This paper discusses the organization of the World Cup competition, in which through the establishment of a number of scheduling model, the use of analytic hierarchy process and stochastic simulation and other methods to solve this problem and obtain a more reasonable arrangement of the competition. For the arrangement of the Order of the game, first of all, the existing competition is studied. On the premise of the increase in the number of teams and the previous arrangement of the group points, it is considered from the appropriateness of the field, whether the schedule is wonderful, whether the arrangement is simple and whether the ranking is reasonable. 3 new competition competitions are proposed for the improvement of the original competition. Then, the analytic hierarchy process is used to compare and analyze the 3 new competition methods, and the optimal competition method is selected. Finally, under the previously established game, FIFA’s integral algorithm formula is used to analyze and calculate the impact of the results produced under the competition on FIFA rankings. In the application of formula calculation, the stochastic factor is introduced, and the results are simulated by computer, which can get the approximate upward trend of the team in different ranking intervals.
In Electrodeionization is used in various water treatments due to its low energy consumption, high efficiency and cleanliness. The application of EDI in various water treatments, including heavy metal wastewater, ammonia nitrogen wastewater, salty wastewater, and organic wastewater purification, are reviewed. Ion exchange resins and membranes are important factors influencing the performance of EDI. The research progress on ion exchange resins and membranes in EDI is described, focusing on the solution to the membrane fouling problem in EDI process. Reducing and preventing membrane pollution in EDI is the focus of current research. Solving membrane pollution problem will greatly promote the development and application of EDI.
The distribution of aftermarket spare parts is an important part of automotive aftermarket parts logistics. The level of distribution efficiency is the key factor affecting customer satisfaction and the economic benefits of accessory companies. The paper uses the theory and modeling method of system dynamics to study the efficiency of the automobile after-sales spare parts distribution system, establishes a dynamic simulation model, and experiments and improves the model based on three important time elements in the system. Experiments show that shortening the delay time between nodes and adjusting the inventory adjustment time properly have positive practical significance for improving the distribution efficiency of aftermarket spare parts.
Improving urban air quality in China: investigation and control measures of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and SO2 in air
In recent years, the quality of urban atmospheric environment in China has caused widespread concern in the whole society. Improving air quality has become a major content of air pollution prevention and control in China. To do a good job in atmospheric prevention and control, we must investigate and analyze the sources of major atmospheric pollutants and their pollution characteristics firstly. With the acceleration of urbanization, the air pollution situation in Jinan city has become an environmental problem that people are particularly worried about. Based on the monitoring data of Jinan atmospheric environment, this paper analyzed the monthly average concentration values of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and SO2 in Jinan City from 2015 to 2017. Meanwhile, the main reasons for the air pollution in Jinan City were clarified in detail. Finally, air pollution control strategies were proposed corresponding the aspects of pollution sources, topography and meteorological conditions, rational planning, environmental supervision capabilities, environmental awareness, and practical treatment technologies in Jinan City. These measures can provide a theoretical basis for relevant leading departments to build a beautiful city.
Ethiopia’s economy is predominantly agricultural where the livestock sub-sector plays substantial role. Hides and skin is an important strategic sector for the economic and industrial development of Ethiopia. Though the country has very good potential for supplying finished skins and hides products to the world market, the quality of skins and hides supplied has rather deteriorated over time. Therefore, this seminar was conducted to review hide and skin value chain in Ethiopia, to review hide and skin value chain actors, maps and its value addition in Ethiopia, to review the major constraints and opportunities of hide and skin in Ethiopia ,to review hides and skins production ,utilization and its constraint in Ethiopia and to review hide and skin marketing and its constraints in Ethiopia . Poor quality of hides and skins , Poor animal husbandry ,Improper preserved hides and skins ,Lack of price incentives ,absence of quality grading, reflections of the economic policy, market information, and requirements from the tanneries and end market are main challenge observed hide and skin value chain . Creation of awareness among extension staff, butchers, collectors, tanners and other stakeholders and the general public of the economic importance of hides and skins are very important. Developing Clear pricing system based on grading and standard of hide and skin and improving access to market information As well as Clear policy and strategy for the development of hide and skin sector should be developed by Member State that have not done so far.
