American Journal of Cancer Research and Reviews


    Objective: Evidence that the inflammation, infection, necrosis and pain present in osteonecrosis may be related to the use of bisphosphonates in oncology. Methods: It’s a clinical case report of mandibular osteonecrosis, female, 73 years old, treated and under medical and multiprofessional oncology follow-up, at the Oncology Center of the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital of the University of Pernambuco, for control of invasive ductal carcinoma of breast (Anatomopathological115134) and bilateral bone and lung metastases. Currently, using Faslodex 250mg – 02 ampoules and Zometa (bisphosphonate). Results: With a extraction history performed during the use of bisphosphonate, and with a removable upper and lower total dental prosthesis, attended the Dental Service of aforementioned Oncology Center, presenting bone exposure in the anterior mandible region and complaining of local pain. After clinical and radiographic evaluation, the diagnosis of osteonecrosis was confirmed, characterized by necrosis, pain and bone infection. Considering the mandibular clinical and radiographic condition, and the oncological condition, the Oral Care’s Standard Operational Protocol for Osteonecrosis was initiated, adapted from the Dentistry Service of the National Cancer Institute, but without the Low Power Laser. After 4 months, clinical improvement was noted and the absence of painful symptoms was reported. In addition, it follows the Oral Care Protocol and is being followed up at the aforementioned specialized Service. Conclusion: Invasive surgical procedures and local trauma should be avoided during therapy with bisphosphonates, as they can favor the development of osteonecrosis, in individuals who don’t have oral metastasis and have never undergone radiotherapy in the jaws.

  • Giant Cell Tumor of Bone, current treatments, and potential therapeutic alternatives

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a primary bone tumor, locally aggressive. For many, a GCTB is considered a tumor with an unpredictable behavior, particularly regarding recurrences, pulmonary implants, and the possibility of primary malignancy. In terms of risk of recurrence, it is known that it is associated with the type of treatment used initially for the GCTB. The greater the number or recurrences, the greater the risk of pulmonary implants, and the greater the risk of malignant degeneration. Therefore, much of the prognosis of this tumor could be related to the type of initial treatment. Hence the importance of the treatment theme. This review includes a comparison between the various modalities for treatment in GCTB, considering the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Existing GCTB treatments are not 100% safe and effective at the same time. and this is the reason why the search for other treatment modalities should continue to offer a better oncologic and functional outcome to patients. In the end of this review, based on research work, we also mention other possible therapeutic options that could be explored and used in the future for GCT treatment.

  • Application of Artificial Intelligence in Breast Medical Imaging Diagnosis

    According to the latest report on urban cancer in China published in 2017: China is one of the countries with the fastest growing incidence of breast cancer, and the age of onset has gradually become younger. Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in China account for 12.2% of new breast cancer patients worldwide, and the mortality rate is 9.6%. A large amount of clinical experience has proven that the survival rate of breast cancer detected at an early stage is significantly higher than that detected at an advanced stage. Imaging examination is an important method for early detection of breast cancer. With the advent of the Artificial Intelligent, the method of AI + medical imaging has been widely used in lungs, breasts, heart, skull, liver, prostate, bones and other parts. Methods used in breast cancer screening include: breast self-examination and clinical physical examination, mammography of mammography of the breast, ultrasound of the breast, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast. The advantages and disadvantages have been reflected in the development and application in recent years. This article will review the advantages and disadvantages of combined diagnosis of AI and breast medicine. It is hoped that the artificial intelligence of medical imaging screening for breast diseases has a brighter and broader prospect.

  • Review on breast cancer immunotherapy

    Cancer immunotherapy consists of approaches that modify the host immune system, and/or the utilization of components of the immune system for treatment and prevention of cancer. Eventhough breast cancer has historically not been considered a favorable target for immunotherapies as compared to those solid tumors such as melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, several preclinical and clinical studies have provided important insights and clinical data that support its potential to improve clinical outcomes for patients with breast cancer. In addition, the recent definition of tumor-specific immunity in breast cancer patients and the identification of several breast cancer antigens has generated enthusiasm for the application of immune based therapies to the treatment of breast malignancies. In general, immunotherapies can be considered either non-specific, such as cytokine, or tumor specific for example a vaccine that targets breast cancer tumor antigens. Current immunotherapeutic approaches either through immunization of the patient (e.g., by administering a cancer vaccine), in which case the patient’s own immune system is trained to recognize tumor cells as targets to be destroyed, or through the administration of therapeutic antibodies as drugs, in which case the patient’s immune system is recruited to destroy tumor cells by the therapeutic antibodies, Cell based immunotherapy is another major entity of cancer immunotherapy. The review concluded that immunotherapeutic approaches combined with novel sequences of chemotherapies, radiation, and immunomodulating agents hold promise for enhancing the treatment of breast cancer.

  • Research progress of cervical cancer

    Cervical cancer is a common malignant tumor of the female reproductive system. Its incidence is second only to breast cancer, and it is gradually becoming younger. Because it has great harm to women’s physical and mental health, and its related research has been the focus of public attention, we decided to conduct research on the pathogenesis, prevention and intervention, detection methods, treatment methods, and postoperative effects of cervical cancer Summary discussion.


