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Nanotechnology: Transformation of agriculture and food security

Research Article of American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience Nanotechnology: Transformation of agriculture and food security Muhammad Zubair Ghouri 2#, Zulqurnain Khan1#, Sultan Habibullah Khan2, Muhammad Ismail5, Syed Ovais Aftab4, Qaisar Sultan6, Aftab Ahmad2,3* 1Institute of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, MNS University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan; 2Center for Advanced Studies in Agriculture and Food Security (CAS-AFS), University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan; 3Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad; 4Centre of Agricultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology (CABB), University of Agriculture, Faisalabad; 5Department of Forestry and Range Management, UAF, Faisalabad Pakistan; 6Department of Botany, GCUF, Faisalabad, Pakistan Agriculture sector is the backbone of developing countries for their economy. Growing world’s population is putting more pressure on agriculture sector to address the crises of food security. Today, nanotechnology is working as technological advancement to solve problems related to food security and agriculture. Nanotechnology is providing efficient alternatives to increase the crop production by managing the insect/pests in agriculture in an eco-friendly manner. It also promotes plant efficiency to absorb nutrients. Nanotechnology in conjunction with genome editing tools like CRISPR/Cas, has been used as delivery tool for template DNA and proteins. In addition, nano-formulations based pesticides and insecticides are being used in agriculture to increase solubility, mobility and durability. Moreover, food processing, packing and storage has also been improved through nanomaterials applications. Although, nanotechnology applications are advancing in almost all fields, health and environmental safety concerns do exist. In this review we summarized exciting applications of nanotechnology in food and agriculture sector along with its prospective merits and associated risks. Keywords:  Nanotechnology, Nanoparticles, Biosynthesis, Agriculture, Food Sciences, Environmental Sciences ...

By using low-cost Adsorbents process elimination of heavy metals from wastewater

Review Article of American Journal of Chemical Research By using low-cost Adsorbents process elimination of heavy metals from wastewater 1Baby Abrarunnisa Begum. 2K.B. Shanthi Sudha 1Associate Professor, Chemistry Department, SWCET, Hyderabad, Telangana, India 2Associate Professor, Chemistry Department, Andhra mahila Sabha for women Osmania University (Campus) Hyderabad, Telangana, India The beginning of industrialization human being has observed a variety of environmental concerns on the earth. The industrialization has not simply carried growth and affluence but finally troubled the environment. One of the crashes is noticeable, in form of water pollution. Now the present study of heavy metal pollution of water body has been talk over. Effluents from an unlimited amount of industries viz., textile, tannery, dyes, pigment, paint, wood processing, electroplating, leather, petroleum refining etc., have a key amount of heavy metal in their wastewater. The conventional technique of treatment heavy metal contamination contains chemical precipitation, membrane separation, chemical oxidation, ion exchange, electro dialysis, reverse osmosis, etc. These procedures are costly, energy intensive and often linked with creation of toxic by-product. Hence, the adsorption has been experimental as a cost-efficient method for treatment of heavy metals removal from wastewater. In the existing study numerous inexpensive adsorbent has been an analysis as a reduction of heavy metal effluence from wastewater. These adsorbent include resources of natural origin similar to zeolites, peat moss, peat moss, chitin, clay are find to be a real agent for elimination of lethal heavy metal like Cu, Ni, Hg, Zn, Cr , Pb, Cd, etc. Distinctly from these, a range of farming wastes like waste tea, rice husk, black gram neem bark, walnut shell, etc. Also known to be an influential adsorbent for the eliminating heavy metal from wastewater. at the side of that inexpensive or low-cost manufacturing byproduct like lignin, fly ash, iron (III) red mud, hydroxide ...

Realism in Trevor Rhone’s Smile Orange

Review Article of Global Journal of Arts and Humanities Realism in Trevor Rhone’s Smile Orange Sarah Terwse Shittu Department of English, Benue State University, Makurdi The imaginative writer always aims at presenting a story to the audience (readers) that is not only interesting but appears to be true so as to keep them in love with his work. The literary creative writer skillfully mixes his imagination with the material obtained from the society to produce a piece that is a reflection of the realities of his environment. This pa-per therefore, examines Trevor Rhone’s Smile Orange from a realist perspective. The pa-per reveals that the themes and literary techniques the author has adopted deepen our knowledge of the Caribbean Islands, particularly Jamaica whose socio-economic realities are sampled by the author. Through realism, as a literary theory, racism and sexuality among other thematic preoccupations and literary techniques like satire and the use of a creolised English, this paper appreciates Smile Orange as a piece that brings us face to face with the real experiences of the Caribbean. The history of the Caribbean has been captured in the paper to give the reader an insight into what the literature of the people may contain if it is realistic. The author is able to give us another dimension of the eco-nomic and social problems of Jamaica using the tourist industry as an example.By present-ing those issues without making any revolutionary move makes the playwright a critical realist. Keywords: Realism, Trevor Rhone’s Smile Orange ...

