American Journal of Cancer Research and Reviews

  • BIOACTIVITY OF Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) Agardh (1817) IN METABOLISM AND VASCULOGENE OF TUMOR CELLS

    Breast cancer is Among many mechanisms, stimulation of angiogenesis leads to increased secretion of vaso-inducing factors and decreased inhibitors. The present study evaluated the interference of Caulerpa taxifolia hydroalcoholic (EHA – 50 μg / mL) and methanolic (EM – 50 μg / mL) extracts in energy metabolism and Angiogenesis of embryos of Gallus gallus domestic L. Rhode Island Red Eggs Red of four lots, were incubated at 37º C, with automatic turning, for the study of energy metabolism and angiogenesis. The groups were distributed and divided into control groups, treated EHA (50 μg / mL) and ME (50 μg / mL), and control enriched with ω-3, with and without tumor. In the 288 hour stage, development was halted. The vessels were quantified and characterized morphologically and the embryos photographed, fixed and processed. The results of energetic metabolism indicated that there was no significant difference between control and normal treated groups, however, animals with EHA and ME induced tumors and those with ω-3 enriched presented a significant response when compared to control (p≤0.05). It was observed that the physical properties and the structural integrity of the bark of the control animals showed formation abnormalities: rough, rough and soft bark. Morphometric parameters were not significant between groups (p≤0.05). In relation to vasculogenesis and angiogenesis there was a significant reduction between normal and tumorous groups. The vessels showed a slight reduction of the caliber when compared to the control group (p≤0.05). The microscopic appearance of the amniotic membrane of the organisms treated with EHA and ME from the normal and tumor groups maintained the morphology preserved throughout the treatment. Cardiovascular tissue from tumor-containing embryos had bleeding points and a congestion in the lumen of the vessel, perhaps due to the presence of malignant cells. Microscopy of the medulla was preserved. In the control…

  • BREAST CANCER – REVIEWS

    Breast cancer is the type of cancer that affects the breast. It is the most common invasive cancer in women. The incidence of breast cancer varies greatly around the world. It is lowest in less-developed countries and greatest in the more-developed countries. Types of breast cancers, Ductal carcinoma begins in the milk duct and is the most common type, labular carcinoma starts in the lobules, invasive breast cancer start when cancer cells break out from inside the lobules or duct and invade nearby tissue increasing to other parts of the body, while non-invasive is when the cancer is still inside its place of origin and has not broken out the first symptoms of the breast cancer are usually an area of thickened tissue in the breast or a lump in the breast or in an armpit. The risk factors are, age, genetics, devise breast tissue eg Estrogen exposure and breast feeding, body weight, Alcohol consumption, Hormone treatment and radiation exposures. Diagnosis often occurs as a result of routine screening. Breast Examination, Imaging Tests, Biopsy, Radiation therapy, Sentinel node, Mastectomy and Lumpectomy. Treatment depends in types of breast cancer, stage of the cancer and sensitive of hormones: Eg Hormone blocking chemotherapy and surgery. Prevention based on avoiding excess alcohol, getting enough exercise, keeping healthy mess index and taking fresh fruits and vegetables. Good lifestyle is recommended E.g diet, exercise and weight loss recommend.

  • To Estimate the level of Oxidative stress parameter among Diabetic persons with Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity: A Case Control Study

    Background: Diabetes mellitus and cancer share common modifiable and non- modifiable risk factors. Both conditions have a great impact on social and economic status of an individual and their families. Diabetes is rapidly becoming a common metabolic problem in rural populations. At the same time, the incidence of oral cancer has not decreased over the years despite exhaustive research and has become the most common cause of death. Oral cancer accounts for approximately 4-5% of all cancers in the world. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a strong link between diabetes and cancer. Objective: To Estimate the concentration of Oxidative stress markers among Diabetic persons with Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity .Materials and Methods: A Case Control study, conducted at Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College attached to Sri R.L. Jalappa Hospital a constituent of Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research, Kolar. A total of 60 subjects were included in the study and categorised into equal number of cases and controls. Diabetic and lipid profiles were estimated by enzymatic methods in Dry chemistry Autoanalyser, Vitros 5.1FS, HbA1c analysed by HPLC (BioRad D10 USA), Nitric Oxide, Malondialdehyde, and Vitamin C by spectrophotometer Perkin Elmer UV/ VIS Lambda-35 methods respectively. Results: Our patients were in the age group of 30- 80 years with a mean age of 52.62± 12.67. Diabetic profile and oxidant markers were significantly elevated in cases compared to controls. However, mean values of lipid profile and antioxidants were significantly reduced in cases with an exception of LDL cholesterol, when comparing with controls Conclusion: Observations that has been made with lipid profile and antioxidant variables in diabetes with SCC was reduced might be due to their increased utilization by neoplastic cells for new membrane biogenesis. These findings strongly suggest, evaluation of these variables may help better patient care…

