Addiction Research and Therapy

  • Drug Addiction in Bangladesh: “A Consequence of Social Demoralization Rather Than Individual Flaws”

    Addiction is a maladaptive pattern of drug abuse including alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, sedatives, hypnotics and anxiolytics, stimulants, tobacco and others that persists despite negative consequences. An article of New England Journal of Medicine says “addiction is a disease of the brain” whereas another leading journal specifies “Genetics contributes significantly to vulnerability to this disorder”. Neurological changes observed in long-term substance abusers are nearly identical to those seen in people struggling with obesity, porn aficionados, gamblers, internet “addicts”, compulsive shoppers and simply those involved in intense romantic relationships. As with many other brain diseases, addiction has embedded behavioral and social-context aspects that are important parts of the disorder itself. An increased incidence of addiction is clearly a reflection of social demoralization. In countries like Bangladesh, people are easily demoralized because of social or peer influence. And widespread corruption, creating severe social injustices, various types of criminal activities is very common here. Issues of moral value declines in common people are expressed in many literatures. Frustration, unemployment, lack of recreation facilities and bad companionship are the epic reasons of drug addiction among youth in this country.


    Introduction: The World Health Organization (2004)4, considers the alcoholic as an excessive drinker whose dependence on alcohol is accompanied by mental disorders, physical health, relationship with others and social and economic behavior.Objective: To identify the sociodemographic profile and the lifestyle of users of the Unified Health System (SUS) with diagnosis of alcoholism in the city of Vitória de Santo Antão, PE. Methodology: Cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative study, performed in a Hospital Unit agreed with SUS, located in the city of Vitoria de Santo Antão, PE. Data were collected with patients admitted from September to November 2016, through of the questionnaires on the sociodemographic and lifestyle conditions of alcoholics. The data were statistically described. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee involving Human Beings of the Health Sciences Center – Federal University of Pernambuco (CAAE: 55297416.0.0000.5208). Results: Twenty-eight male patients aged 19-65 years old, were evaluated. It was observed that 93 % did not finish high school, 57 % with income of up to one minimum wage, 74 % unemployed and 70 % smokers. Conclusion: The present study verified a low socio-demographic condition and an unsatisfactory lifestyle in the population previously evaluated.


    Introduction: the consumption of illicit drugs is a public health problem. Objective: the aim of this study is to identify the profile of street drug users in the city of Arapiraca. Methodology: users were recruited in welcoming communities and at the Special Reference Center for Population in Street Situation (POP Center). A sociodemographic questionnaire was used to provide access to the users profile. All the participants signed the Informed Consent Term (TCLE). Statistical analysis was performed using the Stastistics Package for Social Science (SSPS) version 21. Results: a total of 12 users participated in the study, the age group most affected was between 36 and 45 years. The majority of users were male. Regarding ethnicity, marital status and schooling, 50% declared themselves mixed race, 83.3% were single and 50% had incomplete elementary education. Conclusions: some studies have shown that street users are predominantly male and that this predominance may be related to cultural issues. Further studies with this theme are necessary to better assess the profile of users of psychoactive substances nationwide.


    Introduction: Currently drug use is as a major problem of global public health, given the diversity of aspects involved in drug abuse, psychoactive substances exert impacts on users, families and community, contributing to damage to the physical and mental health, as well as the socio-economic vulnerability and legal problems. Objective: Analyze the degree of cocaine / crack users behavior in Cozy Communities and the Reference Center for Population Homeless (POP Center) located in Arapiraca city in Alagoas. Methodology: This is a research with a quantitative approach, performed in Cozy Communities and POP Center, which are distributed in the city of Arapiraca. The instrument used for the production of data was made by means of structured interviews conducted in the period May to July 2018, in its physical space of the institutions, listing the sociodemographic profile and Impulsiveness Scale – BIS 11. For impulsive behavior grade analysis was used to impulsiveness scale – 11 BIS, based on “Ernst Barratt model, which is considered as one of the most important in impulsive behavior explanation”. Results: The results obtained, the overall score obtained an average of 2.38 were found for each partial average score of the three subdomains impulsiveness, the resulting average motor impulsivity: 2.24 to attentional impulsivity: 2.51 and impulsivity not planning: 2.34. Conclusion: This study shows the importance of impulsivity associated with the pattern of use of psychoactive substances.

