A Study on the Relationship between English Language Learning Anxiety and English Language Achievement
The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between students’ English language learning anxiety and their English language achievement. For this purpose, 197 grade ten students were involved. The students were selected using proportional sampling technique. The instruments used to collect data were questionnaire and achievement. Then, the collected data were analyzed using quantitative methods of data analysis. The study revealed that there was statistically significant negative relationship between students’ English foreign language learning anxiety and their English achievement test result with a correlation coefficient of (r=-.194, p=>0.05). In addition, the participants of the study were found to anxious because of fear of negative evaluation, communication apprehension and test related anxieties. .The study also indicated that female students mean score was less than the mean score of male students when their anxiety levels were measured. But the independent sample t-test indicated that there is no statistically significant difference between male students and female students in their learning anxiety in EFL classrooms. However, a significant mean difference between male and female students was observed on test anxiety with (P
EFL Teachers’ Continuous Professional Development in Addis Ababa Primary Schools: Needs and Challenges
This study was intended to examine continuous professional development needs and challenges of primary schools English language teachers in the city administration of Addis Ababa. Mixed method design was employed to gather information in the study. This method was selected because it gave opportunity to compensate the weaknesses of using an instrument and corroborate information from the other tools. The data was collected from teachers, principals and trainers. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data pertinent to answer the research questions. Two types of questionnaires were employed in the study. One was self-designed which was applied to survey the teachers’ continuous professional development needs and challenges. The other was adapted questionnaire and used to collect information about the teachers’ perceived English language proficiency in speaking, listening, reading and writing. Hence, 50 randomly selected primary school English language teachers filled in the self-designed and adapted questionnaires. Interview was conducted with 5 volunteer English language teachers who participated in the interview. 4 principals and 3 trainers were interviewed to corroborate the data collected from the English language teachers. Based on the information collected from the instruments, explanatory (Quan-qua) method was employed to analyze the data. First quantitative data from the surveys were analyzed using version SPSS 21. Then the qualitative data were analyzed thematically and combined with the survey results to answer the research questions. As a result it was found that primary English language teachers (the participants) were at high need of continuous professional development in English language proficiency especially in speaking skills and teaching methodology. Furthermore, the teachers had institutional and personal challenges to enhance their professional knowledge through participating on going professional development activities.
Evaluation of English for Ethiopia Grade Nine Textbook Reading Texts’ Appropriateness: From Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives
The main objective of this study was to examine the appropriateness of grade 9 English reading texts in terms of content, authenticity, exploitability, socio-cultural context and students’ background, and readability from the perspective of teachers and students. To this study purpose purely quantitative research approach was adopted. As a result, the study employed descriptive survey design and quantitative content analysis design. A sample of 197 grade 9 students and 10 grade 9 English subject teachers were involved in this study. Simple random sampling technique, notably lottery system was employed. The questionnaire and content analysis checklist were data collection instruments. Students’ questionnaire had Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient (a) of .81 while the teachers’ instrument had a reliability measure of .76. The study found that the reading texts incorporated in grade 9 English for Ethiopia textbook are in conformity with the criteria of content suitability, authenticity, exploitability, and readability. However, the fitness of the reading texts for socio-cultural contexts and students’ background seem to be suspicious. This seems to indicate that the reading texts do not satisfy the whole measures of appropriateness. Therefore, it can be concluded that the reading texts incorporated in grade 9 English for Ethiopia student’s textbook seem to be partially appropriate.
