The knowledge base of pharmacy medicine is changing. Even five decades ago rural people used to visit kobiraj doctors for traditional medication mostly obtained from the roots and leaves of the remote plants (As seen in old dramas and movies). During 70’s to 8o’, a modern allopathy system taken over most of it and plant medicines were completely became obsolete. Even talking about those medicines means people are looking at you saying “what old age are you living?”. Interestingly the same concept is back in the name of modern herbal medicine, anybody will be surprised to know that the sales volume of herbal medicines jumped to Tk 1,000 crore in 2010 against Tk 1 crore in 1980 in Bangladesh. In the language of the philosophers it is “the Circle of Life”. Of course, there’s no denying the effectiveness of modern medicine. The drugs used in modern medicine are powerful but quite often, the risks with these drugs are also high. Purpose of the study: An illustrated review of traditional plants, their nature and use, both pharmacological and pharmaceutical. Findings: Traditional plants are used from ancient time for various human well-being, both as life-saving and lifestyle drugs. A careful use of these plants can bring dramatic changes in the history of medicine, on the contrary abuse/misuse is just waste of money and also creates potential health hazards. The emerging use of plant derived medicines should have a proper quality control and system control of sales, distribution and use through strict vigilance.Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature review, consulting books, technical newsletters, newspapers, journals, and many other sources are done with this review. Health professionals like qualified doctors, hospital staff, nurses are interviewed. A few folk healers’ shops are also visited to see the real situation includes their sales policy, misleading claims…
A woman, named Eve, has been possessed by Evil. She is continuously tortured by host of visions and cursed by demonic voices. She has a miscarriage and commits suicide several times. The therapist builds up a Jungian type of hypnotherapy and hypnoanalysis based upon Eve’s fairy tale experiences come from her childhood. The patient’s absolute good and evil self- and object representations develop in a mutual relationship each other in the form of miscellaneous symbols. Finally, a prolonged struggle of good and bad symbols arrives at a neutral point of rest. Since the therapist is not afraid of Eve’s experiences he wants to take part in them, which leads to a mutual experience of tandem hypnosis shared by both the patient and the therapist. Facing together with Evil the therapist becomes as a devil in a symbolic way while the devil is made gentle as an uncle of Eve’s life. Finally, the patient’s psychosis is healed.
A large proportion of the population of developing countries still uses traditional medicines, either as a result of the high cost of Western pharmaceuticals and health care, or because the traditional medicines are more acceptable from a cultural and spiritual perspective(1). The WHO estimates nearly 80% of the population still depends upon herbal medicines due to their easy availability, low cost and possible less side effects as compared to allopathic system of medicines(2). These also cover healthcare systems that include beliefs and practices relating to diseases and health, which are products of indigenous cultural development and are not explicitly derived from a conceptual framework of modern medicine. Ingredients used in the preparation of those remedies may even provide attractive templates for the development of new pharmaceutical products(3). All the people of Nepal have no access to allopathic medicine and health center because of illiteracy, poverty and unavailability. Thus, about 80% of the population in Nepal relies on traditional medicine(4). One such example is the use of formulation containing Shorea robusta resin, prepared by local practitioners themselves, for treating infected wounds and burns by some locals in Kathmandu valley. The ingredients used in traditional medicine, therefore, must be recognized and studied, not only as therapeutic agents with verifiable pharmacodynamic properties, but as agents of healing with beneficial effects, even when the precise mode of activity has not been properly understood(3).
