Addiction Research and Therapy

  • Socio-demographic correlates of heavy drinking after hospital discharge among Thai alcohol-dependent patients: 6-month follow-up

    Background: After receiving in-patient treatment for alcohol abuse, alcohol-dependent patients (ADP) are at risk to return to heavy drinking. Little has been known regarding the correlates of socio-demographic and heavy drinking within 6-month after inpatient treatment. Objectives: This study aims to examine the socio-demographic correlates of heavy drinking among Thai ADP after hospital discharge within six-months. Methods: A prospective cohort study of 618 ADP who received inpatient treatment at two tertiary care hospitals in Northern Thailand between July and December 2014. Heavy drinking is defined by the World Health Organization as ≥5 standard drinks for men and ≥4 standard drinks for women per occasion. Heavy drinking data was collected using a Timeline Follow Back Calendar (TLFB) every month after discharge. Other measures included the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Alcohol Craving Control (ACC), Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ), and demographic questionnaires. Results: 618 participants present with a mean age of 43.28 (SD=10.01) years, 94.2% male, 216 (35%) reported that family members are drinkers, and 400 (70.7%) continue to exhibit heavy drinking behaviour. The logistic regression model revealed that age at onset of alcohol use was correlated with heavy drinking after hospital discharge within 6 months (p


    Introduction: Alcohol abuse does not characterize a state of character or weakness, it is a physical and psychological dependence that manipulates a dependent’s conduct and interposes between the individual, a family and other social relationships. There are 3.3 million deaths per year, due to harmful use of alcohol, and ranks as the third disease that kills the most in the world. In Brazil, it is estimated that 4.2% of the population most likely to be abused or addicted, alarming compared to the world average. Objective: To analyze the prevalence data in new cases of mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol use, from 2014 to 2018 by sample of municipalities in the state of Pernambuco with more than 100 new cases in the period. Methodology: This is a study in secondary databases, conducted from the Brazilian Basic Data indicators, an integral tool of the health information system, using quantitative analysis of variables. Results: There was a reduction of 8% in new cases in 2018 when compared to 2014. The municipality of Vitória de Santo Antão had a greater relative reduction of new cases in the period, from 82 in 2014 to 5 new cases in 2018. Paulista presented 559 fewer new cases when comparing 2018 and 2014, this being the largest absolute reduction among the municipalities. Men were 18 times more dependent than women, and the population aged 30 to 59 years had 4.6 times more new cases than the other age groups. Discussion: It is generally observed that there were significant reductions in the number of new cases when evaluating all municipalities in Pernambuco. This may be associated with the expansion of preventive public health education policies aimed at raising awareness of the use and abuse of the population and the role of multidisciplinary teams towards the dependent patient,…


    Introduction: Cannabis sativa is one of the most commonly used recreational drugs, contains over 500 different clinical compounds and over 60 known cannabinoids. Drug abuse tests are widely used as hospital screening tests for poisoning diagnoses. Objective: This study aims to understand the types of drug abuse tests used in cases of acute cannabinoid poisoning, especially in children. Methodology: This was a literature review, having as source of research the databases UpToDate, NCBI Pubmed, Online Library (SCIELO) and Toxicology Manuals. As inclusion criteria were used publications from 2000 to 2019, in Portuguese, English and Spanish, related to the keywords. Discussion: Acute cannabis poisoning is a clinical diagnosis, however, diagnosis in children may be difficult, so drug screening in the urine may be helpful to confirm the diagnosis. Conclusion: These tests are easy to perform and cheap, having good specificity through their chemical structure, directing the immunoassay to the toxic agent.


