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FRONTAL BRANCH OF FACIAL NERVE AND THE TEMPORAL REGION

Review Article of American Journal of Anatomy and Physiology Frontal branch of Facial Nerve and the Temporal Region Badr M I Abdulrauf MD, FRCSC Section of Plastic Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center Jeddah Saudi Arabia. Several layers of various soft tissues with interchanging characteristics exist below and above the zygomatic arch, this makes the temporal region anatomy somewhat uneasy to comprehend and recall. The frontal (or Temporal) branch of facial nerve is however the ultimate reason why it becomes important to study this area. Apart from Plastic, aesthetic and Reconstructive surgery, few other surgical specialties often need to work on this region, some of the common procedures include Coronal approaches; Zygoma fracture reduction; Temporoparietal flap elevation; Face and brow lift. There was a need for thorough review of this area from a surgeon’s perspective and to come up with as clear possible messages to be made in regard this topic. After an extensive literature search, we came up with few conclusions and three key illustrations that we strongly believe are crucial to be remembered. The rationale of following certain path of dissection in the temporal region, depending on the planned operation is explained. Eponyms used in literature for various structures have been discussed and clarified. The relationship of the frontal nerve to its surrounding fasciae within the zygomatic zone and Temporoparietal fascia is further explored. This updated review and guidelines are specifically been developed and recommended as an educational tool for in training surgical residents of concerned specialties, as well as for practicing surgeons in those areas to update their anatomy knowledge of this critical region. Keywords: Temporal region; Frontal branch; Temporal branch; Facial nerve; Face lift; Brow lift; Temporparietal fascia; Flap; Deep temporal fascia; Anatomy; Relations ...

A rare case of Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and gynecological malignancy

Case Report of International Journal of Case Reports A rare case of Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and gynecological malignancy Mahfooz, Faisal, Bartholomew, Chase, Franquemont, Stephanie, Mathew, Jr., Jacob; Parkview Medical Center, Department of Medicine Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a congenital syndrome most associated with mutations on chromosome 16p13.3 that can result in both benign and malignant neurologic and hematologic neoplasms of various primary origins. We present the case of a 39-year old female with RSTS who presented with severe abdominal and pelvic pain. Abdominal and pelvic imaging revealed multiple masses involving the uterus, liver and spleen concerning for malignancy. Biopsies from the endometrium and cervix confirmed this as a poorly differentiated, widely invasive squamous cell carcinoma. This represents the first case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of gynecologic origin in a patient with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. This case aims to raise awareness of the gynecological malignancy in patients with RSTS as well as serves as a reminder to clinicians to have a broad differential diagnosis in all patients which may help lead to early recognition of pathology. Keywords:  Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome; gynecological malignancy ...

Successful experiments with Salvia officinalis and Salvia microphylla and COVID19

Case Report of International Journal of Case Reports Successful experiments with Salvia officinalis and Salvia microphylla and COVID19 Florent Pirot Independent researcher This paper presents results of the author on Salvia officinalis and Salvia microphylla and COVID19. The results were achieved with dried Salvia officinalis leaves and with fresh Salvia microphylla leaves. The properties of fresh leaves appear with the taste as being much richer in antiviral agents, drying reduces the antiviral activity. The experiments presented in this paper are on the author himself, do not involve biosampling to confirm in laboratory but existing data in the published literature confirms the excellent efficiency of Salvia officinalis against COVID19 and a large array of other diseases. The self-experiments were very successful against COVID19, opening a path for natural treatment. Keywords: Novel Coronavirus 19; nCoV19; COVID19; Salvia officinalis; Salvia microphylla ...

Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of floor of mouth: A case report of double clear cell variant with immunohistochemical correlation

Case Report of International Journal of Case Reports Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of floor of mouth: A case report of double clear cell variant with immunohistochemical correlation Mohamed.H.Ibrahim1, Hossam Abdel Halim2, Ihab S. Abd Elhamid3, Marwa M. Elshafei4 Shaimaa E. Ghazy5, Nermeen S. Afifi6, Ismail M. Shebl7 1Master’s degree in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, 2Master’s Degree Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Cairo University, Egypt,  3Professor of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Badr University, Cairo, Egypt,  4Professor of Oral pathology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Misr International University,  5Lecturer of Oral Pathology, Oral Pathology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University and Misr International University, Cairo, Egypt,  6Lecturer of Oral Pathology, Oral Pathology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University and Misr International University, Cairo, Egypt,  7Lecturer of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Misr International University Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare biphasic low-grade malignancy accounting for only 0.5% of all salivary gland tumors. Commonly, EMC affects parotid gland (70%) and rarely affecting other salivary glands. Clearing of both, epithelial and myoepithelial cell types, is rare and gives an impression of a monocellular neoplasm. Case report: A 42-year-old male reported to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department in Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Misr International University with a painless growth in the floor of mouth since 5 years. The soft tissue window of computerized tomography (CT) revealed a well-circumscribed swelling in the sublingual space. The provisional diagnosis was pleomorphic adenoma. Results: The histopathological examination showed solid sheets of rounded to polyhedral clear cells forming lobes and lobules separated by connective tissue mucoid septa. A thin fibrous capsule, invaded with some tumor cells was also present. The presented pattern of clear cells together with the encapsulation of the tumor provides an impression of clear cell variant of ...

Hormone Receptor Expression in Non Cancer Breast Lesions

Case Report of International Journal of Case Reports Hormone Receptor Expression in Non Cancer Breast Lesions Arcot Rekha, Vimal Chander, Arihanth Ravichandran, Chitra S Saveetha medical College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Thandalam. Background Estrogen receptors (ER), Progesterone receptors (PR) expression is seen in non cancer breast lesions like juvenile fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumor. Materials and Methods This is a prospective study on a study population that comprised fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumor. Results While a few studies indicate that ER/PR expression correlates with a more benign outcome ,we did not see the same in our population. Ki 67 proliferation was greater in the stromal component of phyllodes tumours,compared to fibroadenomas. Keywords: Fibroadenoma; Phyllodes tumour; Estrogen; Progesterone receptors; Ki67 ...

Dynamics of Norway’s Dual Citizenship Discourse: Challenges and Prospects for African Immigrants’ Integration and Political Engagement

Research Article of International Journal of Social Research Dynamics of Norway’s Dual Citizenship Discourse: Challenges and Prospects for African Immigrants’ Integration and Political Engagement Patrick Agyare University of South-Eastern Norway The unique principle of citizenship that enhances the possession of single citizenship, has long been the ideal of nationality laws. Yet, interest in dual citizenship has increased, triggered by the success of globalization and a gap in the ideal and reality of the principle of single citizenship. This article, therefore, offers an overview of Norway’s dual citizenship policy and the associated opportunities and risks for African immigrants inclusion. It incorporates facts and arguments for sociopolitical deliberation in an area where emotional reactions abound. Data were drawn from semi-structured interviews and analysis of policy documents. The findings demonstrate that allowing dual citizenship activates the prospects for better integration of immigrants in mainstream society. However, dual citizens can be denaturalized if their actions significantly harm the interests or image of the state. In this way, the policy constitutes a robust impetus toward standardization and normalization of practices that challenge social integration relations. These heuristics are particularly pernicious to immigrants, the casualties of this discourse, because the authorities are aware of a minimal backlash, considering their limited power to fight back politically. Moreover, a major obstacle in the naturalization of immigrants has been removed. This in turn have positive implications for greater identification of migrants with the country of residence, as well as better economic and sociopolitical participation. Keywords: Discourse, dual citizenship, integration, power, political engagement ...