Ethnic Identity Politics and Contemporary Experience

Review Article of Global Journal of Arts and Humanities Ethnic Identity Politics and Contemporary Experience Sarah Terwse Shittu Department of English, Benue State University, Makurdi This paper investigates the complex developments of identity in contemporary Africa considering that the emergence of identity politics is a consequence of the extraordinarily rapid and profound upheavals and transformations of human society at the turn of the 21stcentury. Contemporary world has considerably opened up and extraordinarily shrunk in specific historical circumstances. The act of migration particularly, is one that profoundly changes the individual, transforming the relationship of the migrant with his home country and new host country and then impacting their identity as a result. The expanding use of the term, identity politics, is scrutinized in this work and attempts are made at delineating its unwieldy parameters. This in turn reflects the socio-political composition of African societies. Keywords: Ethnic Identity Politics, Contemporary Experience ...

Relative plant parts, chemical composition and in vitro gas production evaluation of different Watania corn hybrids silage

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Relative plant parts, chemical composition and in vitro gas production evaluation of different Watania corn hybrids silage Gaafar, H.M.A.1; W.A. Riad1; Ghada S. El-Esawy1 and M.E.A. Nasser2 1Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. 2Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, El-Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt. Four Commercial corn hybrids included 3 white hybrids, single crosses (SC) Watania 4 (W4) and Watania 6 (W6) and three-way cross (TWC) Watania 11 (W11) and 1 yellow hybrid (SC) Watania 97 (W97) were cultivated at 30 thousand plants per feddan, harvested at 92 days, chopped and ensiled in plastic bags for 35 days. Results revealed that W6 showed the highest ear content (36.60%), W97 the highest stems content (52.47%) W11 had the highest leaves content (18.65%). Watania 11 showed higher CP content and W97 had higher CF and fiber fractions content, while W6 had higher contents of EE, NFE and NFC in comparison with the other hybrids. Gas production at different incubation times as well as gas production from the immediately soluble fraction (a), insoluble fraction (b) and soluble and insoluble fractions (a + b) as well as the gas production rate constant for the insoluble fraction (c) values were significantly (P<0.05) higher for W6 than that of W97 with insignificant differences with both W4 and W11. Gas production from the fermentation of soluble fraction (GPSF) of W6 and insoluble fraction (GPNSF) of W4 and W6 were significantly (P<0.05) compared to W97. The concentration of SCFA was significantly (P<0.05) higher for W4 and W6 compared to W97 and not significantly (P>0.05) different with W11. The predicted dry matter intake (DMI) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) of corn silage were higher significantly (P<0.05) for W6 than that of W97, whereas were nearly similar for ...

Comparison of Customary and Formal Tenure Systems in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State: A case of Assosa District

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Comparison of Customary and Formal Tenure Systems in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State: A case of Assosa District Cheneke Atomsa Merga Bahirdar University Institute of land Though the global trend is to manage land through formal systems, still there is debate among scholars on importance of customary tenure systems and its treatment in modern land formalization. The study done in the study area also indicates the contradicting debate on both tenure systems, whether customary land tenure activities should recognized as it is or selectively in modern land formalization. However, their argument was not after studying and comparing both tenure systems simultaneously, making major problem needed to be identified in this study. Therefore, the study in this thesis aimed to assess and compare customary and formal tenure systems. Both descriptive and explanatory case study type of research was used in this study. Similarly, both qualitative and quantities data were collected from primary and secondary data sources. The primary data were collected by using different data collection tools like interview question, In-depth-key informant interview, focal group discussion and field observation. The survey data obtained from 360 house hold heads were analyzed by using SPSS (IBM-21) in which descriptive cross-tabulation model was mainly used. To compare means of continues variables, one –way ANOVA and descriptive system were also used. The study findings from House hold survey indicate significant variation between formal and customary tenure systems at (P< 0.05) and (P <0.01) based on socio-economic factors (except variation in sex and marital status (p > 0.05);land related explanatory variables like land accessibility, defining right, ensuring tenure security, legalization of land transfer and conflict reduction and resolution; and Local farmers ‘perception on importance of modern land formalization -that was positive in formalized tenure and negative in customary tenure ...