    Introduction: Psychoactive substances can cause disorders that differ from each other and varying severity and diverse symptomatology. Enabling complications in the family and social environment of the user, in addition to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Alcohol is a psychoactive substance most used by the Brazilian population, followed by caffeine, opiates, cannabinoids, cocaine and crack, with high levels of simultaneous use of two or more substances. In Brazil, it is estimated that psychoactive imports will increase, especially among young people. Objective: To analyze data from years 2014 to 2018, for example from the state of Pernambuco state with more than 100 case cases in the period. Methodology: This is a study in secondary databases, conducted from the Basic data indicator of Brazil, using the health information system, using the quantitative analysis of variables. Results: The number of new occurrences between 2014 and 2018 increased by 1.4 times. Of a total of 2971 cases, 75.3% were treated non-urgently and sometimes more often than women. The working age population (between 15 and 60 years old) presented 94.3% of new cases among those under 15 years old and over 60 years old, with the largest number of new cases in the range of 20 to 29 years old, representing 34%. Discussion: In general, there was a significant increase in the number of new cases in the population of the state of Pernambuco. Men and their age status have been progressively classified as important risk factors for mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. In addition, a proportion of emergency care indicates a severity of the disorder that has occurred. Conclusion: Injections in psychoactive therapies focus on health focused on psychoactive disorders, with emphasis on health promotion focused on males. The case to disregard the increasing increases of new cases over…


    Introduction:The term stress can be defined as a psychosocial phenomenon with biological. Alcohol has a social effect, making it more evident at school due to concern by young people.Objective:Identify the perceived stress level, the prevalence of alcohol consumption and to verify the association of the stress level with alcohol consumption among students of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco. Methodology: The sample consisted of 217 students, with a mean age of 15.52 (Minimum 13 and maximum 19). The most were male (52 %), semi-resident (79 %), rural (67 %). DISCUSSION: The average perceived stress was 48.22, with a minimum of 36, a maximum of 63 and a standard deviation of 5.01.About six out of ten do something to relieve stress.These data differ slightly from those found in the pilot study, where about seven out of ten students report some feeling of irritation in the past month (72.7 %), 63.6 % report that they’re feeling happy, 81.8 % of them had or are having an emotional problems that still makes them sad. Results: As mechanisms to relieve stress, eight categories were identified, most of them had used for leisure.Regarding stress, this research presents results similar to other studies involving adolescent students, however, with different assessment instruments, where the stress level ranged from 13.16 % to 73 %. Conclusion: The study points out that the stress during adolescence in the school environment is related to several factors, such as: school postage, excessive academic activities, disputes, fear of disapproval and anxiety.Regarding the consumption of alcohol, almost half already used (47 %).

  • Drug Addiction in Bangladesh: “A Consequence of Social Demoralization Rather Than Individual Flaws”

    Addiction is a maladaptive pattern of drug abuse including alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, sedatives, hypnotics and anxiolytics, stimulants, tobacco and others that persists despite negative consequences. An article of New England Journal of Medicine says “addiction is a disease of the brain” whereas another leading journal specifies “Genetics contributes significantly to vulnerability to this disorder”. Neurological changes observed in long-term substance abusers are nearly identical to those seen in people struggling with obesity, porn aficionados, gamblers, internet “addicts”, compulsive shoppers and simply those involved in intense romantic relationships. As with many other brain diseases, addiction has embedded behavioral and social-context aspects that are important parts of the disorder itself. An increased incidence of addiction is clearly a reflection of social demoralization. In countries like Bangladesh, people are easily demoralized because of social or peer influence. And widespread corruption, creating severe social injustices, various types of criminal activities is very common here. Issues of moral value declines in common people are expressed in many literatures. Frustration, unemployment, lack of recreation facilities and bad companionship are the epic reasons of drug addiction among youth in this country.


