Assessment on Growth Performance of Green gram (Vigna radiate (L) Wilzeck). by Using Phytotreated and Non Phytotreated Waste Water
Assessment on growth performance of Vigna radiate L. by using Phytotreated and Non Phytotreated waste water. The plants were raised in petridish containing different concentrations of raw and treated waste water (C, 10%, 10% treated, 25%, 25% treated, 50%, 50% teated, 75%, 75% treated,100% and 100 % treated ). The morophological parameters like, seed germination percentage, seedling growth, (Such as, root and shoot length; fresh and dry weight fo root and shoot), vigoue index, tolerance index were measured on 7th days after sowing. All the morophological parameters were increased at 25 treated waste water in a petridish, when compared with control. Further increases in the waste water (50%-100%) in the soil have a negative effect on these parameters.
Iron can be removed from groundwater through the process of chemical oxidation followed by a rapid sand filtration. Different mechanisms (physicochemical and biological) contribute for the iron removal in filters but the dominant mechanism depends on physical and chemical characteristics of the water and which the process conditions applied. Now there are number of methods of biological iron removal which are reported to be much more efficient and cost effective than conventional physicochemical iron removal method. The mechanism of iron removal in filters could be solely biological the physicochemical iron removal mechanisms under certain specific conditions. The paper reviews that the theoretical background of biologically mediated iron removal, the advantages and limitations of the method and a few case studies. A literature review revealed that biological iron removal is not suitable when pH and oxygen concentrations are high and/or NH+4, H2S and Zn are present. Physico chemical removal mechanisms can achieve the same removal efficiency under the conditions that are reported to be favorable for biological iron removal. Biological iron removal is likely to be supplementary to conventional physico chemical iron removal.
Nitrogen Release Dynamics of Erythrina abyssinian and Erythrina brucei litters as Influenced by Polyphenol, Lignin and Nitrogen Contents
Litter mineralization is a crucial process in providing nutrients through decomposition to plants, which also depends in the chemical composition of the litter and soil properties as well. Decomposition rate of Erythrina abyssinian and Erythrina brucei in Luvisol was investigated in relation to their nutrient release dynamics such as NH4+ and NO3- in relation to their initial concentrations of lignin, ADF, cellulose and total polyphenol content and their ratios. The dynamic was followed in an incubation pot experiment, CRD design in replication. Erythrina abyssinian has an average of 4.05%, 9.7% and 2.04% TN, lignin and total polyphenol content respectively. Erythrina brucei has also an average of 3.05 %, 12.63 % and 1.05 % content of TN, lignin and total polyphenol respectively. The samples of Erythrina abyssinian and Erythrina brucei were ground and incorporated with Luvisol in pots. Each treatment and control were sampled and analyzed on weekly basses to determine the amount of ammonium and nitrate released. The lignin and total polyphenol was significantly positively correlated with the release of NH4+, while the NO3- showed significant negative correlations with the release of ammonium. From the experiment it was observed that the Erythrina abyssinian with lower content of lignin and high in TN has released the nutrients faster where as Erythrina brucei with high lignin and low total polyphenol content released slowly. In general, these leguminous trees released NH4+and NO3- easily because of their high total nitrogen content and low lignin, ADF, cellulose and total polyphenol content. They attained their half-life within 2–3 weeks. Therefore, Erythrina abyssinica and Erythrina brucei bears fast mineralization as a result they can be used for fast-term correction of crop nutrient demand. However, more detailed researches are needed to synchronize and verify laboratory results with field measurements of their effect on crop production and synchronization of…
A large-scale pot experiment was accomplished for investigation of the varied effects of different concentrations of Cu and Cd on certain growth and metabolic attributes of roots and shoots of Phaseolus vulgaris plants, over a period of three weeks. Plants supplemented with Cu and Cd at the concentrations of 10-6 and 10-3 M, showed increased levels of Cu and Cd in both shoots and roots, above those levels in controls. However, Cu or Cd accumulation was lower in shoots than in roots. As compared with control levels, the low (10-6 M) concentration of Cu induced either a significant or an insignificant increase in growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, PS II activity, glucose, proline and glycine contents in both roots and shoots. Otherwise, insignificant decreases in fructose, sucrose, polysaccharides, total saccharides, total soluble-N, protein –N, DNA and RNA contents, in the same test plant parts, were obtained. A reverse situation was however observed with the high concentration (10-3 M) of Cu as well as with the low and high concentrations (10-3 and 10-6 M) of Cd. In general, the observed adverse effects were more pronounced with Cd at (10-6 M) as compared with those maintained with Cu at the same concentration. Furthermore, the most detrimental adverse effects were apparent upon administration of the high (10-3 M) concentration of Cd. The prominence of the above mentioned changes in growth and metabolism to stress tolerance in common bean is discussed.
