American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience


CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF THE PLANT SPECIES JACARANDA RUGOSA A.H. GENTRY

The use of plants by man as a way to treat diseases is an ancient practice and widely used within the communities. Plants said to be medicinal present in their composition substances capable of altering the systematic functioning of organs, and may influence the treatment of diseases. The branch of science that studies plants and their ethnofarmacologic characteristics has attracted industries and researchers to elucidate their real biological influences in the organism. The Jacaranda rugosa, native plant of the caatinga biome, has been used in the treatment of infections and skin wounds and in the treatment of diseases. In order to evaluate the bioactivities of this species, the methodology of phytochemical prospecting was used, through thin layer chromatography, the verification of the antioxidant potential of leaf and branch extracts, through techniques such as neutralization of DPPH and ABTS radicals, in order to identify the functioning of the lity and the performance of cellular protection against oxidizing agents. In addition, microbiological techniques were used to evaluate the efficiency of extracts in acting as bactericide against disease-causing pathogens. As results, phytochemical prospection demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites tannins, flavonoids and coumarins, the analyses of antioxidant activities by jacanda rugosa’s DPPH radical showed considerable activities from 62.5 mg/ml. The analysis of the neutralization of ABTS radicals demonstrated efficacy of 46% and 49% of ability to react against antioxidant substances. Against the microorganisms Salmonella spp.and Staphylococcus aureus, there was the activity of the extract for Salmonella spp in 5 mg/mL of the extract, but there was no activity for S. aureus..

Nanotechnology: Transformation of agriculture and food security

Agriculture sector is the backbone of developing countries for their economy. Growing world’s population is putting more pressure on agriculture sector to address the crises of food security. Today, nanotechnology is working as technological advancement to solve problems related to food security and agriculture. Nanotechnology is providing efficient alternatives to increase the crop production by managing the insect/pests in agriculture in an eco-friendly manner. It also promotes plant efficiency to absorb nutrients. Nanotechnology in conjunction with genome editing tools like CRISPR/Cas, has been used as delivery tool for template DNA and proteins. In addition, nano-formulations based pesticides and insecticides are being used in agriculture to increase solubility, mobility and durability. Moreover, food processing, packing and storage has also been improved through nanomaterials applications. Although, nanotechnology applications are advancing in almost all fields, health and environmental safety concerns do exist. In this review we summarized exciting applications of nanotechnology in food and agriculture sector along with its prospective merits and associated risks.

ANATOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FOLIAR BLADE OF Spondias dulcis Parkinson

Introduction: Spondias dulcis Parkinson belongs to the Anacardiaceae R. Br. family, and is popularly known as Caja-manga. In folk medicine its leaves are used in teas and studies prove the presence of large amount of polyphenols, presenting pharmacological potential as antioxidant and laxative. Because of this, studies aiming to identify diagnostic characters are necessary in order to contribute to the pharmacobotanical control of the species. Objective: This study aimed to identify the anatomical characters of the leaf blade of Spondias dulcis Parkinson. Methods: Transverse and paradermic sections were obtained, freehand, and subjected to a 50% sodium hypochlorite solution for discoloration process. After washing in distilled water, the cross sections were stained with safrablau and the paradermic sections with methylene blue and mounted on semipermanent slides. The analyzes were performed on images obtained by digital camera coupled to light microscope. Results: The leaf blade, in frontal view, features in adaxial and abaxial faces straight-walled epidermal cells. It is classified as hypoestomatic, with anomocytic stomata. On the abaxial face are observed bases of in shape rosette trichomes. In cross section, the central rib features concave-convex contour and uniseriate epidermis, covered by a slightly thick cuticle. Below the epidermis is observed angular collenchyma. In the central region there are four collateral vascular bundles. Sclerenchyma is observed near the phloem. It is observed secretory cavities and the presence of druses type crystals. The mesophyll is dorsiventral, also featuring druses type crystals. Conclusion: The correct characterization provides important anatomical information useful for pharmacobotanical standardization, as there is variability in diagnostic characters.

A novel plant genome editing CRISPR/Cas9 System: To modify stress tolerance responses in plants

The plant genome modification by Crispr/Cas9 system is gaining ground. In molecular biology, the use of this indispensable tool works on the basis of target recognition due to the existence of a short protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) that is complementary to the desired strand. The components of the genome-editing tool are guide RNA, Cas9 protein. The mechanistic nature of CRISPR/ Cas9 technology i.e. adaptation, expression and interference lead the desirable mutations in the crop plants. According to the need one can use the different types of programmable DNA targeting and editing platform type. The goal of this review is to provide an idea of the production of stress-tolerant crops. The molecular perception from structural and mechanistic research grant a groundwork for rational engineering for the production of plants that can withstand different kinds of stress.

Analysis of traditional house hold alcoholic beverage to processing plant level production

Alcohol use is part of many cultural, religious and social practices, and provides perceived pleasure to many users. The aim of this project was to develop mini scale alcohol production, which would be very useful for those who focus for many developing countries including Ethiopia, developing this project have been valuable for such sector for those who had an idea to develop new alcoholic beverage project professionals. The paper tried to evaluate the economic performance of minimum level alcohol production, grow to in terms of productivity, profitability, capacity utilization, marketing and the socio-economic contribution of the project. Those, the total capital investments found from this study analysis estimated to be total 34, 673,529.41 birr and the total production cost is 4520833.3birr/yr. The Company will get a net income of 1,376,650,000 birr/year. The repayment for the investment cost will be paid off over the next 4.6 years. The project provides for efficient utilization of the existing resource, technological advancement, managerial efficiency and incentives to upgrade traditional beverages to large production process scales.

Dr. Jamunarani Veeraraghavan
Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas

Dr. Moustafa M. Zeitoun
Professor, Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, El-Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt; Department of Animal Production and Breeding, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University

Dr. K.S. Kanwal
Scientist-C, G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development, North East Unit, Vivek Vihar, Itanagar-791113, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Dr. Surabhi Mishra
Resarch Scientist, Dept. of Microbiology, University of Iowa, IA – 52242

Dr. Miriam-Rose Menezes
UTHealth Science Center Houston

Dr. Yan Zhou
Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA

Dr. Richa Madan Lomash
Research Fellow, Receptor Biology Unit (NINDS), NIH, Bethesda (MD), USA

Dr. FRANCESCA DIOMEDE
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University G. d’Annunzio, Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini, 31, 66100 Chieti (IT)

Dr. Sirisha Adamala
Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Engineering, Vignan’s University

Dr. Abhishek Naik
Area Manager, Technology development department

Dr. Moustafa Mohamed Sabry Bakry
Plant Protection Research Institute Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

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1.R. M. AKPLOGAN, G. H. T. CACAÏ, S. S. HOUEDJISSIN, V.MÈGNIKPA, C. AHANHANZ.Influence of mercuric chloride and sodium hypochlorite on apical and axillary buds regeneration of Colocasia esculenta in tissue culture. American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience, 2018; 2:10. DOI: 10.28933/ajbb-2018-11-1908 
2.Bienvenu T. Badou, Arnaud Agbidinoukoun, Gilles T.H. Cacaï, René C. Dossoukpèvi and Corneille Ahanhanzo. Effects of system benzylaminopurine-adenine sulphate in combination with naphthalene acetic on in vitro regeneration and proliferation of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Mill var. comosus). American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience, 2018; 2:9.. DOI: 10.28933/ajbb-2018-05-1801 

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American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience

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