Global Journal of Molecular Biology


Review Article of Global Journal of Molecular Biology THE USE OF ANTIPARASITIC DRUGS AS A TREATMENT FOR COVID-19: A NARRATIVE REVIEW Paulo Henrique Valença Nunes1,2, Guilherme Albuquerque de França Monteiro2, Diogo Nascimento da Silva2, Sthefany DPaula Elias Torres Gonçalves2, Akíria Ohana Torreão2, Francisca Janaína Soares Rocha2  1 Laboratory of Immunopathology Keizo Asami; 2 Federal University of Pernambuco Objetive: Describe research related to the use of antiparasitic drugs as likely treatment in COVID-19 based on scientific literature. Methods: This is a literature review that uses two platforms as a database: Pubmed and BIREME. Were included in this study twelve published articles, from 2019 to September 2020, which referred to or were related to the use of antiparasitic drugs as a therapeutic alternative to COVID-19. Results: The antiparasitic drugs ivermectin, hydroxychloroquine (HQC), and nitazoxanide (NTZ) were the main drugs extensively studied as therapeutic alternatives for SARS-CoV-2. Ivermectin exhibited a 5000-fold reduction in SARS-CoV-2 RNA over a 48h period, at a concentration of 5μM. While HQC was able to block the entry of SARS-Cov-2 into Vero cells previously treated with 50μM. In addition, NTZ, presented an average inhibition concentration (EC50) of 2.12 μM. The mechanisms of anti-SARS-CoV-2 actions of all the drugs mentioned are not yet fully elucidated. However, it is known that the antiviral potential may be related to the inhibition of essential viral proteins (ivermectin), blockade of interaction in virus-host (HTZ), and immunosuppressant (NTZ). Conclusion: The use of antiparasitic agents for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 have shown promise. However, it is necessary to further investigate the efficacy of the drugs mentioned in this study, to obtain more satisfactory results, seeking to avoid adverse effects on patients, and ensuring safety for them. Keywords: Drugs replacements. Antiparasitic. COVID-19 ...


Research Article of Global Journal of Molecular Biology DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE OF LOCAL AND EXOTIC LABLAB PURPUREUS ACCESSIONS IN KENYA AS REVEALED BY MICROSATELLITE MARKERS Eliezah M. Kamau1*, Miriam G. Kinyua2, Charles N. Waturu1, Oliver Kiplagat2, Bramwel W. Wanjala1, Robert K. Kariba3 and David R. Karanja1 1Kenya Agriculture and Livestock Research Organization. P.O. Box 57811-00200, Nairobi, Kenya. 2University of Eldoret, School of Agriculture and Biotechnology. P.O. BOX 1125, Eldoret, Kenya. 3World Agroforestry P.O. BOX 30677-00100, Nairobi Lablab purpureus is an important pulse crop in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia but has largely remained underutilized. Understanding the genetic diversity is prerequisite for genetic improvement and utilization of this leguminous crop. The relationships of the local lablab genotypes and those collected from other diverse geographic origins including the wild accessions remain unknown in Kenya. The study was undertaken to determine genetic diversity and population structure of germplasm accessions collected from Kenya and other global regions. Eight simple sequence repeat primer pairs were used to genotype the 189 lablab accessions. A total of 39 alleles were revealed by eight SSR with an average of 4.88 alleles per polymorphic loci. The average PIC was 0.42. The gene diversity among the accessions ranged from 0.26 to 0.52 with an average of 0.38, indicating moderate genetic diversity. Germplasm collected from Kenya showed a moderate genetic diversity of 0.36. Higher genetic diversity (He<0.5) was detected within the Ethiopian and South Africa populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 94% of the allele diversity was attributed to individuals within populations while only 6% was distributed among the populations. The Bayesian model-based Structure method and Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) scatter plot clustered the accessions into three groups  with germplasms collected from Kenya showing distribution among all the three groups. The wild accessions clustered mainly with ...

Population Structure And Diversity Among Improved Cowpea Varieties From Senegal Based On Microsatellite Markers

Research Article of Global Journal of Molecular Biology Population Structure And Diversity Among Improved Cowpea Varieties From Senegal Based On Microsatellite Markers Awa Sarr1,2 , Amy Bodian1, Bassiaka Ouattara3, Mouhamadou Moussa Diangar4, Mbaye Ndoye Sall1, Elisabeth A.M.C. Diop1, Diaga Diouf2, Ndiaga Cissé1 1Centre d’Etude Régional pour l’Amélioration de l’Adaptation à la Sécheresse (CERAAS), Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Thiès, Sénégal; 2 Laboratoire Campus de Biotechnologies Végétales, Département de Biologie Végétale, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD), Dakar Fann, Sénégal; 3 Université de Fada N’Gourma (U-FDG), Fada N’Gourma, Burkina Faso; 4 Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), ISRA CNRA de Bambey, ISRA/Center of Excellence of CERAAS, BP53, Diourbel, Senegal Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is used in West Africa for both human consumption and animal feeding. Despite its importance, the production of the crop is hampered by biotic and abiotic constraints. To overcome these constraints, the Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research (ISRA) has set up a breeding program since 1960 leading to the release of productive varieties. Information of the genetic diversity for these varieties could improve the effectiveness of further breeding programs. The objectives of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and the population structure of 11 cowpea improved varieties from ISRA collection. Twelve (12) polymorphic microsatellite markers were used and the analysis of genotypic data showed a total of 39 alleles ranging from 2 (SSR6288, SSR6311 and SSR6827) to 6 (SSR6807) per locus. Polymorphism rate ranged from 8.33% (Mougne and Kelle) to 58.33% (Mouride) with an average of 31.06%. Intra varietal genetic diversity was very weak (0.012 to 0.091). The genetic similarity revealed that Melakh and Pakau varieties were genetically the closest while Bambey 21 and Sam were the most distant. These results are confirmed by the dendrogram, which also showed that Thieye, Leona, Kelle, Sam, Mougne and ...

The role of Zi2 during neural tube and neural crest development

Research Article of Global Journal of Molecular Biology The role of Zi2 during neural tube and neural crest development Gerald Muça* Department of Morfofunctional Modules, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University of Tirana, Koder Kamez, 2021 Tirana-Albania The transcription factor Zic2 is member of Zic family, at early stages it has been involved in several processes during embryonic development and later on in morphogenesis and organogenesis. An important role has been attributed to Zic2 during the development of the neural system. It has been involved in neural tube and neural crest formation. Both process structures will form the central and peripheral neural system. Mutation of Zic2 provokes holoprosencephaly in humans and in mouse also spina bifida. To date, there is not well elaborated the specific mechanisms under which Zic2 affect neural tube formation and the differences may exist between mouse and human phenotype. Almost the same ambiguity is for the specific role of Zic2 during neural crest development. Here is given are resumed latest studies and are given new insight about the role of Zic2 in these two processes and its new target genes. Keywords: Zic2; neural tube; neural crest; cell proliferation; development ...

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Global Journal of Molecular Biology