Spartial Distribution of Phytochemical and Antifungal Evaluation of Six Medicinal Plants in South-West, Nigeria
The phytochemical and antifungal evaluations of the leaves of six plant species (Chromolaena odorata, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus asperifolia, Momordica charantia, Nicotiana tabacum and Spondias mombin) in Nigeria were studied. The leaves of these plants were collected from the wild, air-dried and pulverized into fine powder for the phytochemical constituents and minimum Inhibitory concentrations. The powdered leaves were screened and results were properly recorded as observed. Based on MIC, water extract of sample A Euphorbia hirta (6,620mg/100g, sample B Spondias mombin (6,51mg/100g), Sample C Nicotiana tabacum (7,210mg/100g), sample D 97,010mg/100g), sample E Chromolaena odorata (5,420mg/100g), sample F (6,960mg/100g), sample G Momordica charantia, sample H Ficus asperifolia (65030mg/100), sample I (7,480mg/100g). For acetone extract of sample A (4,978mg/100g), Sample B (5,470mg/100g), sample C (4,450mg/100g,) sample G (4,560mg/100g), sample E (3,870mg/100g), sample F (4810mg/100g). sample G (4,560mg/100g, sample H (4,780mg/100g), sample 1 (4,700mg/100g), For hexane extract of sample A(3,640mg/100), sample B (4125mg/100g), sample C (3,37smg/100). sample D (3,335mg/100g), sample E (3,310mg/100g, sample F (3,648mg/100g), sample G (3,425mg/100g sample H (3,940mg/100g sample I (3,560mg/100g). For bacitracin extract of sample A (3,927mg/100g), sample B (3, 926mg/100g), sample C (3,775mg/100g), sample D (3,877mg/100g), sample E (3,7825mg/100g sample F (3,810mg/100g), sample G (3,606mg/100g), sample H (3,676mg/100g), sample I (3,810mg/100g). Phytochemical constituuents present includes tannin, phenol, saponins, alkaloids, phylate, oxalate, cyanogenic glycosides, trypsin inhibitor and flavonoids. It is therefore recommended that Euphorbia hirta, Ficus asperifolia, Momordica charantia, Nicotiana tabacum, Spondias mombin and Chromolaena odorata can be used as source for antibiotics substances for possible treatment of ailments like malaria, asthma, diabetes, fibroids, hypertension, epilepsy, fever and some mycotic infections.
Rehabilitation of fracture is the act of restoring an injured part to its former state through proper therapy and training,so as to improve the quality of life. After proper union of fracture, it is desirable that the joints regain normal functions and shape, which is why rehabilitation is an inevitable treatment principle in fracture management 1. Acharya Sushruta, the pioneer in surgery, holds novelty in devising rehabilitative techniques for fracture management. These principles when properly implemented can effectively heal the post fracture complications like pain, restricted mobility and joint stiffness 2. An attempt has been made to explore the concept of rehabilitation in Ayurveda in light of conventional modalities.
It is a case report of 48-year-old male patient of chronic non-healing Venous ulcer. Five ulcers were found on inspection on medial aspect of left foot. Symptoms started as slight discoloration, before 30 years. As days progressed even a small scratch leads to ulcer formation. He managed the condition by taking allopathic medicine and got a satisfactory result. But the discoloration persisted, and the ulcers reoccurred with severe burning sensation and itching. Again, he took homeopathic medication and got symptomatic relief. Due to the recurrence of ulcers, Ayurvedic treatment was started on In-Patient basis followed by both external and internal medications. Externally, patient was treated by Patradaana(a type of wound healing treatment using leaves) with Jathyadi kera tailam (oil Preparation) and internally by Syp. Cardorium plus (Herbal formulation), Sahacharadi Kashaya (Medicated Decoction) and Triphala guggulu (Tablet). Sterile Lotus leaves smeared with Jathyadi kera taila were used for covering the ulcer site and the bandage was retained for 12hrs. Later the ulcer sites were covered with a gauze to avoid exposing to the uncleanness, until the next bandage. The procedure is continued for 8days. Sahacharadi Kashaya (Medicated Decoction) and Triphala guggulu (Tablet) were advice for a period of 3weeks and Syrup. Cardorium plus (Herbal formulation) was continued for 2months. This was an attempt to bring the concepts mentioned in Ayurveda classics for Vrana treatment and got a satisfactory result after following this treatment protocol.
