Histology and Cytology

  • STUDY OF PLACENTAS OF HYPERTENSIVE MOTHERS ASSISTED IN TWO PUBLIC MATERNITIES OF RECIFE-PE

    Objective: Perform the histomorphometric study of the following regions: areas of perivillous fibrin deposition; thickness of the endothelial layer of the vessels; analysis of Tenney-Parker changes. Analyze the Placental Index (IP). Results: It was seen that the weight of the placentas increased according to the weight of the newborn, however, when the variable PI was analyzed as being decisive for the development of a risk-free pregnancy, it was found that this parameter was not significant between the groups studied. (p

  • ADVANCES IN THE IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES FOR PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS

    Objectives: The research objective was to present the main techniques for identifying pathogenic microorganisms and the application of new technologies for the clinical diagnosis of infectious diseases. Methods: It was made a search for free and recent journals available online in the databases of Pubmed (National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes), Lilacs (Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences), and Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library Online), based on keywords related to the proposed theme. Results: From the researched literature, it was possible to verify that conventional techniques, despite their limitations, are still widely used for the identification and microbial characterization. However, in the last decades, molecular methods have been widely inserted in the laboratory routine seeking to increase the capacity to detect infectious agents with high sensitivity, specificity, speed, and low cost. Among the various techniques, amplification of DNA sequences is highlighted by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and other variations of PCR. In addition to these, new technologies have been developed, such as new generation sequencing (NGS) and Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/ionization-time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Conclusion: The development of new technologies that allow rapid, sensitive, reproducible, and low-cost microbial identification, it is of great relevance for clinical microbiology, and consequently, for public health.

  • EVALUATION OF HEMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF YANGAMBIN ISOLATED FROM Ocotea duckei VATTIMO-GIL

    Yangambin, a lignan isolated from the leaves of Ocotea duckei Vattimo-Gil, has several pharmacological activities described in literature. However, few information about its toxicity has been reported. Red cells represent about 90% of blood cells and have interesting structural and molecular characteristics as experimental models in toxicological studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the hemolytic action of yangambin in sheep blood. The hemolysis assay was performed at concentrations of 50, 25 and 12.5 µg/mL of yangambin in triplicate and hemolysis percentage was defined through the absorbance resulting from the test concentrations compared to the positive control. The results showed that yangambin did not cause hemolysis at the concentrations tested, therefore it did not cause damage to the plasma membrane of sheep erythrocytes.

  • ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE EFFECT OF DIMETHYL FUMARATE AND ASTROCYTE CHANGES IN HIPPOCAMPUS OF MICE SUBMMITED TO MODEL OF DEPRESSION

    Introduction: Depression is a psychiatric condition of high prevalence worldwide and is associated with inflammation. Dimethyl fumarate, used to treat psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, has demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect. Objective: To evaluate the effect of dimethyl fumarate on depression, through the immobility time in the forced swim test, and on astrocyte proliferation, through the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the hippocampus of mice submitted to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress- induced model of depression. Methods: Male mice were divided into three groups: control(1), stressed(2), stressed+dimethyl fumarate (3). Groups 2 and 3 were subjected to 28 days of exposure to unpredictably applied stressors. From the 14th day, group 3 was treated with dimethyl fumarate (oral). At the end, the hippocampus was removed to determination of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression by immunofluorescence. Results: The immobility time was increased by chronic stress compared to the control and the treatment with dimethyl fumarate decreased this parameter, compared to the stressed group [F (9, 92) = 6,460; 1vs2: p

  • Evaluation of the Factors Associated with the Success of In Vitro Fertilization Cycles among Infertile Couples in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia

    The science gets developed and we can get fertilization process in vitro under special condition, (Wang, J, et al, 2006). Female age reflecting ovarian function, is predictor of pregnancy after in vitro fertilization (IVF). (L.L.van Loendersloot, et al, 2010), while Mediterranean diet may improve the IVF success rate among women. (Karayiannis D, et al., 2018). Thus, the aim of this study was to find out the factors that will associate with the success of IVF cycle among infertile couple in Qassim region. methods was a cross sectional study conducted at Prince Faisal Bin Mishaal fertility center in October,2019. (34) of fertility center patients willing to participate constituted the study sample. The data was collected using structured questionnaire to gather information on demographic characteristics, smoking habit, diet and supplement intake. data was analyzed in EPINFO v7 with descriptive and analytical statistics. results showing (94.12%) of successful IVF cycle. Most of females (92.9%) are under age of 40, whereas (66.7%) males were 40 or above. (9%) of total participants were smoker, (26%) had a partner who is a smoker. (65%) of the participants were neither them nor their partners a smokers. (38.24%) consume proteins (3-5) times a week, (55.88%) consume vegetable and fruits once a week, (35.29%) consume grains more than (5) times a week and (35.29%) consume dairy products (3-5) times a week. conclusion of study the pregnancy rate is higher in female who were under age of 40 but there is no significant association between age, smoking and dietary intake with the successful of IVF cycles.

  • Histological and ultrastructural studies of myocardium lesions produced by hair dye (para-phenylenediamine) in rats

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is an aromatic compound and usually applied in a few commercial and mechanical products. Additionally, ladies apply henna for coloring their hair, which contains PPD as one of the components. Henna is used in East Africa, India, and Middle Eastern countries as a part of their culture. However, it is rarely found in western countries. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of two different doses of PPD topical application on the skin of female rats. The microscopic analysis indicates that the body and heart weights were affected. Histopathological studies on cardiac fibers showed that the treatment of rats with 1.5 ml of PPD resulted in increased cytoplasmic vacuolization and the loss of myocardial cells with a globular nucleus. Additionally, an increased dose of 3 ml PPD showed several signs of cardiotoxic effects on increased cytoplasmic vacuolization and myofibrillar loss. Congestion, focal necrosis, swollen mitochondria, and lymphoid infiltration were also observed. Considering the findings of this study, it is concluded that the chronic usage of PPD promotes histopathological alterations in heart tissue of rats.

  • Leprosy in the Process of Development of Peripheral Neuropathy

    Introduction: Stigmatized since the biblical times, the leprosy is developed by Mycobacterium leprae, havinglike a of yours principal characteres the impairment of peripheral nerves that can to initiate in deficients and fisics deformities. Objectives: Analise the process of the peripheral neuropathy by leprosy. Methodology: It’s a revision of integrative role, whose reviewed articles were captured through database analysis: LILACS and SciELO. The descriptor sutilized were:Leprosy, Peripheral nerves, Quality of life and Treatment. The analysis were realized on october, 2017; the criterions of the included were published articles in portuguese and english, in 2012 to 2017, being excluded all that haven’t adequation at thematic of study. By means of the criterions defined were found 9 publisheds, but, only 2 articles met the criterions of the principal objective. Results and Discussions: The diagnostic of the patology is clinic starting by thermics stimuli, tactille and painful. In the start of the disease, the Scwann’s cells are the firsts commited, but, progressively the axonies also can to be affecteds. The neuropathy of the leprosy is of cronic course, presenting some acute phases. The principal nerves achieved are ulnar in the elbow, median in the handle and fingers, superficial radial in the handle, tibial in the tarsal tunnel, fibular, tunnel straight-fibular, beyond of the sensitives branches: saphenous, superficial peroni and sural. She cans to pass by evolutions and a present differentiated characteres, necessiting of accompaniment constant. The realization of neurologic exam like palpation of nerves and profund reflexions, sensitive mapping, motor voluntary test, dermatologic avaliations and anamnese, support in the early Discovery of the disease. Conclusion: The methods of the avaliation of neuropathies must be of knowledge and domain of the health team, because define the treatment of the disease inside of the yours particularities, preventing that sick hadirreversible losses that prejudice your quality of…