RISK FACTORS FOR MULTI DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS AMONG TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS OF NEKEMTE REFERRAL HOSPITAL, OROMIA REGIONAL STATE, WESTERN ETHIOPIA, 2017
Multidrug-Resistance Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is tuberculosis (TB) that is resistant to two first-line drugs; both isoniazid and rifampicin. Globally in 2015, there were an estimated 480, 000 new cases of multidrug-resistant TB. According to the anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey conducted nationwide in Ethiopia in 2012 among 804 newly diagnosed TB cases 1.6 % were found to be infected with MDR-TB. The continuous challenge in the occurrence and management of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the country in general and Nekemte Referral hospital in particular prompted this study which seeks-to investigate the risk factors for MDR-TB.Unmatched case control study design was conducted to identify the risk factors for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis among tuberculosis patients of Nekemte Referral Hospital. All MDR-TB (21 cases) and Non-MDR-TB (44 controls) patients’ registered from September 2016to August 2017 in this Hospital were included in the study. Face-to-face interview and Patient medical records review were used to collect the data. In bivariate analysis; variables which had P-value
Preparing synbiotic fermented camel milk like- yogurt products (SFCMPs) fortified with different cereals was the main target of this study. Cereals used were hulless barley, oat, triticale and durum wheat in flour form. Honey is used as natural prebiotic. Yogurt starter (containing Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Str. thermophilus) culture and AB-sweet (containing Lb. acidophilus & bifidobacteria) as probiotic starter culture were used to prepare different camel milk like- yogurt products. The physicochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory properties of SFCMPs were examined during storage period at 6±1°C for 9 days. The nutritional and daily values of the fresh prepared SFCMPs were also calculated. All treatments were significantly differed (p ≤ 0.05) in their properties; depending on the type of cereal’s, starter culture and storage period. The SFCMPs containing triticale and durum wheat flour showed higher moisture, fat and total protein percent and whey separation values than that of oat and hulless barely. Meanwhile, the highest values of crude fiber, ash, acetaldehyde & diacetyle, and dynamic viscosity values as well as bacterial counts were noticed in SFCMPs containing oats and barley. Lower amounts of acetaldehyde & diacetyle, dynamic viscosity and pH values with higher whey separation showed with yoghurt starter treatments than that of probiotic starter. The viable cell counts in all SFCMPs were maintained at an acceptable level (>106CFU/ml) to be considered as functional foods until the end of storage period. The Textural characteristics as hardness and gumminess were negatively correlated to cohesiveness and springiness in all SFCMPs throughout the storage period. The SFCMPs made with oat displayed the highest organoleptic scores throughout the storage period particularly when fermented with AB-sweet starter culture. Therefore, SFCMPs can be recommended as new nutritional and functional products from camels’ milk with good organoleptic properties.
Participatory Variety Selection for Enhanced Promotion and Adoption of Improved Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench] Varieties for the Humid Lowland of Assosa Zone, Western Ethiopia
The development of Successful improved sorghum varieties for the western part of Ethiopia particularly Benishangulgumuz requires the incorporation of farmer’s perceptions and desires into the end product. Failure to do this in the past probably explains the low rates of adoption of improved varieties in Benishangulgumuz national regional state. Therefore, a variety developed through PVS usually meets demand of different stakeholders as a result the lowland sorghum varieties were evaluated in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in main cropping season during 2018 at Kurmuk district. Participatory rural appraisal tools such as focus group discussions, matrix ranking and individual reviews were used to collect data from farmers from their sorghum selection criteria, preferences and acceptance of the new improved sorghum varieties. Therefore the experiment was initiated with the objective to evaluate and select well adapted and best performing humid lowland sorghum varieties to the targeted location. The result of current study clearly showed a significant difference between the tested varieties from most morphological traits. Biomass, and threshability, of improved varieties were the most important criteria for farmers to choose a new variety. Accordingly, farmers overwhelmingly selected Melkam followed by Assosa-1 sorghum variety. Farmers’ also gave priority for grain yield and earliness of varieties. Generally, early maturing varieties with high yield potential, resistance to foliar and grain diseases, would be welcomed by farmers. However, they had indicated they would not totally reject their local varieties because of social considerations.