  • Recurrent gliomas- a short review of literature.

    Gliomas one of the commonest tumour account for 40-60% of all primary neoplasm of the central nervous system. Very little is known about pathological changes associated with recurrence of gliomas. Histlogical changes regarding this transformation also is not well documented. Effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy which results in decrease in cellularity, fibrosis, thickening of vessels are also not well documented. Paired study combining both primary and recurrent gliomas are sparse. Several genetic alterations has been mentioned in the causation and pathophysiology of recurrent gliomas. Starting from overexpression to mutation of p53 to Epidermal Growth Factor(EGFR), platelet derived growth factor-α(PDGF-A),PTEN , MDM2 all have mentioned several studies. This review article describes every aspects of recurrent gliomas in short span.

  • Trace Element Contents in Thyroid Cancer Investigated by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescent Analysis

    Background: Thyroid cancer is an internationally important health problem. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate whether significant changes in the thyroid tissue levels of Br, Cu, Fe, Rb, Sr, and Zn exist in the malignantly transformed thyroid. Methods: Thyroid tissue levels of six trace elements (Br, Cu, Fe, Rb, Sr, and Zn) were prospectively evaluated in 41 patients with thyroid malignant tumors and 105 healthy inhabitants. Measurements were performed using 109Cd radionuclide-induced energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescent analysis Tissue samples were divided into two portions. One was used for morphological study while the other was intended for trace element analysis. Results: It was found that contents of Br, Cu, and Rb were significantly higher (approximately 10, 3.4, and 1.4 times, respectively) and content of Zn were slightly, but significantly, lower (25%) in cancerous tissues than in normal tissues. Conclusions: There are considerable changes in trace element contents in the malignantly transformed tissue of thyroid.

  • Uterine Fibroids in Senegal: Polymorphism of MED12 Gene and Correlation With Epidemiological Factors

    Background: Mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) is a part of the mediator complex, which is believed to regulate transcription. Our recent study showed that MED12 is mutated at high frequency and with different mutation frequencies in Senegalese women with uterine fibroids. However, the status of mutations has not been correlated to the epidemiological factors that are implicated in uterine fibroids. Methods: This study aimed to analyze status of MED12 mutations in Senegalese population. MED12 was sequenced in tumoral tissues and blood samples of 54 Senegalese women with uterine fibroids. Clinical and pathological data were obtained from the patient’s records and other parameters were recorded. Mutation Surveyor software version 5.0.1, DnaSP version 5.10, MEGA version 7.0.26 and Arlequin version 3.5.1.3 were used to determine the level of mutations and genetics parameters. To estimate the genetic variation according to the epidemiological parameters, the index of genetic differentiation (Fst) and the genetic structure like analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) were determined with Arlequin software version 3.5.1.3. The significance level (P-value) was 0.05. Results: Our results showed that MED12 is mutated at 88.89% (48/54) only in tumor tissues. The variants frequencies were not similar to those found in the Finnish populations. The Chi2 test indicates a statistically significant difference for the variants c.130G>C, c.130G>A, c.131G>A and for the Intronic Variant Site (p