    Breast cancer is Among many mechanisms, stimulation of angiogenesis leads to increased secretion of vaso-inducing factors and decreased inhibitors. The present study evaluated the interference of Caulerpa taxifolia hydroalcoholic (EHA – 50 μg / mL) and methanolic (EM – 50 μg / mL) extracts in energy metabolism and Angiogenesis of embryos of Gallus gallus domestic L. Rhode Island Red Eggs Red of four lots, were incubated at 37º C, with automatic turning, for the study of energy metabolism and angiogenesis. The groups were distributed and divided into control groups, treated EHA (50 μg / mL) and ME (50 μg / mL), and control enriched with ω-3, with and without tumor. In the 288 hour stage, development was halted. The vessels were quantified and characterized morphologically and the embryos photographed, fixed and processed. The results of energetic metabolism indicated that there was no significant difference between control and normal treated groups, however, animals with EHA and ME induced tumors and those with ω-3 enriched presented a significant response when compared to control (p≤0.05). It was observed that the physical properties and the structural integrity of the bark of the control animals showed formation abnormalities: rough, rough and soft bark. Morphometric parameters were not significant between groups (p≤0.05). In relation to vasculogenesis and angiogenesis there was a significant reduction between normal and tumorous groups. The vessels showed a slight reduction of the caliber when compared to the control group (p≤0.05). The microscopic appearance of the amniotic membrane of the organisms treated with EHA and ME from the normal and tumor groups maintained the morphology preserved throughout the treatment. Cardiovascular tissue from tumor-containing embryos had bleeding points and a congestion in the lumen of the vessel, perhaps due to the presence of malignant cells. Microscopy of the medulla was preserved. In the control…


    Breast cancer is the type of cancer that affects the breast. It is the most common invasive cancer in women. The incidence of breast cancer varies greatly around the world. It is lowest in less-developed countries and greatest in the more-developed countries. Types of breast cancers, Ductal carcinoma begins in the milk duct and is the most common type, labular carcinoma starts in the lobules, invasive breast cancer start when cancer cells break out from inside the lobules or duct and invade nearby tissue increasing to other parts of the body, while non-invasive is when the cancer is still inside its place of origin and has not broken out the first symptoms of the breast cancer are usually an area of thickened tissue in the breast or a lump in the breast or in an armpit. The risk factors are, age, genetics, devise breast tissue eg Estrogen exposure and breast feeding, body weight, Alcohol consumption, Hormone treatment and radiation exposures. Diagnosis often occurs as a result of routine screening. Breast Examination, Imaging Tests, Biopsy, Radiation therapy, Sentinel node, Mastectomy and Lumpectomy. Treatment depends in types of breast cancer, stage of the cancer and sensitive of hormones: Eg Hormone blocking chemotherapy and surgery. Prevention based on avoiding excess alcohol, getting enough exercise, keeping healthy mess index and taking fresh fruits and vegetables. Good lifestyle is recommended E.g diet, exercise and weight loss recommend.

  • To Estimate the level of Oxidative stress parameter among Diabetic persons with Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity: A Case Control Study

    Background: Diabetes mellitus and cancer share common modifiable and non- modifiable risk factors. Both conditions have a great impact on social and economic status of an individual and their families. Diabetes is rapidly becoming a common metabolic problem in rural populations. At the same time, the incidence of oral cancer has not decreased over the years despite exhaustive research and has become the most common cause of death. Oral cancer accounts for approximately 4-5% of all cancers in the world. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a strong link between diabetes and cancer. Objective: To Estimate the concentration of Oxidative stress markers among Diabetic persons with Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity .Materials and Methods: A Case Control study, conducted at Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College attached to Sri R.L. Jalappa Hospital a constituent of Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research, Kolar. A total of 60 subjects were included in the study and categorised into equal number of cases and controls. Diabetic and lipid profiles were estimated by enzymatic methods in Dry chemistry Autoanalyser, Vitros 5.1FS, HbA1c analysed by HPLC (BioRad D10 USA), Nitric Oxide, Malondialdehyde, and Vitamin C by spectrophotometer Perkin Elmer UV/ VIS Lambda-35 methods respectively. Results: Our patients were in the age group of 30- 80 years with a mean age of 52.62± 12.67. Diabetic profile and oxidant markers were significantly elevated in cases compared to controls. However, mean values of lipid profile and antioxidants were significantly reduced in cases with an exception of LDL cholesterol, when comparing with controls Conclusion: Observations that has been made with lipid profile and antioxidant variables in diabetes with SCC was reduced might be due to their increased utilization by neoplastic cells for new membrane biogenesis. These findings strongly suggest, evaluation of these variables may help better patient care…

  • Recurrent gliomas- a short review of literature.

    Gliomas one of the commonest tumour account for 40-60% of all primary neoplasm of the central nervous system. Very little is known about pathological changes associated with recurrence of gliomas. Histlogical changes regarding this transformation also is not well documented. Effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy which results in decrease in cellularity, fibrosis, thickening of vessels are also not well documented. Paired study combining both primary and recurrent gliomas are sparse. Several genetic alterations has been mentioned in the causation and pathophysiology of recurrent gliomas. Starting from overexpression to mutation of p53 to Epidermal Growth Factor(EGFR), platelet derived growth factor-α(PDGF-A),PTEN , MDM2 all have mentioned several studies. This review article describes every aspects of recurrent gliomas in short span.

  • Trace Element Contents in Thyroid Cancer Investigated by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescent Analysis

    Background: Thyroid cancer is an internationally important health problem. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate whether significant changes in the thyroid tissue levels of Br, Cu, Fe, Rb, Sr, and Zn exist in the malignantly transformed thyroid. Methods: Thyroid tissue levels of six trace elements (Br, Cu, Fe, Rb, Sr, and Zn) were prospectively evaluated in 41 patients with thyroid malignant tumors and 105 healthy inhabitants. Measurements were performed using 109Cd radionuclide-induced energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescent analysis Tissue samples were divided into two portions. One was used for morphological study while the other was intended for trace element analysis. Results: It was found that contents of Br, Cu, and Rb were significantly higher (approximately 10, 3.4, and 1.4 times, respectively) and content of Zn were slightly, but significantly, lower (25%) in cancerous tissues than in normal tissues. Conclusions: There are considerable changes in trace element contents in the malignantly transformed tissue of thyroid.