International Journal of Aging Research


Psychometric Characteristics of the Mini-Mental State Examination among Older Chinese Immigrants

Research Article of International Journal of Aging Research Psychometric Characteristics of the Mini-Mental State Examination among Older Chinese Immigrants Fengyan Tang1*, Ph.D.; Laura E. Gibbons2, Ph.D.; Beth E. Snitz3, Ph.D.; XinQi Dong4, MD 1School of Social Work, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2General Internal Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 3School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 4Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, USA Backgrounds: The recent growth of older adult immigrants and the increased burden of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) call for validation of the assessment tools and timely detection of cognitive impairment. In particular, older Chinese Americans are among the fastest growing populations in the U.S., who are at high risk for delayed diagnosis and deficient management of ADRD due to limited knowledge of dementias and barriers to healthcare access. The value of the MMSE as a screening tool in detecting ADRD is well documented in western countries. Yet, little is known about the psychometric characteristics of a Chinese version of the MMSE (CMMSE) in older Chinese immigrants, whose cognitive test performances may relate to cultural and linguistic differences. Purpose: The study aims to assess factor structure and psychometric properties of CMMSE among older Chinese immigrants in the United States. Methods: Participants were recruited from the greater Chicago area in the Population-based Study of Chinese Elderly (PINE). The sample included 3,126 respondents aged 60 or over, who selected Chinese dialects in completing face-to-face interviews. A bifactor analysis was conducted to test unidimensionality of the CMMSE. Rasch modeling was used to assess scale properties. Age, sex, and education were tested for differential item functioning (DIF). Results: A bifactor analysis identified a unidimensional general factor with 30 items, reflecting a single underlying construct of cognitive ...

NEW APPROACHER IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE MODIFYING DRUGS

Review Article of International Journal of Aging Research New Approacher in the Development of Alzheimer’s Disease Modifying Drugs Pedro César de Souza1*, Emmilli Emmanuelle Souza Lins Lima de Carvalho1, Patrícia Maria da Silva Neri Cruz2 1 University Center Mauricio de Nassau, Recife, PE, Brasil; 2Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brasil. Introduction: Alzheimer's disease is a more common neurodegenerative disease, affecting 25 million people worldwide, or accounting for about 60 to 70% of all dementia cases. There is currently no exact mechanism to explain the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, however, cascading metabolic amyloid and post-translational review of tau protein are used as major hypotheses. Objective: To demonstrate in the literature new approaches in the development of Alzheimer's disease modifiers. Methodology: For the accomplishment of this study made in the bibliographical survey of scientific literature and respect to the approached subject, in the databases PUBMED, ScienceDirect, Scielo and Scopus. Results: Alzheimer's disease-modifying drugs are not yet available, but many patients may, however, develop phase III clinical trials and are intended to modify as pathological stages leading to the disease. As disease-modifying therapies under study, these changes also affect Aβ and tau protein and also cause inflammation and oxidative damage. The results obtained in the clinical trials performed were positive and promising and are still under study. The results show that there is still a long way to go in the development of Alzheimer's disease modifying drugs. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that there is still a long way to go in the development of Alzheimer's disease modifying drugs, but nevertheless levels at the research level should be continued in order to improve the pathophysiology of the disease and find an effective treatment for this disease the same. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, β-amyloid, Tau hyperphosphorylation, Neurodegeneration ...

The Impact of COVID-19 on Informal Caregivers in the US

Review Article of International Journal of Aging Research The Impact of COVID-19 on Informal Caregivers in the US Stephanie MacLeod, MS1, Rifky Tkatch, PhD1, Sandra Kraemer, MSW2, Annette Fellows, MBA2, Michael McGinn, BS1, James Schaeffer, RPh1, and Charlotte S. Yeh, MD3 1Research for Aging Populations, OptumLabs, 2UnitedHealthcare Medicare & Retirement, 3AARP Services, Inc. Background: Caregiver burden has negative effects on mental and physical health along with quality of life. Meanwhile, social and physical distancing protocols during the COVID-19 pandemic have created additional impacts on informal caregiving in a rapidly changing environment. Early research over the past year suggests that the pandemic has caused increased caregiver burden as well as caregiving intensity among these individuals. Purpose: Our primary purpose in this informational literature review is to describe the impacts of the pandemic on informal caregiver burden and the sudden shift in roles and responsibilities as a result of pandemic-related changes in caregiving. This review will describe emerging effects on various aspects of health among informal caregivers and explore the growing need to support unpaid caregiving during this time. Methods: A streamlined search was conducted to fit the scope of this review, with key terms determined to identify relevant publications. Common research databases and up-to-date mainstream resources were utilized. Notably, we focused on research published or released since March 2020, primarily rapidly reviewed studies, to align with the timing of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. Results: Early research suggests that the pandemic has worsened caregiver burden and increased caregiving intensity and hours of care among unpaid, informal family caregivers. Reported health impacts include higher stress, pain, and depression, along with decreased social connectedness and quality of life. Notably, however, COVID-related research generally does not focus on the positive aspects of caregiving, such as its role as a source of purpose in ...

The Effects of A Cognitive Training Program for Older Adults: A Brief Preliminary Report

Research Article of International Journal of Aging Research The Effects of A Cognitive Training Program for Older Adults: A Brief Preliminary Report Nathan Jensen, Caroline Kinskey, and Jeffrey Buchanan Minnesota State University – Mankato As one ages, some degree of cognitive decline is expected. Despite this, declines in cognitive abilities and the possibility of dementia is a common concern among older adults. In response to these concerns, a variety of cognitive training programs have been developed that aim to improve or maintain cognitive functioning. Prior literature has shown mixed or limited findings on cognitive changes after implementation of cognitive training. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive training program designed for older adults with no to minimal cognitive decline. The current study included 17 participants who engaged in two one-hour cognitive training sessions each week for 12 weeks. Each session required participants to complete activities that targeted the following cognitive domains: attention, visual and verbal memory, visual spatial skills, processing speed and executive functioning, and language. These cognitive domains, along with depression and memory self-efficacy, were assessed prior to and immediately after completion of the program. Small to large effect sizes on the majority of cognitive outcome measures were observed following participation in the program. Small reductions in depressive symptoms were also found. These findings provide preliminary support for the use of a comprehensive cognitive training program for cognitively-intact older adults. Keywords: aging, older adults, cognitive interventions, cognitive assessment, cognitive training ...

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