  • Humans Papillomavirus (Hpv) Infections in Female Sex Workers in Cote D’ivoire

    Background: Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) are small virus non-enveloped double-stranded circular DNA. They infect epithelial cells (mucous membranes and skin). Many studies have indicated that having multiple sexual partners may lead to higher HPV transmission. Thus female sex workers (FSWs) may be at greater risk of infection compared to the general population. In female sex workers (FSWs), the risk of HPV infection and cervical cancer is especially high. The aim of this work is to determine the prevalence and the genotypes of Humans Papillomavirus (HPV) that circulate in female sex workers populations in Cote d’Ivoire. Methods: From December 2015 to May 2016, cervical samples from 350 female sex workers were tested for some HR-HPV. HPV DNA was amplified using PGMY09 /11 primers which generated 450 base pairs at the L1 region. The samples harboring HPV DNA were genotyped using the multiplex PCR with HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45 and 51 primers. Results: The mean age of this population was 32.5 years. On 350 female sex workers HPV DNA was obtained in 51.5% of the population. A total of 168 (94.38%) specimens harboring HPV DNA were genotypes using multiplex PCR versus 5.61 %, which were not genotyped using HPV 16,18, 31, 33, 35, 45 and 51 by multiplex PCR. These 168 strains permit us to identify 204 strains of HPV on whom we have 88.69 % with single infection while 11.30 % with a multiple infection. Among the multiple infection 36.84 % had respectively double and triple HPV infection and 26.31 % had four HPV infections. HPV genotypes prevalence was the followed: HPV 16 (22.47%), HPV 18 (26.97%), HPV 35 (11.23%), HPV 31 and HPV 33 (7.86%) respectively and HPV 45 (7.30%). Any case of HPV genotype 51 was founded. Conclusion: The prevalence of HPV infection in female sex workers…

  • Hepatitis C Virus as risk factor for development of hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: II-Enhancement role of matrix metalloproteinases-2 in dissemination of HCC

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem all over the world. Egypt has the highest prevalence of HCV worldwide (17-26%) with subsequent high morbidity from chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Matrix metalloproteinase are proteolytic enzymes that play a role in the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) which is necessary for invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. The present work was designed to study the relationship between HCV infection and circulating MMP-2 level in chronic HCV patients (either without or with hepatic complication) and compared to that of non- HCV cirrhotic patients as well as healthy controls, in order to clarify the role of HCV in changing microenvironment and underlying mechanisms associated with dissemination of malignancy. The level of MMP-2 was estimated in sera collected at different stages of HCV infections as well as in ascetic fluids collected from those developing either HCC or cirrhosis. Statistical analysis of their results revealed that MMP-2 levels were significantly elevated in all patient groups as compared to healthy controls. The level of MMP-2 in HCV patients with HCC was significantly elevated when compared to other HCV patients. Meanwhile MMP-2 in ascetic fluids of cirrhotic patients were similar to that detected in their sera, while in HCC patients there were 2.4 times elevations in serum level of MMP-2 as compared to that in ascetic fluids. These results revealed that HCV infection is not only responsible for biochemical and hematological abnormalities recorded at chronic stages of infection but also creating a microenvironmental change by enhancing MMP-2 release, which effect on infected cell by obliging them to modify their phenotype in order to survive, thus increasing the invasion potential and facilitate tumor progression.

  • Hepatitis C Virus as risk factor for development of hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: I- HCV promotes HCC progression by increasing cancer stem marker (CD133 and CD44) expression

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a major public health problem, affecting 3% of the world’s population. In majority of infected patients, HCV can effectively evade innate immunity resulting in chronic hepatitis, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Similar to most solid tumors, HCCs are believed to contain poorly differentiated cancer stem cell-like cells (CSCs) that initiate tumorigenesis and confer resistance to chemotherapy. The present work attempted to study the mRNA expression of cancer stem cell markers (CD133 and CD44) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (reflecting the role of HCV) and their correlation with progression toward cirrhosis and HCC. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) prepared from chronic HCV patients (either with or without complications) were probed for mRNA expression of CD133 and CD44 by RT-PCR and compared to that of non-HCV cirrhotic patients as well as healthy control subjects. Our results showed that mRNA expression of CD133 was significantly elevated in all HCV patients either with or without complications but not in those with non-HCV cirrhosis, with maximal expression in patients without complications (HCV patients only). On the other hand, maximal CD44 mRNA expression was recorded in HCC patients. Taken together, these results suggests that, chronic HCV infection appear to predispose cells towards the path of acquiring cancer stem cell traits by inducing CD133 and CD44 expression and it prove the hypothesis that the viral interference with signaling network of normal stem cells leads to their transformation into CSCs.