the lenses changed opacity, there were histological changes in the retina, and a reduction of the diameter of the optic nerve in this group in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: All the results observed in this model can be seen in human patients with craniopharyngiomas and diabetes. They are leading us to think that the oil machinery fluid alone can produce ocular changes by damaging several structures by the toxicity created by this fluid.

  • EXPRESSION OF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS (STAT 2, 3, 4, AND 6, HDAC1, HDAC2) IN CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA

    Background: Craniopharyngioma is a benign tumor of the sellar region that is typically characterized by a maldevelopment tumor with a high recurrence rate, as well as substantial morbidity and mortality in the long term. Signal transducers and transcription activators have been identified as critical components of cytokine signaling pathways that have previously been documented in craniopharyngioma-related literature. Purpose: The primary goal of this investigation is to examine transcription factor expression in craniopharyngiomas. In addition, a clinical-pathological and immunohistochemistry correlation will be sought. The current study enlisted the participation of forty patients. AdaCPs exhibited: β-catenin STAT2, STAT3, STAT6, and HDAC1 expression. While, STAT4, HDAC2, and GATA 3 were all negative. TTF1 was found in proteinaceous substances within the cyst formation (OMF). β-FGR, DPGR, TNFa, and Nrf2 were found to be associated with inflammation, OMF presence, and finger protrusion in brain surrounding tissue or brain invasion. Conclusions: Tumor recurrence was associated with increased expression of STAT3, STAT6, HDAC, β-catenin, and TNFα in WLA when compared to no recurrence. Coexpression of β-catenin, STAT2, STAT3, and STAT6 with TNFα was also shown using double fluorescence merge stains. There was no association between HDAC1 and HDAC2 coexpression and β-catenin, notably in the WLAs. Discussion: Histologically complicated features include cystic and solid components, the latter of which is made up of diverse morphological cell types. HDAC1 and HDAC2 regulate the enhanced expression of inflammatory genes during inflammation and macrophage response.

  • STUDY OF PLACENTAS OF HYPERTENSIVE MOTHERS ASSISTED IN TWO PUBLIC MATERNITIES OF RECIFE-PE

    Objective: Perform the histomorphometric study of the following regions: areas of perivillous fibrin deposition; thickness of the endothelial layer of the vessels; analysis of Tenney-Parker changes. Analyze the Placental Index (IP). Results: It was seen that the weight of the placentas increased according to the weight of the newborn, however, when the variable PI was analyzed as being decisive for the development of a risk-free pregnancy, it was found that this parameter was not significant between the groups studied. (p

  • ADVANCES IN THE IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES FOR PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS

    Objectives: The research objective was to present the main techniques for identifying pathogenic microorganisms and the application of new technologies for the clinical diagnosis of infectious diseases. Methods: It was made a search for free and recent journals available online in the databases of Pubmed (National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes), Lilacs (Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences), and Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library Online), based on keywords related to the proposed theme. Results: From the researched literature, it was possible to verify that conventional techniques, despite their limitations, are still widely used for the identification and microbial characterization. However, in the last decades, molecular methods have been widely inserted in the laboratory routine seeking to increase the capacity to detect infectious agents with high sensitivity, specificity, speed, and low cost. Among the various techniques, amplification of DNA sequences is highlighted by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and other variations of PCR. In addition to these, new technologies have been developed, such as new generation sequencing (NGS) and Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/ionization-time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Conclusion: The development of new technologies that allow rapid, sensitive, reproducible, and low-cost microbial identification, it is of great relevance for clinical microbiology, and consequently, for public health.

  • EVALUATION OF HEMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF YANGAMBIN ISOLATED FROM Ocotea duckei VATTIMO-GIL

    Yangambin, a lignan isolated from the leaves of Ocotea duckei Vattimo-Gil, has several pharmacological activities described in literature. However, few information about its toxicity has been reported. Red cells represent about 90% of blood cells and have interesting structural and molecular characteristics as experimental models in toxicological studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the hemolytic action of yangambin in sheep blood. The hemolysis assay was performed at concentrations of 50, 25 and 12.5 µg/mL of yangambin in triplicate and hemolysis percentage was defined through the absorbance resulting from the test concentrations compared to the positive control. The results showed that yangambin did not cause hemolysis at the concentrations tested, therefore it did not cause damage to the plasma membrane of sheep erythrocytes.

  • ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE EFFECT OF DIMETHYL FUMARATE AND ASTROCYTE CHANGES IN HIPPOCAMPUS OF MICE SUBMMITED TO MODEL OF DEPRESSION

    Introduction: Depression is a psychiatric condition of high prevalence worldwide and is associated with inflammation. Dimethyl fumarate, used to treat psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, has demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect. Objective: To evaluate the effect of dimethyl fumarate on depression, through the immobility time in the forced swim test, and on astrocyte proliferation, through the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the hippocampus of mice submitted to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress- induced model of depression. Methods: Male mice were divided into three groups: control(1), stressed(2), stressed+dimethyl fumarate (3). Groups 2 and 3 were subjected to 28 days of exposure to unpredictably applied stressors. From the 14th day, group 3 was treated with dimethyl fumarate (oral). At the end, the hippocampus was removed to determination of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression by immunofluorescence. Results: The immobility time was increased by chronic stress compared to the control and the treatment with dimethyl fumarate decreased this parameter, compared to the stressed group [F (9, 92) = 6,460; 1vs2: p

  • Evaluation of the Factors Associated with the Success of In Vitro Fertilization Cycles among Infertile Couples in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia

    The science gets developed and we can get fertilization process in vitro under special condition, (Wang, J, et al, 2006). Female age reflecting ovarian function, is predictor of pregnancy after in vitro fertilization (IVF). (L.L.van Loendersloot, et al, 2010), while Mediterranean diet may improve the IVF success rate among women. (Karayiannis D, et al., 2018). Thus, the aim of this study was to find out the factors that will associate with the success of IVF cycle among infertile couple in Qassim region. methods was a cross sectional study conducted at Prince Faisal Bin Mishaal fertility center in October,2019. (34) of fertility center patients willing to participate constituted the study sample. The data was collected using structured questionnaire to gather information on demographic characteristics, smoking habit, diet and supplement intake. data was analyzed in EPINFO v7 with descriptive and analytical statistics. results showing (94.12%) of successful IVF cycle. Most of females (92.9%) are under age of 40, whereas (66.7%) males were 40 or above. (9%) of total participants were smoker, (26%) had a partner who is a smoker. (65%) of the participants were neither them nor their partners a smokers. (38.24%) consume proteins (3-5) times a week, (55.88%) consume vegetable and fruits once a week, (35.29%) consume grains more than (5) times a week and (35.29%) consume dairy products (3-5) times a week. conclusion of study the pregnancy rate is higher in female who were under age of 40 but there is no significant association between age, smoking and dietary intake with the successful of IVF cycles.

  • Histological and ultrastructural studies of myocardium lesions produced by hair dye (para-phenylenediamine) in rats

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is an aromatic compound and usually applied in a few commercial and mechanical products. Additionally, ladies apply henna for coloring their hair, which contains PPD as one of the components. Henna is used in East Africa, India, and Middle Eastern countries as a part of their culture. However, it is rarely found in western countries. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of two different doses of PPD topical application on the skin of female rats. The microscopic analysis indicates that the body and heart weights were affected. Histopathological studies on cardiac fibers showed that the treatment of rats with 1.5 ml of PPD resulted in increased cytoplasmic vacuolization and the loss of myocardial cells with a globular nucleus. Additionally, an increased dose of 3 ml PPD showed several signs of cardiotoxic effects on increased cytoplasmic vacuolization and myofibrillar loss. Congestion, focal necrosis, swollen mitochondria, and lymphoid infiltration were also observed. Considering the findings of this study, it is concluded that the chronic usage of PPD promotes histopathological alterations in heart tissue of rats.