ASSESSING THE INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP PRACTICES OF PRINICIPALS IN GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS OF CITY ADMINSTRATION
The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of instructional leadership practices of principals, identifying the dimension of instructional leadership principals give more priority in the management and leadership of schools and identifying the factors that affect instructional leadership. A descriptive survey design was employed in this study.5 (30%) full cycle primary and 2 (20%) secondary schools in Gondar City Administration were included in the study by using Simple random (lottery) sampling technique. All schools Principals, 7(100%), Vice Principals 7(100%) and 4(100%) Supervisors were included in the study through comprehensive sampling technique. In addition to this, 1 (33.33%) District education expert was included in the study by using simple random (lottery) sampling technique. From the total target population of 346 (100%) teachers in Gondar City Administration 106 (30.63%) of them were selected through stratified random sampling technique. After the size of sample teachers from each school was known, the selection of individual teacher sample was conducted by using simple random sampling (lottery) techniques. Questionnaire, focused group discussion and semi structured interview were the instruments used for data collection. The data collected through the questionnaire were analyzed by using percentage, descriptive statics (mean and standard deviation) and t-test statistical analyses procedures. The data collected from open ended questioners, interview and focused group discussion were analyzed by using narrative description to complement the quantitative data. The result of the study indicated that, the instructional leadership practices of principals in government schools of Gondar City Administration were moderate with the overall mean scores of 3.179(63.58%).But principals were not provided equal attentions to the three dimension of instructional leader ship. Accordingly, they were provided much attentions for promoting a positive school climate with the mean value of 3.428(70.68%), while in defining the school’s mission and managing the instructional program principals were…
Negative Impact of Globalization on Indigenous Cultures: the Case of Salale Oromo, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
The aim of this article is to assess the negative impact of globalization on indigenous cultures in general and North Shewa in particular. The research is conducted based on qualitative methodology which used in-depth individual interview and observation which helps to raise a better understanding about negative impact of globalization on indigenous cultures. The key informants were taken from selected five towns of North Shewa zone of Oromia regional state which include Fitche town, Garba Guracha town, Gowa Tsion town, Tullu Milki town and Debre Tsige town of Ethiopia. The main objectives of this article is to explain the dimensions of the negative impact of globalization on indigenous Ethiopian cultures such as language, food style, dressing style, marriage, religion and history. In the process of globalization, there is an interaction of cultures and thus, there is a borrowing and transmission of cultures among societies. This is in itself not unusual. But unusual is the domination of one culture over the other. This is true of globalization which has generated a lot of controversy with regards to the rise of a global culture. In the rise of a global culture, Western norms are gradually being transported across the globe as acceptable way of behavior and Ethiopia is one of African countries affected in this regard. Those some valued indigenous Ethiopian culture has been diluted and some of them are totally cancelled. So, Ethiopia is fast running the risk of cultural atrophy consequent of the current logic of globalization. If pressing measures are not taken, perhaps indigenous Ethiopian cultures will soon run into extinction in the future.
Teachers’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Differentiated Instruction: The Case of Department of Educational Planning and Management Faculty of Education University of Gondar
Students’ populations are becoming more academically diverse due to ever increasing variety of learners in the heterogeneous classroom make-up. Effective teachers in contemporary classrooms have to learn to develop classroom routines that attend to learner variance in order to raise students’ achievement. Teachers need to focus on using sound instructional practices that will improve students’ performance for all types of learners. The purpose of the study was to investigate the teachers’ knowledge, attitude and practice of differentiated instruction in the case of faculty of education in the department of Educational Planning and Management (EdPM) at University of Gondar(UoG). The study employed qualitative research method with case study design which was used to answer the research questions raised. The research participants were dean of the faculty of education, the department head of EdPM and teachers at UoG. The participants were purposively selected. Interview and Focus Group Discussion were used to collect data. The data obtained were analyzed and interpreted using qualitative description and narration .The results of the analysis showed that teachers have positive attitude towards Differentiated Instruction (DI). However, the elements of DI were not properly practiced yet as expected for a number of reasons. It was then concluded that the prevailing practice of DI was poor. In addition to this, the trend of using the lecture method frequently and assessing students based on examinations as mere modes of teaching and assessment were emphasized at the faculty. To overcome this, it was suggested that the current mode of teaching which focuses on traditional lecture method should be changed. Moreover, the actual context of the faculty and its influence on the teaching learning process should be given due attention