  • In Silico Characterization of Nbs-lrr Gene Family in Vitis Vinifera Genome

    Introduction: During evolution, plants developed defense mechanisms against pathogen attack, including an infinity of molecular processes that are triggered by pathogen exposure, such as resistance gene synthesis (R). The NBS-LRR gene family is known as one of the most representative families in the R gene class, in which its protein domains are related to one form of plant defense mechanisms. Objective: To identify and characterize candidate sequences of the NBS-LRR gene family in the Vitis vinifera genome. Methodology: Initially, a seed sequence was selected from those curated in the NBS-LRR family and deposited in the UniProt database. This sequence was aligned via tBLASTn against the V. vinifera genome deposited in the NCBI, by adopting a cut-off of e-value ≥ e-10. The sequences were annotated, translated and had its conserved protein domains identified by both ORF Finder and CD-search tools, respectively. Finally, the prediction of the isoelectric point was performed, and the molecular weight was also estimated using the JVirGel 2.0 software. Moreover, the subcellular localization was carried out by the Cell-PLoc 2.0 software. Results and Discussion: A total of 40 candidate sequences were retrieved that are related to the gene of interest. The translated proteins showed a variation from 338 to 944 aa in size. A total of 33 complete NBS domains were found, from which 16 sequences had a whole RX-CC_like domain, while only two sequences have a full-length LRR domain. The candidate proteins had an isoelectric point from 5.25 to 9.46, a molecular weight varying from 38.47 and 108.14 kDa. All proteins showed cytoplasmatic subcellular localization, from which, 21 % also displayed an cellular membrane localization, in agreement with the data described in the literature. Conclusions: The results described here can contribute to a better understanding of the molecular characteristics of the NBS-LRR gene family and their role…

  • Cell Death Pathways on Cancer Therapy

    Introduction: Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation. The development of new drugs effective in the cancer treatment seeks the selectivity in inducing cell death. Different cell death pathways are known to date, the main ones are apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. Objective: To describe the main cell death regulatory pathways and the possible targets of new anticancer drugs. Methodology: A bibliographic review of the scientific literature published in international journals was carried out. Results and Discussion: Apoptosis is a programmed cell death that controls the balance between death and tissue proliferation, and cancer cells are able to evade this mechanism. It can be induced by the extrinsic pathway, where receptors of the TNF- or CD95 family are activated on the cell surface, which subsequently activate cytosolic proteases, the caspases; or by the intrinsic pathway, where apoptosis is induced by the release of apoptogenic factors by mitochondria. Bcl-2 family proteins are highly involved in this pathway. Autophagy is a type of death in which the cell eliminates unhealthy cytoplasmic components by lysosomal degradation. The autophagic process is highly controlled, among others, by components of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, becoming key targets in anticancer therapy via autophagy induction. Finally, necrosis is a passive cell death that generally does not depend on a specific signaling pathway. It usually occurs as a final step of apoptosis or necrosis or by other factors which affect cellular homeostasis, such as physical damage and mechanical stresses, leadind to cell volume augmentation and membrane disruption, resulting in loss of cell integrity. Conclusion: Thus, the search or development of new molecules that act against one or more of the cell death activation pathways may reveal new and promising therapeutic agents against cancer.

  • Differential Diagnosis for Incisive Channel Cysts

    Introduction: Nasopalatine duct cysts are common entities of the jaw, but may resemble clinical and radiographic findings to other cystic and solid lesions of the medial anterior maxilla. It can develop at any age, but it is more frequent between the fourth and sixth decades of life affecting men more frequently. Its etiology seems to be associated with the proliferation of epithelial remnants of the nasopalatine duct or from oronasal ducts within the incisor canal. Objective: To discuss the relevant microscopic and differential diagnosis features in clinical dental practice through recent publications. Methodology: An integrative review was performed on the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, using the descriptors: Cyst, Incisor channel, lesions. Inclusion criteria were: full-text articles available in Portuguese or English and with a temporal cut between 2013 and 2017. Results: Five articles were selected that fit the inclusion criteria. Discussion: Nasopalatine duct cyst is the most common non-odontogenic cyst of maxillary intraosseous cyst. Due to its specific anatomical location and its proximity to the upper central incisors, this lesion is often confused with periapical cysts, which leads to difficulties in establishing the best therapy by the clinician. Its radiographic appearance shows a radiolucent area, unilocular, oval or rounded, well delimited and located along the midline of the maxilla, between the apexes of the central incisors or higher on the hard palate. The main differential diagnoses usually provided include, in addition to the nasopalatine duct cyst itself, the pe- triapical cyst located apical or laterally to the roots and odontogenic keratocyst (or keratocystic odontogenic tumor). Conclusion: Nasopalatine duct cysts usually affect adult men, resembling the periapical cysts associated with the upper central incisors, which should be treated through surgical procedures with a subsequent microscopic evaluation of the specimen removed.