## A New approach in One Time Pad key management

Let (P,C,K,ε_k,D_k) be the One Time Pad cryptosystem. We consider P=C=K. In this paper, we improve the key management with introduction of the concept of mathematical key footprint to ensure the uniqueness of every generated key without storing it. We also combine the default operating system’s randomness Application Programming Interface (API) CSPRNG , with some further local system entropy parameters mainly the micro level of noise and environment brightness to enhance key generation randomness using any personal device. we introduce the use of negative keys to enlarge the key space K and give related algorithms.

## An Algorithmic Random-Integer Generator based on the Distribution of Prime Numbers

The prevalencWe talk about random when it is not possible to determine a pattern on the observed out-comes. A computer follows a sequence of ﬁxed instructions to give any of its output, hence the diﬃculty of choosing numbers randomly from algorithmic approaches. However, some algorithms like the Linear Congruential algorithm and the Lagged Fibonacci generator appear to produce “true” random sequences to anyone who does not know the secret initial input [1]. Up to now, we cannot rigorously answer the question on the randomness of prime numbers [2, page 1] and this highlights a connection between random number generator and the distribution of primes. From [3] and [4] one sees that it is quite naive to expect good random reproduction with prime numbers. We are, however, interested in the properties underlying the distribution of prime numbers, which emerge as suﬃcient or insuﬃcient arguments to conclude a proof by contradiction which tends to show that prime numbers are not randomly distributed. To achieve this end, we use prime gap sequence variation. Our algorithm makes possible to deduce, in a binary choice case, a uniform behavior in the individual consecutive occurrence of primes, and no uniformity trait when the occurrences are taken collectively.

## An Analysis of Cybercrime Awareness Amongst First Year Students in Nigerian Private University

The prevalence of Cybercrime the World over threatens to destroy the very fabric of peace. From financial fraud to theft identity, the ways in which this act continue to evolve and penetrate the most secure of digital entities calls for worry. A more disturbing trend is the perception of Nigerians being the purveyor of such acts. This study therefore seeks to find out what young Nigerians actually know about cybercrimes in order to gain an insight into what actually drives it and if possible, to discourage such acts from a tender age. Results show the perception of the World is not unfounded and recommendations that may go a long way in making this venture unattractive is highlighted.

## The series of Semigroup Theory via Functional Calculus

Present panorama of the sequence of operators classes with their associated functional calculi , relevant in semigroup theory : the sequence of operators of halfplane , strip ,sector and parabola-type . It is shown that the basic results in the theory of C0-semigroup (the Hille-Yosida and the Trotter-kato theorem) follow easily from general functional calculus principles by Markus Haase [9] . The introduction of parabola-type sequence of operators allows to treat cosine the sequence of operators functions by functional calculus methods .

## A Neuro-Fuzzy System For Diagnosis of Soya-Beans Diseases

Soyabean is an important legume crop, extensively cultivated for food on which low-income population highly depend because of its proteineous nutrient on daily basis for food.The efforts of farmers to specifically identify the specific pests responsible for damaging of plants segment such as petioles, roots, stem, pod and leaves still remain vague and imprecise to many farmers. In this work, a neuro-fuzzy system will be built with MATLAB version 8 with 100 rules on five input parameters as linguistic variables or symptoms into the system to determine the disease type either as fungi or bacteria or virus, and to also determine intensity rate as the output in form of a crisp. The output of the system will produce results for the decision maker to provide solution regarding the treatment of the infected plant for bountiful and quality harvest.

## Chaotic Random Sequence Generated from Tent Map on Variant Maps

Chaotic sequences, have being widely used in mobile communications and cyberspace security. Using the sequences, various stochastic analysis schemes are developed. The Tent map is one of the widely used chaotic maps with good ergodic uniformity. In this paper, the variant maps are used to illustrate the Tent chaotic sequence under different lengths and control parameters to show the statistical characteristics of sequences. Results are shown that when the control parameter of Tent map is close to 0.5, the generated sequences have the symmetrical distribution, that is more stable if the sequence is longer.

## Generating New Orthogonal Binary Sequences Using Quotient Rings Z/pm Z

Orthogonal Sequences (as M-Sequences, Walsh Sequences, …) are used widely at the forward links of communication channels to mix the information on connecting to and at the backward links of these channels to sift through this information is transmitted to reach the receivers this information in a correct form, especially in the pilot channels, the Sync channels, and the Traffic channel. This research is useful to generate new sets of orthogonal sequences (with the bigger lengths and the bigger minimum distance that assists to increase secrecy of these information and increase the possibility of correcting mistakes resulting in the channels of communication) from quotient rings Z/pmZ, where Z is the integers and p is prime, replacing each event number by zero and replacing each odd number by one.

## Traffic Shaping for Congestion Control

The problem of congestion is not new to the field of telecommunications; its root can be traced back to the very foundations of the internet. Most, if not all networks, are currently faced with this problem. The distribution of resources on the network is very vital. The fact that resources are limited brought about major problem such that these limited resources would be shared among various workstations and nodes. As the network grows, and the number of workstations and nodes increases; resources become integral and if not properly managed no meaningful work will be done in such networks. Congestion control, which involved managing resources when the network utilization becomes so high, is of utmost importance so as to avoid congestion collapse. The complex calculations and computation carried out in the existing solutions, increase utilization as well as the problem of congestion. Traffic shaping algorithms provide solutions with little overhead and thus would be preferred to use in medium sized networks. This work proposes traffic shaping as a better solution for congestion control especially in medium size networks.

## Comparative Study of a Class of One-Step Methods for the Numerical Solution of Some Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations

We emphasized explicitly on the derivation and implementation of a new one-step numerical method for the solution of initial value problems in ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we aimed at comparing the newly developed method with other existing methods such as Euler’s method, Trapezoidal rule and Simpson’s rule. Using these methods to solve some initial value problems of first order ordinary differential equations, we discovered that the results compared favorably, which led to the conclusion that the newly derived one-step numerical method is approximately correct and can be used for any related first order ordinary differential equations.

## An approximation algorithm for minimizing congestion in the single-source k-splittable flow

In the traditional multi-commodity transmission networks, the number of paths each commodity can use is unrestricted, and the commodities can use arbitrary number of paths to transmit the flow. However, in the real transmission networks, too many paths will increase the total transmission cost of the network and also cause difficulties in the management of the network. In 2002, Baier[1] proposed the-splittable flow problem, in which each commodity can only use a limited number of paths to transmit the flow. In this paper, we study the-splittable multi-commodity transmission flow problem with the objective of minimizing congestion and cost. We propose an approximation algorithm with performance ratio for congestion and cost in the single-source case, in which is the minimum value of the number of paths each commodity can use. The congestion reflects the total load of the network to some extent. The main aim of minimizing congestion is to distribute the demands of the commodities on the network in a balanced way, avoiding the case that some edge is used too much. By this way, the performance of the network as a whole can be guaranteed and more commodities can be served.