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IMPACTS OF IMMUNOSUPPRESSION ON THE GRAVITY OF COVID-19 IN INDIVIDUALS CO-INFECTED WITH THE HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)

Research Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology IMPACTS OF IMMUNOSUPPRESSION ON THE GRAVITY OF COVID-19 IN INDIVIDUALS CO-INFECTED WITH THE HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) Isla Naraelly Gonçalves de Moura Rosendo1*, José Luiz de Campos Ribeiro Júnior1, Myllena Carolina Sales da Silva1, Nayhara Rayanna Gomes da Silva1, Thais Monteiro de Lucena1, Aracele Tenório de Almeida e Cavalcanti2. 1Student in Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), 2Professor in UFPE. Objective: To identify the levels of severity of COVID-19 in individuals co-infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Methods: Expanded summary of the literature review type. The searches were carried out in the main databases of the BVS and CAPES. The above authors declare that they do not have conflict of interest in this study. Results: Most individuals were being treated with antiretrovirals (83-100%) and, therefore, most had a TCD4 lymphocyte count above 200 cells/µL and a viral load ranging between 67-100%. Comorbidities ranged from 33-70% and deaths from 0-14%. The severity picture was mostly mild, at a minimum proportion of 63%, not significantly differing from the population with COVID-19 in general, which on average remains in a mild symptomatic picture, around 80%. Therefore, the percentage of deaths and more severe levels of the disease were lower than expected due to the immune deficiency of HIV positive people. Conclusion: It is rash to make generalizations about the topic or to safely close the hypothesis that the immunosuppression of individuals with HIV, co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 has an increased risk to acquire the most severe form of COVID-19. This is because the studies found in the literature did not have a sample of participants significant enough. Keywords: Coronavirus infections. Coinfection. HIV. Immunosuppression ...

PARKINSONIA ACULEATA AS A POTENTIAL PHYTOTHERAPIC FACTOR IN THE INFLAMMATORY AND DYSLIPIDEMIC CONTROL OF WISTAR RATS

Research Article of American Journal of Microbiology and Immunology PARKINSONIA ACULEATA AS A POTENTIAL PHYTOTHERAPIC FACTOR IN THE INFLAMMATORY AND DYSLIPIDEMIC CONTROL OF WISTAR RATS Vitória Felício Souto¹*, Priscila A Alves Silva², Eryvelton de Souza Franco³, Elizabeth do Nascimento4, Maria Bernadete de Souza Maia5. Departamento de Nutrição – UFPE/CCS/Recife¹,4; Prefeitura Municipal de Natal - Vigilância Sanitária/Núcleo de Serviços em Saúde - Secretaria Municipal de Saúde²; Centro Universitário Brasileiro - UNIBRA³; Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - UFPE/CCS/Recife5. Objective: The study evaluated the hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. Aculeata (HEPa/EtOAC) in Wistar rats fed with Westernized diet. Methods: The experiment was approved by the Ethics Committee (Federal University of Pernambuco-23076.027165 / 2010-21). The hydroalcoholic extract (HEPa/EtOAc) was obtained from the aerial parts of P. Aculeata and portioned by acetate/ethanol in different concentrations. 36 male Wistar rats were initially divided into two groups: Control (C, n = 6), fed a commercial diet (26g / 100g of protein; 63g / 100g of carbohydrates; 11g / 100g of lipids) and Westernized (W; n = 30) - fed an experimental diet (15g / 100g of protein; 51g / 100g of carbohydrates; 34 g/100g of lipids) receving water ad libitum. After 4 months of diet, W group was arbitrarily redistributed into six subgroups according to water supplementation, or different extracts concentrations: (n = 6 animals/group): W- distilled water (1mL/kg; po); WG - genfibrozil (140 mg/kg; p.o.); W35- 35 mg/kg;  W70 - 70 mg /kg; p.o. and W140- 140 mg/kg; p.o for 30 days. The lipid profile and pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed. Results: The westernized diet caused dyslipidemia and the treatment with HEPa-EtOAc (140mg / kg), promoted a significant reduction in the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in total cholesterol, in the LDLc and serum triglycerides. Conclusion: The reduction of dyslipidemia and pro-inflammatory cytokines ...

BLUE ROUND SMALL CELL TUMOR: A SURGICAL UPDATE OF DSRCT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE ‘A GRIM AFFAIR’

Research Article of American Journal of Surgical Research and Reviews Blue Round Small Cell tumor: A Surgical Update of DSRCT with review of literature ‘A Grim Affair’ Dr.UwaisRiazUlHasan3 M.Med, Dr.Khathija Hasan M.Med, Dr.Farooq Ahmed Qureshi MS, Dr. Victor Effiong Obong M.B.B.Ch, MWACS, Dr.Abdul Aziz Al Nami M.B.B.S, Dr.Ali Ibrahim AlShaqaqiq M.B.B.S, Dr.Mohammad AbdulMajeed Alghadeer M.B.B.S Dr. Marwan Ahmad AlRayhan M.B.B.S, Dr. Mohammed Ali AlJummah M.B.B.S, Dr.Baqer Ali Aldheen M.B.B.S, Dr. Ali Hussain AlRufayi MD, Dr.ShehlaRiazUlHasan Phd. Dr. Moath AbdulAziz AlMasoud2 M.D, Dr. Noura Al Dossary1 Department of General Surgery, Al Omran General Hospital, Al Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Hospital Director1,Head of department2, Assoc Consultant General Surgeon3 Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a tumor derived from the Greek desmos referring to knot and plasis to formation an uncommon soft tissue malignant tumor, mesenchymal in origin and aggressive with a prelidiction for males and advanced at presentation. It was first described as a distinct clinical entity by Gerald WL and Rosai J (7). There are fewer than 200 reported to date. Depending on the primary site of location the Clinical manifestations vary. As most arise from the abdomen and pelvis they remain asymptomatic till they attain a huge size. Other reported sites are the skull, thorax, and paratesticular region (10,13). We report the case of a 19 yr old male who had non specific abdominal discomfort with asthenia for a period of six months and was referred to us for evaluation of left supraclavicular nodes. The prognosis of Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is poor with few surviving less than two years. Keywords: Blue round, Desmoplastic small round cell tumor, Radiology, Multimodal therapy ...