  • Socio-demographic Profile of Drug Use and Treatment in Cocaine/Crack Users

    Introduction: The current Brazilian scenario shows that abusive use of psychoactive substances directly influences social and public health problems. Objective: To describe the sociodemographic, drug use and treatment profile of cocaine and crack users under treatment at treatment units in the Arapiraca municipality, in the Agreste region of Alagoas. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional quantitative research carried out in welcoming communities in the Agreste of Alagoas, Brazil, and in the Specialized Reference Center for Population in Situation of the Street (POP Center). A sociodemographic data form was used that allowed to know the profile of the users. The data collected were inserted in a database using SPSS 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, United States). Results: Most of the interviewees have their own residence. Closely followed are those residing in unstable housing which reflects that this vulnerability has great influence on the use of crack. The education level of most of the interviewees is low and income less than a minimum wage, the latter factor considerable for the choice of crack. Regarding the profile of drug use, most interviewees started using marijuana drugs between 12 and 17 years of age, and between 18 and 25 years of age began using cocaine / crack. Conclusion: The study makes clear the high level of drug dependence and abuse, where users who have cocaine / crack as the drug of choice have a greater crack.

  • Multiprofessional treatment and approach in patients

    Introduction: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disease that affects motor neurons in a progressive and generalized way, with an incidence ranging from 0.3 to 3.6: 100.000 people per year. Objective: To analyze the importance of multiprofessional care for patients with ALS. Methodology: Literature Review through the Pubmed and Uptodate databases with the descriptors “Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis” and “multidisciplinary”. Results and Discussion: ALS is the most common motor neuron disease in the world, with weakness, spasticity, hyperreflexia, muscular atrophy and fasciculations. It is very much associated with depression, cognitive, behavioral and mood disorders, causing social and economic problems for patients and their families. Its prognosis is bleak, with death after about two to three years of diagnosis. Riluzole is a safe and effective drug for the management of ALS, capable of prolonging survival in about six months. In May 2017 the use of Edaravone for the treatment of ALS was approved, so the current therapeutic recommendation is the use of this as an adjunct to Riluzole. According to a 2017 review of the Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, more important than drug therapy itself in ALS, is the multiprofessional approach. Currently there is evidence of the importance of the role of neurologist, gastroenterologist, palliative care specialist, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, speech therapist, nutritionist, nurse, psychologist and social worker in the treatment of ALS – each professional with different skills, knowledge and experience must act together to provide the best possible care for patients in this situation and their families. Conclusion: Despite the socioeconomic difficulties found in Brazil, it is scientifically proven the importance of the multidisciplinary approach not only for patients with ALS, but also for their families, so that it should be encouraged in different care settings.

  • The nurse’s importance in the aid to a congenital condition of cardiopathy

    Introduction: Cardiopathy is a chronic disease that affects the heart structure, preventing or disturbing its healthy operation. The congenital status of this disease affects by consequence the fetus’ growth and maturation which in serious cases harms the child’s development. It is in this moment that the professional role of nursing is crucial by the constant aid, both to the patient and its family. Objective: Emphasizing the nurse’s importance in the aid to a congenital condition of cardiopathy. Methodology: A search was carried out in the SCIELLO virtual library and in the LILACS database, using the descriptors “Congenital Cardiopathy”, “Nursing”, “Children Affected by Heart Diseases”, “Risk Factors”. Were separated 25 articles dated between 2011 and 2016. With the complete text and in Portuguese language, totaling 8. After reading the articles, 5 studies provided the information of this summary. Results and Discussion: In context where the congenital cardiopathy highlights and causes issues since the child first years of life, the nurse comes as the principal aid parts to the family. This starts during the pregnancy by raising awareness of the the risk factors and it extends to the everyday care with the patient. Children that presents cardiovascular diseases exhibit a frequent need for nursing diagnostic. Besides the professional and flexible aid from all in this area, pediatrics count with this flexibility to interact and caring for patients. Conclusion: We can conclude that the professional nurse figure is of the utmost importance for the follow-up of congenital cardiopathy. The nurse must exercise his/her knowledge to aid in the patient’s care process, in addition to support their family. The professional care must be started in the antenatal support, following the child’s life until the disease is stable.