    Introduction: The World Health Organization (2004)4, considers the alcoholic as an excessive drinker whose dependence on alcohol is accompanied by mental disorders, physical health, relationship with others and social and economic behavior.Objective: To identify the sociodemographic profile and the lifestyle of users of the Unified Health System (SUS) with diagnosis of alcoholism in the city of Vitória de Santo Antão, PE. Methodology: Cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative study, performed in a Hospital Unit agreed with SUS, located in the city of Vitoria de Santo Antão, PE. Data were collected with patients admitted from September to November 2016, through of the questionnaires on the sociodemographic and lifestyle conditions of alcoholics. The data were statistically described. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee involving Human Beings of the Health Sciences Center – Federal University of Pernambuco (CAAE: 55297416.0.0000.5208). Results: Twenty-eight male patients aged 19-65 years old, were evaluated. It was observed that 93 % did not finish high school, 57 % with income of up to one minimum wage, 74 % unemployed and 70 % smokers. Conclusion: The present study verified a low socio-demographic condition and an unsatisfactory lifestyle in the population previously evaluated.


    Introduction: the consumption of illicit drugs is a public health problem. Objective: the aim of this study is to identify the profile of street drug users in the city of Arapiraca. Methodology: users were recruited in welcoming communities and at the Special Reference Center for Population in Street Situation (POP Center). A sociodemographic questionnaire was used to provide access to the users profile. All the participants signed the Informed Consent Term (TCLE). Statistical analysis was performed using the Stastistics Package for Social Science (SSPS) version 21. Results: a total of 12 users participated in the study, the age group most affected was between 36 and 45 years. The majority of users were male. Regarding ethnicity, marital status and schooling, 50% declared themselves mixed race, 83.3% were single and 50% had incomplete elementary education. Conclusions: some studies have shown that street users are predominantly male and that this predominance may be related to cultural issues. Further studies with this theme are necessary to better assess the profile of users of psychoactive substances nationwide.


    Introduction: Currently drug use is as a major problem of global public health, given the diversity of aspects involved in drug abuse, psychoactive substances exert impacts on users, families and community, contributing to damage to the physical and mental health, as well as the socio-economic vulnerability and legal problems. Objective: Analyze the degree of cocaine / crack users behavior in Cozy Communities and the Reference Center for Population Homeless (POP Center) located in Arapiraca city in Alagoas. Methodology: This is a research with a quantitative approach, performed in Cozy Communities and POP Center, which are distributed in the city of Arapiraca. The instrument used for the production of data was made by means of structured interviews conducted in the period May to July 2018, in its physical space of the institutions, listing the sociodemographic profile and Impulsiveness Scale – BIS 11. For impulsive behavior grade analysis was used to impulsiveness scale – 11 BIS, based on “Ernst Barratt model, which is considered as one of the most important in impulsive behavior explanation”. Results: The results obtained, the overall score obtained an average of 2.38 were found for each partial average score of the three subdomains impulsiveness, the resulting average motor impulsivity: 2.24 to attentional impulsivity: 2.51 and impulsivity not planning: 2.34. Conclusion: This study shows the importance of impulsivity associated with the pattern of use of psychoactive substances.

  • Socio-demographic Profile of Drug Use and Treatment in Cocaine/Crack Users

    Introduction: The current Brazilian scenario shows that abusive use of psychoactive substances directly influences social and public health problems. Objective: To describe the sociodemographic, drug use and treatment profile of cocaine and crack users under treatment at treatment units in the Arapiraca municipality, in the Agreste region of Alagoas. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional quantitative research carried out in welcoming communities in the Agreste of Alagoas, Brazil, and in the Specialized Reference Center for Population in Situation of the Street (POP Center). A sociodemographic data form was used that allowed to know the profile of the users. The data collected were inserted in a database using SPSS 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, United States). Results: Most of the interviewees have their own residence. Closely followed are those residing in unstable housing which reflects that this vulnerability has great influence on the use of crack. The education level of most of the interviewees is low and income less than a minimum wage, the latter factor considerable for the choice of crack. Regarding the profile of drug use, most interviewees started using marijuana drugs between 12 and 17 years of age, and between 18 and 25 years of age began using cocaine / crack. Conclusion: The study makes clear the high level of drug dependence and abuse, where users who have cocaine / crack as the drug of choice have a greater crack.