Estudo Eletroencefalográfico De Indivíduos Com Dor Crônica Decorrente Da Fibromialgia: Uma Revisão Da Literatura
A fibromialgia (FM) é uma condição em que há presença de dor crônica, caracterizada por fadiga, distúrbios do sono e sintomas cognitivos, como ansiedade e depressão1. Dentre esse quadro clínico, destaca-se a dor crônica, como característica mais marcante, podendo levar a incapacidades laborais e declínio na qualidade de vida. A fisiopatologia da FM ainda é desconhecida, mas acredita-se que existe uma alteração no mecanismo central de controle da dor, o qual poderia resultar de uma disfunção dos neurotransmissores2. Assim, essa disfunção acarretaria uma deficiência no sistema de neurotransmissores inibitórios em níveis espinhais ou supraespinhais (serotonina, encefalina e noradrenalina), ou uma hiperatividade de neurotransmissores excitatórios (substância P, glutamato e bradicinina)3. Através da análise dos registros do eletroencefalograma (EEG), pode-se observar nas áreas envolvidas no processamento da dor, uma hiperexcitabilidade representando um mecanismo importante na manutenção deste sintoma na FM1. Nesse contexto, alterações no EEG têm sido relacionadas a um biomarcador fisiológico em síndromes dolorosas distintas. Achados de perfis electroencefalográficos de grupos populacionais com dor crônica estão sendo avaliados com o intuito de elucidar a fisiopatologia da dor e promover a avaliação e monitoramento do tratamento da dor1. Embora alguns estudos envolvendo o uso do EEG para avaliação da dor crônica tenham mostrado que existem algumas características semelhantes entre indivíduos que sofrem de diversas síndromes dolorosas, os dados permanecem inconclusivos1. Nesse sentido, o presente artigo objetivou investigar os principais achados eletroencefalográficos, na literatura especializada, em indivíduos com FM no tocante: (a) à utilização do EEG na FM, (b) aos principais protocolos de utilização do EEG na FM, e (c) aos principais achados eletroencefalográficos na FM.
A Síndrome de Treacher Collins, ou disostose mandibulofacial, é um distúrbio autossômico dominante em que o indivíduo não tem o desenvolvimento de alguns ossos e tecidos da face1,2,3,4,5. Considerada uma síndrome rara, afeta, aproximadamente um em cada 40.000 pessoas sem preferência de cor, raça ou gênero6,7. A probabilidade de uma criança herdar é de 50% caso um de seus progenitores já possua a síndrome1,2,5. Ocorre durante a sétima semana da gestação e é caracterizado por deformação dos dois primeiros arcos branquiais, perda parcial ou total da audição, fissura das pálpebras (com inclinação antimongolóide) e do palato, hipoplasia das eminências malares e zigomáticas, ausência dos cílios, micrognatia. Problemas de respiração e deglutição também são associados a esta falha genética2,3,4,5,6,7. A necessidade de aprimorar conhecimentos sobre a Síndrome de Treacher Collins é notável, visando melhorar as condições vitais para o paciente7. Diversos profissionais de diferentes especializações, tais como cirurgiões plásticos, cirurgiões dentistas, fisioterapeutas, psicólogos, neurologistas, atuam no recurso terapêutico do indivíduo4,6,79,10,8,. Motivou-se a pesquisa para o desenvolvimento da informação sobre a síndrome, os tratamentos realizados e a maneira em que acontece a reabilitação.