MOTION AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE CEMENT MANTLE – A BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF FEMORAL STEM DISPLACEMENT DURING IMPLANT CEMENTATION

Research Article of American Journal of Orthopedic Research and Reviews Motion and its Effects on the Cement Mantle - A Biomechanical Analysis of Femoral Stem Displacement during Implant Cementation Michael P. Ast, MD1; Adam Gitlin, MD2; Nadeen O. Chahine, PhD3; Daniel Grande, PhD4; Peter Lementowski, MD5 1Hospital of Special Surgery, New York, NY; 2University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL; 3Department of Biomechanics, Columbia Uni-versity, New York, NY; 4Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY; 5Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY Background: It is a common notion that motion of a femoral component during cementation should be avoided as it may weaken the cement mantle. We created an in vitro model of cemented femoral components and subjected them to varying  rotational motion during the cement curing process, to measure the effect on the pullout strength of the stem. Methods:  21 sawbones femurs were separated into four groups.  The first group served as control and was cemented in a standard fashion. The remainder of the stems were divided into groups and subjected to angular rotational displacement within the cement mantle during curing .  Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were obtained of each model to evaluate for cement defects. Pullout strength testing was performed. Results: Despite rotational displacement, no cement defects were noted on imaging.  The control stems showed an average pullout strength of 3735.79N. The experimental groups showed a trend for lower failure loads but it was not statistically significant (P=0.063). Of the 21 stems tested, three encountered cement mantle failure and associated stem pullout and the remainder failed by peripros-thetic fracture. Conclusion: Despite conventional thinking that rotational displacement during the cementing process leading to disruption of the cement mantle integrity, this was not borne out in our study.  This should give surgeons confidence that in the set-ting of unintended rotational displacement ...

Acute cholecystitis with intraluminal gallbladder bleeding: Case report and literature review

Case Report of International Journal of Case Reports Acute cholecystitis with intraluminal gallbladder bleeding: Case report and literature review Jerica Novak, MD, PhD, Aleksander Göntér, MD, Jurij Janež, MD, PhD Department of Abdominal Surgery, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Zaloška cesta 7, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, Vrazov trg 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Background: Hemorrhagic cholecystitis is an infrequent complication of acute cholecystitis associated with high mortality rate. Recognition of this acute abdominal condition is often challenging. Authors present a case of acute intraluminal gallbladder bleeding with a consequential gallbladder wall perforation and hematoperitoneum requiring emergency surgery in a patient on anticoagulant therapy. Case Presentation: An 80-year old woman with atrial fibrillation on warfarin was presented to abdominal surgeon due to acute abdominal pain with hemodynamic instability and active intraluminal gallbladder bleeding on CT-scan. An emergency laparotomy with cholecystectomy was performed. Despite intensive treatment patient died on the third postoperative day. Conclusions: Hemorrhagic cholecystitis is a potentially life-threatening condition. Patients on anticoagulant therapy with clinical signs of acute cholecystitis are more prone to develop bleeding into the gallbladder. Contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen is the diagnostic modality of choice and cholecystectomy definitive therapy in patients with hemorrhagic cholecystitis. Keywords: hemorrhagic cholecystitis, anticoagulant therapy, hematoperitoneum, abdominal CT, emergency surgery ...

STUDY OF PLACENTAS OF HYPERTENSIVE MOTHERS ASSISTED IN TWO PUBLIC MATERNITIES OF RECIFE-PE

Research Article of International Research Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology STUDY OF PLACENTAS OF HYPERTENSIVE MOTHERS ASSISTED IN TWO PUBLIC MATERNITIES OF RECIFE-PE Karinne Gomes Mendonça1*, Evandro Valentim da Silva2, Fálba Bernadete Ramos dos Anjos3 1UFPE, 2Pathology Laboratory of Hospital das ClínicasHC/UFPE, 3Professor / Researcher at the Department of Histology and Embryology – UFPE Objective: Perform the histomorphometric study of the following regions: areas of perivillous fibrin deposition; thickness of the endothelial layer of the vessels; analysis of Tenney-Parker changes. Analyze the Placental Index (IP). Results: It was seen that the weight of the placentas increased according to the weight of the newborn, however, when the variable PI was analyzed as being decisive for the development of a risk-free pregnancy, it was found that this parameter was not significant between the groups studied. (p <0.05). It was found that there is a significant difference in relation to the areas of fibrin deposition (P <0.05) between the groups and that it possibly converges with the data found in the literature in which it could be established that in the GrH there is a different relationship in this pattern. The findings of the thickness of the middle layer were significant in the GrH when compared to the GrN (p <0.05), when this parameter is compared between the Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) groups, microscopically the PE cases showed prominent changes. I n the present study, Tenney-Parker changes were prominent and discreet in 75% of the GrH placentas versus 20% in the GrN. However, there are contradictions in the literature regarding the consideration of this finding seen only in Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Conclusion: Given the above, the presence of syncytial knots, the difference between vessel thickness and areas of fibrin deposition are possibly involved in the pathogenesis of Hypertensive Syndromes, regardless of age and ...