  • The Adverse Effects Of Prolonged Use Of Corticosteroids And (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) Nsaids In Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease whose main symptom is inflammation of the joints. The main drugs given to fight this disease are corticosteroids that have anti-inflammatory action and (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) NSAIDs. While drugs are extremely useful in the treatment of this disease, corticosteroids have a list of side effects if used too much and for long time. Objective: emphasize the adverse effects of prolonged use of corticosteroids and (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) NSAIDs in rheumatoid arthritis. Methodology: This study deals with a literature review performed in databases the SciELO and Pubmed, using combinations of descriptors “Rheumatoid Arthritis”, “Corticosteroids”, “Consequences”. 101 articles were found, from which 6 were selected the reading of the respective digests. Results and Discussion: The studies and research already carried out on this subject have shown that 20-40% of patients, adults or elderly, who use (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) NSAIDs at risk of having gastric ulcer, as well as 42% of users have likely increased incidence of cardiovascular events. Their prolonged use may also increase in 5-6 mmHg the average pressure in patients with hypertension..Hospitalization is more frequent in patients who ingest steroids, being admitted with sepsis 0.05% compared with 0.02% of those who did not. As to thrombus formation, the rate of hospitalization was 0.14% versus 0.09% and fractures was 0.51% versus 0.39%. In the face of variables involving rheumatoid arthritis, NSAIDs and corticosteroids, while treating the condition can cause a lot of damage to the patient if administered without interruption. Conclusion: It is necessary further studies on the adverse effects of drugs, research on palliative alternatives and new therapeutic strategies such as drug therapy, physical therapy, psychosocial support and surgical treatments.

  • Systematization of Patient Assistance With Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    Introduction: Multiple sclerosis is an immunological disease wich affects the Central Nervous System leading to the progressive destruction of a part of the structure of the nerves and interfering in the conduction of the signal of nervous stimulation. Objective: Identify Nursing diagnoses present in a Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis patient. Methods: It is a descriptive study of the clinical case report type carried out from June to July 2016. Data collection was performed using physical examination and medical records. Results: R.M.S. 44 years old, was admitted to a university hospital in Recife-PE referring to symmetric and ascending numbness in the lower limbs in a continuous and progressive way, imbalance, difficulty in walking, constipation, retention and urinary urgency, besides erectile dysfunction. Imaging examinations revealed neuroimaging suggestive of demyelinating lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hypertensive foci in the T2 region in supratentorial (predominantly colosal), medullary and left hemipons compartments, some of which presented contrast uptake. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected through lumbar puncture with negative results for toxoplasmosis, schistosomiasis, cytomegalovirus, HIV and HTLV 1 and 2 serologies. Nursing diagnoses identified: Impairment of physical mobility related to muscular paresis and imbalance; Risk for injuries related to impaired sensory and motor capacity; Impaired urinary and intestinal elimination related to a dysfunction of the nervous system; Speech and swallowing impaired by glossopharyngeal nerve involvement. The Nursing practices prescribed according to the respective diagnoses listed were: Assist the patient while walking; Record and monitor the values of urine output and intestinal elimination; Accompany the patient during dietary intake. Conclusions: After performing the procedures, patient evolved with improvement of the condition and was guided to follow-up through the outpatient clinic of the referred hospital.

  • To analyze the importance of the nursing professional in controlling the risk factors that cause heart failure in the elderly

    Introduction: Despite the technological advance and the increase in population longevity, heart diseases continue to affect the elderly intensely, making nursing professionals’ need for assistance more evident. In the case of a non-congenital state, several risk factors that emphasize the influence of the nurse in the role of prevention and care for patients with such pathology can be highlighted. Objective: To analyze the importance of the nursing professional in controlling the risk factors that cause heart failure in the elderly. Methodology: A search was performed in the LILACS database, as well as in the SCIELO virtual library, using the descriptors “Cardiopathic Diseases”, “Elderly”, “Risk Factors”. We found 23 articles published in the period from 2011 to 2016, with the complete text and in the Portuguese language, totaling 6 articles. After reading the articles, 4 studies assisted in the production of this summary. Results and Discussion: Faced with such facts, the importance of nursing care in cases of elderly patients with heart disease is undeniable; Assistance ranging from prevention in basic care programs with the explanation of risk factors to palliative care. Due to the vulnerability of the elderly, attention and help must be redoubled to prevent this weakness from reaching its final state, since they are more likely to develop joint diseases than cardiopathy. Conclusion: Faced with these facts, we can emphasize that cardiovascular diseases affect, mainly, the elderly population because they are a risk group, as they need special assistance from nursing professionals. Thus, the orientation role of nurses and other health professionals is essential for the reduction of the rate of heart disease in the elderly population.