Rate of Mineralization for Organic Nutrient Sources (ONS) depends on temperature, soil moisture, soil chemical, physical, biological properties as well as the chemical composition of the ONS. Erythrinaabyssinica (EA), Erythrinabrucei(EB) and Enseteventricosum(EV) (ONS) were randomly collected from Sidama and Wolaita zones of southern Ethiopia. Surface soil samples (0-20 cm) depths were also collected from Cambisols of Wolaita and Luvisol of Sidama areas. Physicochemical properties of the composite soils were analyzed following standard analytical methods. For the greenhousemineralization potexperiment, 21 treatments for each week were designed for EA, EB and EVin Luvisol and Cambisols. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The incubation was carried out in green house for five consecutive weeks., the average TN contents of EA, EB and EV were 4.05, 3.35 and 2.56%, respectively. Based on the TN contents, the amount of ONS equivalent to 100 kg urea + 100 kg DAP ha-1, was calculatedand incorporated into 200g of each soil type separately. The pots were watered to field capacity every day or two.In general, the study was conducted to investigate the effect of soil chemical and physical properties such as pH, particle size, organic carbon and total nitrogen content on rate of mineralization of these ONS. Each week determination of OC and TN contents were conducted. The results of mineralization revealed that the TN concentration was highest in the first week and became low and constant at the third to fifth week. The same trend was followed by OC constant declining in both soil types. There was a reduction of C/N ratio in both soil types. The ONS had medium to high TN content and they decompose easily. Thus, the study reveals these ONS can be used as alternative or supportive fast decomposing organic sources of fertilizers.
Determination of some Heavy Metals Speciation Pattern in Typha domingensis invaded Soil in Bauchi, Nigeria
The speciation of some heavy metals on Typha domingensis invaded soil along Gombe road, Bauchi were evaluated. Soil samples from the Typha domengensis invaded soil and the control site were collected and analysed for exchangeable bound metals, carbonate bound metals, manganese bound metals, iron-manganese bound metals, organic/sulphide bound metals and residual bound metals. The results on the Typha domingensis invaded soil were found to be exchangeable bound metals; Fe 1.47 ± 0.21 mg/dm3, Zn 1.45 ± 0.02 mg/dm3 and Pb 0.16 ± 0.04 mg/dm3. Carbonate bound metals Fe 26.10 ± 1.01 mg/dm3, Zn 2.66 ± 0.17 mg/dm3 and Pb 0.89 ± 0.03 mg/dm3 and Manganese bound metals Fe 14.50 ± 0.45 mg/dm3, Zn 4.03 ± 0.78 mg/dm3 and Pb 1.22 ± 0.06 mg/dm3. Iron-manganese bound metals Fe 120.40 ± 19.15 mg/dm3, Zn 6.79 ± 1.12 mg/dm3 and Pb 2.16 ± 0.05 mg/dm3. Organic/sulphide bound metals Fe 5.90 ± 0.50 mg/dm3, Zn 4.14 ± 0.68 mg/dm3 and Pb 3.58 ± 0.07 mg/dm3. Residual bound metals Fe 13.10 ± 0.55 mg/dm3, Zn 6.12 ± 0.17 mg/dm3 and Pb 4.48 ± 0.09 mg/dm3.The results of the control sample (without Typha domingensis) shows that the exchangeable bound metals Fe 9.40 ± 1.89 mg/dm3, Zn 1.71 ± 0.45 mg/dm3 and Pb 0.28 ± 0.05 mg/dm3, Carbonate bound metals Fe 0.70 ± 0.12 mg/dm3, Zn 2.20 ± 0.71 mg/dm3 and Pb 0.46 ± 0.12 mg/dm3, Manganese bound metals Fe 2.50 ± 0.21 mg/dm3, Zn 1.90 ± 0.09 mg/dm3 and Pb 1.68 ± 0.04 mg/dm3, Iron-manganese bound metals Fe 221.30 ± 21.12 mg/dm3, Zn 7.46 ± 0.48 mg/dm3 and Pb 2.75 ± 0.06 mg/dm3, Organic/sulphide Fe 4.20 ± 0.62 mg/dm3, Zn 3.70 ± 0.80 mg/dm3 and Pb 3.93 ± 0.04 mg/dm3 and Residual bound metals Fe 30.10 ± 5.80 mg/dm3, Zn 7.38 ± 0.61 mg/dm3 and Pb…
Herbal home remedies have a long history which is in the form of oral tradition. Herbs and other locally available medicinal plants have been used for healing purposes and maintaining good health since time immemorial. These practices of healthy living and use of herbs for curing diseases enunciated in Ayurveda and are in vogue in Indian households even today. The current status of herbal home garden along with government and private run herbal gardens have been studied in Haridwar (Uttarakhand),and Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh in the year 2008-2009 and 2012-2013 respectively. From Haridwar, total of 75 households were chosen from three distinct geographical locations by using random sampling method. Herbal gardens of Brahmavarchas located at Shatikunj, and Patanjali Yogpeeth, Haridwar were also taken for the study. From the district Kangra, two governments and one private owned herbal gardens were chosen for the study. For the collection of primary information, well-structured questionnaires were used during the field surveys. Focus Group Discussion and personal interviews were applied to