American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience


ANATOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FOLIAR BLADE OF Spondias dulcis Parkinson

Introduction: Spondias dulcis Parkinson belongs to the Anacardiaceae R. Br. family, and is popularly known as Caja-manga. In folk medicine its leaves are used in teas and studies prove the presence of large amount of polyphenols, presenting pharmacological potential as antioxidant and laxative. Because of this, studies aiming to identify diagnostic characters are necessary in order to contribute to the pharmacobotanical control of the species. Objective: This study aimed to identify the anatomical characters of the leaf blade of Spondias dulcis Parkinson. Methods: Transverse and paradermic sections were obtained, freehand, and subjected to a 50% sodium hypochlorite solution for discoloration process. After washing in distilled water, the cross sections were stained with safrablau and the paradermic sections with methylene blue and mounted on semipermanent slides. The analyzes were performed on images obtained by digital camera coupled to light microscope. Results: The leaf blade, in frontal view, features in adaxial and abaxial faces straight-walled epidermal cells. It is classified as hypoestomatic, with anomocytic stomata. On the abaxial face are observed bases of in shape rosette trichomes. In cross section, the central rib features concave-convex contour and uniseriate epidermis, covered by a slightly thick cuticle. Below the epidermis is observed angular collenchyma. In the central region there are four collateral vascular bundles. Sclerenchyma is observed near the phloem. It is observed secretory cavities and the presence of druses type crystals. The mesophyll is dorsiventral, also featuring druses type crystals. Conclusion: The correct characterization provides important anatomical information useful for pharmacobotanical standardization, as there is variability in diagnostic characters.

A novel plant genome editing CRISPR/Cas9 System: To modify stress tolerance responses in plants

The plant genome modification by Crispr/Cas9 system is gaining ground. In molecular biology, the use of this indispensable tool works on the basis of target recognition due to the existence of a short protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) that is complementary to the desired strand. The components of the genome-editing tool are guide RNA, Cas9 protein. The mechanistic nature of CRISPR/ Cas9 technology i.e. adaptation, expression and interference lead the desirable mutations in the crop plants. According to the need one can use the different types of programmable DNA targeting and editing platform type. The goal of this review is to provide an idea of the production of stress-tolerant crops. The molecular perception from structural and mechanistic research grant a groundwork for rational engineering for the production of plants that can withstand different kinds of stress.

Analysis of traditional house hold alcoholic beverage to processing plant level production

Alcohol use is part of many cultural, religious and social practices, and provides perceived pleasure to many users. The aim of this project was to develop mini scale alcohol production, which would be very useful for those who focus for many developing countries including Ethiopia, developing this project have been valuable for such sector for those who had an idea to develop new alcoholic beverage project professionals. The paper tried to evaluate the economic performance of minimum level alcohol production, grow to in terms of productivity, profitability, capacity utilization, marketing and the socio-economic contribution of the project. Those, the total capital investments found from this study analysis estimated to be total 34, 673,529.41 birr and the total production cost is 4520833.3birr/yr. The Company will get a net income of 1,376,650,000 birr/year. The repayment for the investment cost will be paid off over the next 4.6 years. The project provides for efficient utilization of the existing resource, technological advancement, managerial efficiency and incentives to upgrade traditional beverages to large production process scales.

Symptoms, Gene Analysis, Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) syndrome

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal predominant, mucocutaneous and inclination disorder. They include it in the development of benign and malignant tumors. Hereditary change in NF1 prompts changes in the outflow of cytoplasmic protein. 90% of all cases represent NF1 in neurofibromatosis. children tainted with NF1, they distinguish them inside a year.NF1 Patients ordinarily experience the ill effects of the café au laitt, freckling, and skeletal dysplasia. The GTPase actuating protein goes about as the principal job in NF1 quality, which fills in as a negative controlled by authoritative with the RAS protein. The neurofibromatosis type 1 quality is a 287-kilo premise of chromosome 17q11.2. In NF1 patients, the dermatologists distinguished the basic cutaneous highlights. Cutaneous neurofibroma has a variable pace of development during life expectancy. The threatening fringe nerve sheath tumor is plexiform neurofibromas. Palpebral plexiform neurofibroma is mono-sidelong. We have analyzed inherent dysplasia real criteria for NF1. The more exact technique to analyze NF1 in the patient is radiological indicative. An entire body MRI can test the interior nerve sheath tumor. They have announced that the research center analytic is extremely troublesome; However , it has done the RNA and ELISA tests somewhat. The treatment of NF1 patients is exceptionally troublesome because of the adequacy of the organ of the body. There is a biopsy, medical procedure, and radiotherapy performed for NF1 patients.

Affordability Issues of Biotech Drugs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)

As indicated by World Bank publication Disease Control Priorities: Improving Health and Reducing Poverty (third edition, 2017), about 20% all out health use universally originated from out-of-pocket payments in 2014. The equivalent was about 40% all out health use for low-income countries, 56% for lower-middle-income countries, and 30% for upper-middle-income countries (WHO, 2016). 33% of the world’s populace needs opportune access to quality-guaranteed medicines while assessments demonstrate that in any event 10% of medicine in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) are substandard or distorted, costing roughly US$ 31 billion every year (Global Health, 2018). Shockingly, 80% of worldwide cardiovascular passings happen in LMICs which is (halfway) because of the absence of access to healthcare including talented HR, equipped offices and medicines (Global status report on noncommunicable diseases, WHO, 2010). Cost of drugs, antibodies, and diagnostics is a noteworthy weight in LMICs round the globe. Cost of biotech drugs are much higher because of surprising expense caused by the pharmaceutical organizations for clinical preliminary. Biotech drugs have totally changed the administration of a few diseases, including malignant growth and immune system diseases. Albeit essential yet their affordability is as yet a consuming issue, particularly in LMICs.

Dr. Jamunarani Veeraraghavan
Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas

Dr. Moustafa M. Zeitoun
Professor, Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, El-Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt; Department of Animal Production and Breeding, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University

Dr. K.S. Kanwal
Scientist-C, G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development, North East Unit, Vivek Vihar, Itanagar-791113, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Dr. Surabhi Mishra
Resarch Scientist, Dept. of Microbiology, University of Iowa, IA – 52242

Dr. Miriam-Rose Menezes
UTHealth Science Center Houston

Dr. Yan Zhou
Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA

Dr. Richa Madan Lomash
Research Fellow, Receptor Biology Unit (NINDS), NIH, Bethesda (MD), USA

Dr. FRANCESCA DIOMEDE
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University G. d’Annunzio, Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini, 31, 66100 Chieti (IT)

Dr. Sirisha Adamala
Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Engineering, Vignan’s University

Dr. Abhishek Naik
Area Manager, Technology development department

Dr. Moustafa Mohamed Sabry Bakry
Plant Protection Research Institute Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

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1.R. M. AKPLOGAN, G. H. T. CACAÏ, S. S. HOUEDJISSIN, V.MÈGNIKPA, C. AHANHANZ.Influence of mercuric chloride and sodium hypochlorite on apical and axillary buds regeneration of Colocasia esculenta in tissue culture. American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience, 2018; 2:10. DOI: 10.28933/ajbb-2018-11-1908 
2.Bienvenu T. Badou, Arnaud Agbidinoukoun, Gilles T.H. Cacaï, René C. Dossoukpèvi and Corneille Ahanhanzo. Effects of system benzylaminopurine-adenine sulphate in combination with naphthalene acetic on in vitro regeneration and proliferation of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Mill var. comosus). American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience, 2018; 2:9.. DOI: 10.28933/ajbb-2018-05-1801 

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American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience

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