Article Review on the Current Education policy and curriculum issues in Ethiopia: Trends that Reveal the Problem of Practicing Policy Provisions in Institutions
Education and development are closely related endeavours. This is the main reason why we always say Education is the key instrument in the development of nations. Education, as a very important factor to human development, is of a high priority in the overall development endeavor of the government. Hence, it requires an appropriate direction to set a new process in motion and change the alarming situation. For this, a comprehensive education and training policy is formulated. It is having this due attention that the different researchers study on the education and training of Ethiopia and the different policy provisions for citizens. This paper is a review of twenty research studies conducted on Ethiopian education policy provisions and curriculum issues. Its purpose is to understand how much of the education policy provisions and curriculum issues were investigated in those researches and to reveal the possible problems of practicing the provisions in institutions. The examination of the main focus of each study revealed that the Current Ethiopian Education and Training Policy has addressed or incorporated the different provisions such as diversity, gender, language, issues of multicultural education, and mother tongue education. But most of the policy provisions were not sufficiently institutionalized and implemented as expected. Possible reasons for the problem of practicing the different policy provisions in institutions and the way forward are discussed.
Article Critique entitled: “The Analysis of the Opinions of School Directors about Their Knowledge of the Curriculums and Their Support and Control in the Implementation”
The present paper offers a critical review of the article published under the title of “The Analysis of the Opinions of School Directors about Their Knowledge of the Curriculums and Their Support and Control in the Implementation”. The reviewed article aimed at analyzing the opinions of school directors related to their levels of recognition, comprehension and explanation, along with their support and their supervisory duties in the process of the implementation of the curriculum. This study was conducted with a qualitative research approach. In this study, phenomenological research design was used since the subject of this study is to make sense of the experiences and the behaviors of school directors related to their comprehension of curriculum, their support in the application and their inspection task in the implementation of the curriculum. In this study, a semi structured interview form consisting of three basic questions was used as data collection tool along with the interview technique in which the probing of these questions are made. The research group is determined in terms of simple sampling method and consists of 28 secondary school directors. The data collected through interviews is analyzed through content analysis. Hence, the reviewer followed theoretical, epistemological and methodological approaches to qualitative research sought to critically appraise the article. Accordingly, the article was written in line with qualitative research approach and it had some limitations that lessen its empirical power.
The translation of nuo culture, in its nature, is one of intercultural translation. At present, the main problems of the translation of nuo culture in China are the deficiency in cultural connotation reproduction and the inappropriateness in the translation of culture-specific terms. Based on the analysis and comparison of the translated texts of exorcising culture in Jiangxi province, this paper points out that the key to the successful translation of nuo culture is to accurately reproduce the connotation of nuo and to fully consider the reading psychology of target language readers. Therefore, translators should strive to find the balance between reflecting the original text’s differences to promote native culture and satisfying the reading habits and needs of the target readers to expand its acceptance among target readers.
Analysis to the Violation of Cooperative Principles in Daily Conversation and the Production of Humor
Humor is the flash of one’s knowledge, talent, wisdom, and inspiration in language expression as well as the ability to grasp “funny or witty imagination.”.Humorous language, like a lubricant, can effectively reduce the “coefficient of friction” between people. The principle of Cooperation was put forward by Grice, a famous American language philosopher, in a speech at Harvard University in 1967. Grice believes that in the process of people’s communication, the two sides of the dialogue seem to follow a certain principle intentionally or unintentionally in order to complete the communicative task effectively. To make the communication activities go smoothly, the communicative parties always follow the cooperative principle in the process of language communication; But sometimes, in order to achieve some kind of communicative purpose, people usually break the cooperative principles and then complete the conversation in a humorous way. This paper will analyze how daily conversation can achieve humor by violating the cooperative principle. Furthermore, it is proved that the violation of the four maxims has a strong explanatory power to the emergence of humorous language.