Computer Sciences and Applications

  • Ascertaining the impact of Temperature, Rainfall, Water level, and Water discharge on Sediment Yield

    The state of our natural environment is continuously changing. Various texts, global environmental monitoring bodies and environmental focused research groups agree that the deterioration, if not checked, will in the nearest future make it impossible for all living things to continue to exist in the ways we are accustomed to. As Earth’s temperature steadily increases, so has its sea level. This has brought about a lot of changes in the landscape of different catchment areas which is as a result of flooding. Flooding, in turn, has also resulted in death and proliferation of water borne diseases This work is motivated by the need to understand what factors mostly affect sediment yield in order to safe guard against its effects. The work takes a look into temperature, rainfall, water level, and water discharge factors from Oyan gauging station of the Ogun-Osun River basin, in the south western part of Nigeria. Our results show that all factors considered have a Sconsiderable effect on sediment yield.

  • An overview of Artificial neural network

    Neural networks represent a brain metaphor for information processing. These models are biologically inspired rather than an exact replica of how the brain actually functions. Neural networks have been shown to be very promising systems in many forecasting applications and business classification applications due to their ability to learn from the data. This article aims to provide a brief overview of artificial neural network.The artificial neural network learns by updating the network architecture and connection weights so that the network can efficiently perform a task. It can learn either from available training patterns or automatically learn from examples or input-output relations.

  • Phase Modulated OFDMA System, Study and Investigations

    In this paper, a DFT- based OFDMA with phase modulation (DFT-OFDMA-PM) system is proposed. The proposed system exploits the advantages of PM, the constant envelope (CE) signal, and the ability to improve the diversity of multipath channels. The performance of the proposed system in terms of bit error rate (BER) is studied and investigated using simulation. An investigation of the proposed system, the DFT-OFDMA-PM, results is carried and compared to the recently proposed DCT-OFDMA-PM system and the conventional systems without PM. Moreover, the key parameter, the modulation index, which affects the performance of the PM systems, is also studied and the optimum value is chosen via simulation. The simulation results for the proposed system show the effectiveness of the proposed system for broadband communications.

  • Modeling a Fault Tolerant Control Mechanism for Cloud e-marketplaces using Raft Consensus Protocol (RCP)

    The evolution of marketplaces started from the traditional marketplace, the internet marketplace, the web service marketplace, the grid marketplace, before moving to cloud e-marketplace. The need to have rapid access to various service by different customers brought about cloud e-marketplaces. The goal of the cloud e-marketplace is to attract the biggest possible number of buyers while ensuring a reduced waiting time for customers and maximized profit for cloud service providers. Challenges like security, performance and fault tolerance are of great concern in the cloud market. While discussion on the issue of security and performance are ongoing, that of fault tolerance is yet to be fully addressed. Although some researchers have proposed the use of multiple servers in achieving the main idea of the cloud e-marketplace, different kinds of faults still affects the performance of cloud e-market. Balancing of providers’ cost and customers’ waiting time is still a major concern. Various techniques have been proposed in solving these problems. However, these techniques only work in a static environment where these servers can be faulty which may lead to long waiting time. We propose the use of Raft consensus protocol as our fault tolerant approach. We use the dynamic environment as against the already static approached already discussed in the literature. In the dynamic environment, two fault tolerant centers that are capable of surviving failure caused by server overload or congestion are used. These are primary and the reservoir centers. The Raft Consensus Protocol is used in both centers to coordinate the servers and make sure that each of the servers exist either as the leader, a candidate, or a as a follower. A waiting time counter algorithm is developed that directs customers request to the primary center when waiting time t

  • Postal Service Tracking System

    This research presents a web-based Postal Service Tracking System for an efficient and effective Postal Service Delivery. The software will help keep track of freight or parcel as they are being delivered from one place to the other. Most times the delivery of packages involves transporting them across long distances with several stops that may lead to the mix-up or possible misplacement of the packages enroute. The advent of Barcode or Quick Response (QR) has greatly assisted these efforts, to track mail from the time it arrives in the mail room to the time it is delivered to its intended location for pickup or delivery. In this research a Barcodes and QR identification techniques were used in the system to help identify and track packages. The system was implemented using Bootstrap for the front end, PHP for the business logic and MYSQL for the backend on an Apache server.