document the uses of medicinal plants as health care measure. Besides a review of relevant literature, the research used a variety of qualitative techniques, such as semi-structured, in-depth interviews and participant observations. The present study facilitates a better understanding of the present status of indigenous knowledge system, local innovations and practice of herbal based home remedies and the traditional knowledge is diffused in the society. The cultural set up and old aged traditional knowledge system is a way of life in Indian households and Indian kitchen and herbal home garden render valuable health care system. Irrespective of geographical localities viz. rural and urban settlements, the role of herbal home garden (kitchen garden) is very significant in providing accessible health facilities. Sixty four per cent respondents including traditional healers (Vaidyas) consider kitchen garden as…
Compost production is considered an economic and environmentally friendly means to reduce the waste going into landfill. It is a novel study of compost production from raw materials which are available in Malaysia, especially the northern region to get a high percentage of carbon and calcium to be used in the treatment of soils that suffering from leached very high amounts of calcium and magnesium because heavy precipitation particularly in the tropical soils. Compost application can improve soil quality and productivity as well as sustainability of agricultural production by replenishing soil organic matter and supplying nutrients. The results indicated an increase in ratio of calcium, also increase ratio of nitrogen and pH.
A field experiment was conducted in Padang Besar, Perlis, Malaysia from 15/2/2014 and 15/2/2015 two seasons. In each year, the experiments have been implemented in order to study the effect of three levels of irrigation water (25% (no stress), 50% (moderate deficit), 75% (water deficit) of field capacity), and five concentrations of GA3(0, 50, 100, 200, 300 ppm) and five concentrations of proline (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 ppm) on the yield and productivity of maize.The results showed a significant influence of sprayed GA3on the maize leaves, where excellence sprayed 300ppm GA3 with a high rate of all the study characteristics with sprayed 300ppm of gibberellic acid except cobs per plant. The results of the interaction between GA3and water deficit showed the clear influence of water deficit in reducing all characteristics of study where excelled the interactions (300ppm GA3 and 25% from field capacity) with a high rate of majority study characteristics, but these increases were not sufficient. Concluded from the results of the study great positive impact of sprayed proline on the all of the growth characteristics, it characterizes the concentration of 400ppm with the highest rate of majority study characteristics. The study results showed into increased the rate of protein, chlorophyll content, and oil, with sprayed 400ppm of proline.
The study assessed three local plant species Chromolaena odorata, Ipomoea involucrata and Mariscus alternifolius commonly found at abandoned kaolin mining site at Ohiya, Umuahia Abia state for their efficacy in phyto-remediation of heavy metals contaminated soil using a pot experiment. Soils from Ohiya kaolin mining site were used as medium for growing the species. Pre-experiment assessments of the concentrations of six heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Ni, Cd, Co and Se) were carried out in the soil and plant tissues to be used for the experiment. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 6 replicate pots each. The physico-chemical properties of the experimental soil showed high content of lead (Pb) and cobalt (Co) contamination which were (2.40mg/kg) and (9.84mg/kg) respectively. Post-trial plant analysis revealed that the three plant species used for the study accumulated appreciable quantities of the heavy metals. The ranges of Pb in the species were as follows C. odorata (0.80-1.00mg/kg), I. involucrata (1.00-2.00mg/kg), M. alternifolius (0.40-0.70mg/kg). The ranges of Cr were: C. odorata from (0.00-0.07mg/kg), I. involucrata (0.30-0.42mg/kg), M. alternifolius (0.01-0.10mg/kg). The ranges of Cd in the species were: C. odorata (0.02-0.30mg/kg), I. involucrata (0.10-0.70mg/kg), M. alternifolius (0.10-0.60mg/kg) and Co concentrations were: C. odorata (2.00-3.07mg/kg), I. involucrata (2.01-4.01mg/kg), M. alternifolius (2.01-2.10mg/k). Ipomoea involucrata had significantly higher accumulation of Pb and Co than the two other plant species used and should be preferred in phytoremediation activities in the kaolin mine site at Ohiya or soils with high concentrations of heavy metals.