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Minimal Invasive Potential of Three Caries Excavation Methods in Children

Research Article of International Journal of Dental Research and Reviews Minimal Invasive Potential of Three Caries Excavation Methods in Children Mohamed Khalifa Zayet1, Sherif Bahgat El-Taweil2, Sara Ahmed Mahmoud2, Soad Abdelmoniem2 1Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University. 2Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University Background: Recently, the concept of minimally invasive (MI) dentistry has emerged. MI calls for the selective removal of heavily infected and irreversibly denatured dentin caused by carious lesions while preserving dentin that is demineralized but not infected. Aim: To compare the minimal invasive potential (MIP) of conventional caries excavation (CCE), caries detection dye (CDD), and fluorescence aided caries excavation (FACE) methods in children. Subjects and Methods: A total of 105 carious primary molars in 43 children were included in this study. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to the caries excavation method. Preoperative evaluation of the carious teeth was performed using digital radiography after sealing the cavities with a radiopaque material. Caries excavation was performed using CCE, CDD, or FACE method. The teeth were restored using self-cured glass ionomer. Post-operative radiographic examination was then performed. Pre-operative and post-operative widths and depths for the cavities were assessed. MIP was determined by comparing the prepared-cavity width and depth relative to the initial width and depth of the caries lesion, respectively. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the MIP of examined groups neither after comparing cavity widths at p=0.253 nor depths at p=0.06. FACE showed the highest mean values of MIP potential for cavity widths (1.41±0.36) and depths (2.04±0.74). Conclusions: CCE, CDD, and FACE showed comparable MIP in children. Keywords: Minimal invasive; Caries detection dye; Fluorescence ...

An overview of Artificial neural network

Review article of American Journal of Computer Sciences and Applications An overview of Artificial neural network Emon Md Mohaiminul Islama aChongqing University Of Science And Technology, Shapingba, Chnongqing,China Neural networks represent a brain metaphor for information processing. These models are biologically inspired rather than an exact replica of how the brain actually functions. Neural networks have been shown to be very promising systems in many forecasting applications and business classification applications due to their ability to learn from the data. This article aims to provide a brief overview of artificial neural network.The artificial neural network learns by updating the network architecture and connection weights so that the network can efficiently perform a task. It can learn either from available training patterns or automatically learn from examples or input-output relations. Keywords: review, artificial neural network ...

Evaluation of the quality of beeswax from different sources and rendering methods

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Evaluation of the quality of beeswax from different sources and rendering methods Meseret Holeta Bee Research Center Most of the wax produced now-a-days are used in the manufacture of cosmetics, such as hand and face creams, lipsticks and depilatory wax and many uses. To become competent both in local and export markets the quality of the beeswax has to be maintained. However pre- and post-harvest handling and processing of crude beeswax may affect its quality and quantity. Hence, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of beeswax obtained from different sources and compares the effectiveness of different beeswax extraction methods for rendering pure and quality beeswax. Three bees wax sources (comb, sefef and crude honey) and three extraction methods (manual, submerged and solar) were arranged in complete factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Ten kg each of comb, sefef and crude honey were used for extraction and the average amount of pure beeswax obtained was compared. The analysis of variance indicated that there were significant difference among beeswax sources, extraction methods and interaction between beeswax sources and extraction methods on the yield of beeswax and slum gum ((P<0.05). Comparison of beeswax sources revealed that significantly higher beeswax yield of 6.76 kg source was recorded from crude honey than from comb and sefer with beeswax yield of 2.68 and 2.59 kg, respectively. Among the beeswax extraction methods, submerged method was found significantly superior to manual and solar extraction methods when comb and sefef sources were used, where as when crude honey was used as a beeswax source, manual and submerged methods were found on par in rendering beeswax. On the other hand, the highest slum gum was recorded from comb and sefef sources ...

Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Melamine-Based Dendrimer Encapsulated Pd/Cu Bimetallic Nanoparticles

Research Article of International Journal of Nanoparticle Research Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Melamine-Based Dendrimer Encapsulated Pd/Cu Bimetallic Nanoparticles Md. Sayedul Islam* and Md. Wahab Khan Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh A melamine-based dendrimer was used to prepare a new class of heterogeneous Pd/Cu bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs). The physicochemical characteristics of Pd/Cu bimetallic NPS were studied with the aid of SEM, EDX, XRD, TG& DSC techniques. Leafs shape surface morphology and the presence of required palladium and copper ion were observed from SEM and EDX analysis respectively while TG& DSC showed good thermal stability, as well as  XRD, revealed nano-shape FCC structure. The recycling ability of the catalyst was examined for five successive runs without any noteworthy loss of activity. The synthesized Pd/Cu bimetallic NPS exhibited high catalytic activity in the synthesis of ynone in which synthetic route was phosphine ligand-free. Keywords:Melamine, Dendrimer, Bimetallic Nanoparticles, Ynone ...

Synthesis of Diazine-Based Dendrimer Supported Pd/Co Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Catalytic Activity for Sonogashira Coupling Reactions

Research Article of International Journal of Nanoparticle Research Synthesis of Diazine-Based Dendrimer Supported Pd/Co Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Catalytic Activity for Sonogashira Coupling Reactions Md. Sayedul Islam* and Md. Wahab Khan Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh A moisture-stable diazine-based dendrimer assisted heterogeneous bimetallic Pd/Co nanoparticles (NPs)  was synthesized which showed a simple, profitable and environmentally sustainable operation for the Sonogashira reactions under copper and solvent-free conditions with regained easily and recycled four times without substantial activity loss. Furthermore, the dendrimer was analyzed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis whereas the Pd/Co bimetallic NPs was characterized by EDX, TGA & DSC, and XRD techniques. Keywords: Bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), Diazines; Dendrimer and Sonogashira reaction ...

Translating the Gains of Nursing Education Reforms into Quality Clinical Practice: The Role of Nursing Leaders

Research article of American Journal of Scientific Research and Essays Translating the Gains of Nursing Education Reforms into Quality Clinical Practice: The Role of Nursing Leaders Bridget Omowumi Akin-Otiko1, Margaret Moyosola Oladapo2, Mary Idowu Edward3 1Department of Maternal Neonatal & Child Health Nursing; 2Department of Community Health Nursing; 3Department of Adult Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing Science,University of Medical Sciences, Ondo-City, Ondo State, Nigeria Nursing reforms in Nigeria took a quantum leap in 2018 with the alignment of nursing education with the mainstream of tertiary education in the country. Year 2023 has been scheduled for full implementation of the reform. The ultimate goal of reforms in nursing education is delivery of quality nursing care. This review was undertaken to highlight the critical roles of nursing leaders in Nigeria towards ensuring that the reforms in nursing education translate to quality nursing practice. The six critical roles discussed in the paper are expected to stimulate necessary activities towards maximizing the gains of nursing education reforms in the interest of the citizens. Keywords: Gains, Reforms, Nursing education, Nursing leaders, Nigeria ...