  • Unified transportation authenticated reservation system using online QR-code

    Public transit whether it is buses, trains, or metros can be particularly frustrating for passengers. Although public transit is typically cheaper and more green than traveling by a private vehicle, public transit may not be as comfortable, convenient, or as quick as a private vehicle, passengers will have to plan their schedules around the public transit timetables, and unforeseen circumstances may disrupt public transit operations. However, the drawbacks of public transportation is slowly being eliminated; public transit is starting to become more comfortable, districts are offering more amenities for passengers such as internet access, and districts are starting to improve service by offering more trips and express service. Designing a computerized system has been introduced in this research which is based on the Internet to remotely reserve all types of tickets for the most important and essential types of transportation in Egypt. The covered transportation types in the suggested system should be trusted like private Buses companies like GO Bus, Blue eyes, West Delta, and East Delta, Underground Metro, and Railway Trains network. By generating QR-Code which will be sent to the customer on his own mail using any connected device to Internet including all details of the ticket. Whenever the customer reserves the ticket, he can deal with in a hard copy or electronic version. The suggested reservation system depends on using the databases of National IDs and Visa Card. So, it will be very easy and helpful systems which will leads to save time and money too, and in future it will minimize dealing with the tickets’ window in stations.

  • Performance Evaluation of SC-FDMA Systems Using Wireless Images

    Recently, single crarrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) has drawn great attention in wireless communications due to its low peak-to-average power ratio and low sensitivity to carrier frequency offsets. The aim of this paper is to investigate and test the wireless image transmission over SC-FDMA with consideration of different basis functions, different modulation schemes and different subcarriers mapping schemes. Several experiments are carried out and the obtained results show that the wireless images transmission over SC-FDMA systems is possible efficiently. Simulation results also show that the interleaved systems significantly improve the clarity of the received image and their performances are better than that of the localized systems irrespective of the wireless channel or the modulation scheme used. Moreover, the results show that the discrete cosine transform (DCT)-based SC-FDMA (DCT-SC-FDMA) and discrete sine transform (DST)-based SC-FDMA (DST-SC-FDMA) system achieve better performance than the conventional discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-based SC-FDMA (DFT-SC-FDMA) system in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) values.

  • Compose Binary Matrices

    Hadamard Matrices and M-Sequences (which formed a closed sets under the addition and with the corresponding null sequence formed additive groups and generated by feedback registers) are used widely at the forward links of communication channels to mix the information on connecting to and at the backward links of these channels to sift through this information is transmitted to reach the receivers this information in correct form, specially in the pilot channels, the Sync channels, and the Traffic channel. This research is useful to generate new sets of sequences (which are also with the corresponding null sequence additive groups) by compose Hadamard matrices and M-sequences with the bigger lengths and the bigger minimum distance that assists to increase secrecy of these information and increase the possibility of correcting mistakes resulting in the channels of communication.

  • Generalization of Hadamard Matrices

    Hadamard’s matrices are used widely at the forward links of communication channels to mix the information on connecting to and at the backward links of these channels to sift through this information is transmitted to reach the receivers this information in correct form, specially in the pilot channels, the Sync channels, the traffic channel and so much applications in the fields; Modern communication and telecommunication systems, signal processing, optical multiplexing, error correction coding, and design and analysis of statistics. This research is useful to generate new sets of orthogonal matrices by generalization Hadamard matrices,with getting bigger lengths and bigger minimum distance by using binary representation of the matrices that assists to increase secrecy of these information, increase the possibility of correcting mistakes resulting in the channels of communication, giving idea to construct new coders and decoders by mod p with more complexity for using these matrices and derivation new orthogonal codes or sequences.

  • Shoulder Surfing Resistant Graphical Authentication Scheme for Web Based Applications

    Since the design and development of the first graphical authentication pioneered by Blonder in 1996, numerous research has been conducted on this area to be used in different scenario especially on the Internet. One of the major motivators is the picture superiority which as studies have shown, states that image/pictures provides higher memorability as opposed to Text based authentication. However, graphical authentication is still faced with some challenges. In this paper, a shoulder surfing resistant graphical authentication scheme is proposed to tackle the major issues related to the graphical authentication schemes developed. In summary, the proposed scheme provides a high level of resistance to shoulder surfing attacks, mitigating the need to upload pictures and aids in finding chosen objects in the scheme. Finally, the schemes still have some vulnerabilities thus, concluding that there cannot be a perfect graphical authentication scheme; each scheme has its merits and demerits making it a suitable candidate for different environment and/or event based on its architecture.