American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience


CYTOTOXICITY ASSESSMENT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF Caulerpa taxifolia (M. Vahl) C.

This study aims to determine the LC50 for Artemia salina Leach and perform a microbial screening two C. taxifolia extracts. In these biological assays have been used larvae of A. salina Leach ob-tained from the incubation of about 20 mg of A. salina cysts, under artificial light for 48 hours. Where groups of 10 metanauplius were exposed to different concentrations (50 mg / mL to 1000 ug / ml) of methanol extract and hydroalcoholic C. taxifolia . The antimicrobial activity of extracts of C. taxifolia was evaluated by diffusion method in paper disc. The percentage mortality deter-mined after 24 hours of contact. Through the data was calculated LC50. Behavioral analysis of Artemia salina Leach showed a decrease in handling compared to those observed in the control groups. The microbial activity of the extracts were evaluated by measuring the halo of inhibition for two species of gram-positive and two gram-negative bacteria. The extracts showed signifi-cant results for S. aureus and S. spp. This study demonstrates that C. taxifolia has a high cyto-toxicity suggested that its use in cell culture as a molluscicide and can be used in the production of production of antimicrobial drugs.

Influence of mercuric chloride and sodium hypochlorite on apical and axillary buds regeneration of Colocasia esculenta in tissue culture

Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. SCHOTT) is a staple food in many southern countries and an ancient starchy crop consumed by more than 400 million people. It is treated by diseases and pests that affect seed availability. Thus, the techniques of in vitro culture mostly used to overcome the problem of seeds production meet enormous difficulties of infection and necrosis of the explants. This study aims to determine the optimal use of mercuric chloride and sodium hypochlorite for disinfection of apical and axillary buds of taro. For this purpose, three doses of sodium hypochlorite (8%, 10% and 12%) and mercuric chloride (0.08%, 0.1% and 0.15%) were used with three immersion times ( 25 min, 30 min and 45 min) for sodium hypochlorite and (5min, 7min and 10min) for mercuric chloride. A binary logistic analysis was performed to understand or predict the effect of different doses of NaOCl and HgCl2 on the behavior of apical and axillary buds of taro. The results showed that 8% sodium hypochlorite with immersion time of 25 minutes is favorable for the disinfection of both apical and axillary explants of taro. For mercuric chloride, only the dose of 0.15% is effective for apical bud survival. The present study offers an opportunity to make available the seed of taro through the organogenesis of the species without any risk of infection.

Effects of system benzylaminopurine-adenine sulphate in combination with naphthalene acetic on in vitro regeneration and proliferation of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Mill var. comosus)

In vitro micropropagation is now used in the production of healthy and homogenous pineapple planting materials. In order to increase the in vitro proliferation of pineapple, the synergetic effect of adenine sulphate (AdS) and benzylaminopurine (BAP) in presence or not of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was evaluated. Median axillary buds of crowns bursted 6 to 8 weeks old were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with BAP (0, 1 and 2 mg/l), NAA (0 and 0.5 mg/l) with or without AdS (40 mg/l). Five buds per treatment with four replicates were used. The addition of BAP to the medium stimulated regeneration (65 to 82%) and multiplication (3.04 to 6.13 plantlets/explant) which were further enhanced by the addition of NAA (98%; 6.42 plantlets/explant). AdS highly stimulated proliferation in presence of 2 mg/l BAP and NAA (14.96 plantlets/explant), plantlet mass (1.143g) but limited plantlet growth in height which was more induced in the absence of regulators (4.88 cm) and with AdS alone (5.63 cm). Thus, BAP is necessary for the proliferation of pineapple and the addition of 0.5 mg/l NAA to 2 mg/l BAP and 40 mg/l AdS optimizes the multiplication and growth parameters of pineapple plantlets. These results allow the mass propagation of pineapple’s homogeneous healthy planting materials.

Enhanced Expression of Dermal Aquaporins by Polysaccharide from Camellia sinensis

The green tea polysaccharide was extracted from leaves of Camellia sinensis and hydrolyzed with enzyme. Skin moisturization effect of green tea polysaccharide was studied with 2D- PAGE analysis of epidermal hydration factors. Among up-regulated proteins extracted from Hacat cell treated with Green tea polysaccharide on 2DE gel, 5 aquaporins were observed. Among them the aquaporin 5 and 8 were increased 3.4 and 5.3 times respectively. The green tea polysaccharide was found to be effective for skin moisturization by enhanced expression of aquaporins.

Pre scaling up of bread wheat technology at Meket and wadla districts, North wollo zone

In Ethiopia where the livelihood of the people is highly dependent on agriculture improving the production and productivity of wheat will be one of the important agenda for the agricultural sector. The national average of wheat in the country, which is 14 Qt/ha, is 24%, is still below the average of South Africa yield and 48% below that of the world’s (FAO, 2004). Demonstration on farmers’ fields at Jama and Meket districts in 2014 cropping season showed that the improved variety sora had a better yield advantage over warkaye, Tossa and local with a better resistance to yellow rust. Having this pre scaling up of bread wheat variety sora with it full package had been started at Meket and wadla districts of north wollo zone, Amhara region. A total of 15 Qt seed had been provided for 25 farmers on 10 ha of land. Two clusters have been organized at the respective districts. 295 qt of seed had been produced and promoted for local seed system on established seed producer cooperatives. Farmers and development agents had invited to visit clustered farms through inviting on field days and experience had been shared. Thus further scaling up and out should be carried out on the study areas and similar agro ecological zones. Capacity building and continuous follow up should be done for the established cooperatives for sustaining seed production.
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Dr. Jamunarani Veeraraghavan
Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas

Dr. Moustafa M. Zeitoun
Professor, Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, El-Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt; Department of Animal Production and Breeding, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University

Dr. K.S. Kanwal
Scientist-C, G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development, North East Unit, Vivek Vihar, Itanagar-791113, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Dr. Surabhi Mishra
Resarch Scientist, Dept. of Microbiology, University of Iowa, IA – 52242

Dr. Miriam-Rose Menezes
UTHealth Science Center Houston

Dr. Yan Zhou
Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA

Dr. Richa Madan Lomash
Research Fellow, Receptor Biology Unit (NINDS), NIH, Bethesda (MD), USA

Dr. FRANCESCA DIOMEDE
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University G. d’Annunzio, Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini, 31, 66100 Chieti (IT)

Dr. Sirisha Adamala
Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Engineering, Vignan’s University

Dr. Abhishek Naik
Area Manager, Technology development department

Dr. Moustafa Mohamed Sabry Bakry
Plant Protection Research Institute Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

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1.R. M. AKPLOGAN, G. H. T. CACAÏ, S. S. HOUEDJISSIN, V.MÈGNIKPA, C. AHANHANZ.Influence of mercuric chloride and sodium hypochlorite on apical and axillary buds regeneration of Colocasia esculenta in tissue culture. American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience, 2018; 2:10. DOI: 10.28933/ajbb-2018-11-1908 
2.Bienvenu T. Badou, Arnaud Agbidinoukoun, Gilles T.H. Cacaï, René C. Dossoukpèvi and Corneille Ahanhanzo. Effects of system benzylaminopurine-adenine sulphate in combination with naphthalene acetic on in vitro regeneration and proliferation of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Mill var. comosus). American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience, 2018; 2:9.. DOI: 10.28933/ajbb-2018-05-1801 

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American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience

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