In Vivo effects of dosage of leaf, bark and root extracts of V. paradoxa on diarhoea-induced albino rats
In vivo study of different dosages (50mg/kg and 100mg/kg) of various solvent extracts (water, methanol, omidun and sterile omidun) of Leaf, Root and Bark of Vitellaria paradoxa were examined on male and female albino rats induced with diarrhoea- causing microorganisms (Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC ATCC 43889), Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC ATCC 43887), Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922). The rats were randomly assigned into four groups (A-D), group A rats infected with Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC ATCC 43887) and later treated with ciprofloxacin, group B rats were infected with EPEC only, group C rats were infected with EPEC and treated with 50mg/kg concentration of methanol extract of leaf of V. paradoxa, while group D rats were not infected nor treated. The procedure was repeated for other test diarrhoea-causing microorganisms and 100mg/kg concentrations of all the solvent extracts of root and bark respectively. The rats were observed hourly for six hours for the presence or absence of diarrhoea. Haematological studies was conducted on the blood samples of the rats. All extracts of V. paradoxa have anti-diarrhoea effect at both concentrations tested against all the tested diarrhoeagenic bacteria. Although the type of diarrhoea-inducing microorganisms did not significantly affect the activity of the plant parts and 50mg/ml concentration of water extract exhibited more significant reduction in diarrhoea symptoms than 100mg/ml concentration of other solvent extracts. Bark and leaf extracts of V. paradoxa was also more effective at reducing symptoms of diarrhoea in the experimental rats than root extracts. Levels of the major blood parameters (White Blood Cell, Red Blood Cell, Haemoglobulin and Packed Cell Volume) were not significantly different (P>0.05) among the rats treated with the plant parts but slightly higher in rats treated with bark, followed by root and leaves.
The aim of study was to develop and evaluate microemulsion for permeation enhancement of Cumin in treatment of anaemia. Successful attempt was made to carry out formulation of Cumin loaded microemulsion. Oleic acid selected as oil phase, tween 80 and propylene glycol selected as surfactant and co-surfactant, from pseudoternary phase diagram different concentration of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant and distilled water were optimized and water dilution method was used for microemulsion preparation. Cumin extract loaded microemulsion were formulated and characterized for particle size, PDI, zeta potential, viscosity, percent transmittance, RI and drug content. The ex vivo permeation study was performed on goat small intestine. It was observed that 55.50% Cumin extract and 87.19% Cumin loaded microemulsion was permeated. This data indicates that Cumin loaded microemulsion has greater permeation as compared to extract. In vivo study data observed that microemulsion formulation increases the Hb, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC level as compared with extract. The results clearly indicate that microemulsion increases the Hb and RBC and bring towards the normal level.
Therapeutic Communication Process in Traditional Medicine Broken Bone Massage: a Case Study in Citapen, West Java, Indonesia
Traditional medicine in Indonesia, especially broken bone massage, is usually done by experienced personnel or therapist whose got skills from their family or derived down from generation to generation since Dutch Colonial era. This study aims to find out about therapeutic communication process in traditional medicine, in this case, is broken bone massage. Therapeutic communication, in this case, is interpersonal communication with points of mutual understanding between therapist and patients. Fundamental issues and communication is the mutual need between therapist and patients so that it can be categorized into personal communication between the therapist and patients, therapist help and patients receive the help. The research method used is qualitative research. Qualitative research is a study aimed at understanding social reality, by seeing the world from what it is, not the world that should be, then a qualitative researcher must be people who have an open-minded nature. The informants in this study are a therapist and patients with the broken bone problem. This research data was obtained through observation, interview, and literature study. This paper discusses therapeutic communication process in traditional medicine between broken bone massage’s therapist and patients. The intention of this research is evidence how the process of therapeutic communication in traditional medicine gains patients trust and creating a sense of comfort while doing the treatment.
Introduction: Chronic noncommunicable diseases are the major cause of death in developed countries. The uses of plants in ethnopharmacological studies have been carried out in order to find biologically active compounds for the development of new pharmacological agents that minimize the toxic effects caused by the available drugs. Petiveria alliacea L., a family species of Phitolacaceae, is commonly used by folk medicine in the therapy of various disorders, including chronic diseases. Objective: This study aimed to carry out an ethnobotanical study on P. alliacea L. in the Milagres-CE community, relating preparation methods and indications for the treatment of chronic disorders by traditional communities. Methodology: Study period was from February to April 2016. A questionnaire was applied to a sample of 30 random residents from the region. Results: Parts most used by the interviewees are the leaves, whole plant, the root associated with the leaf and only the root. Regarding the therapeutic indications, 50% reported using the plant in the treatment of rheumatism, 30% in the treatment of arthritis and 20% in the treatment of non-chronic diseases. Conclusion: Results of this study provide a basis for the use of P. aliacea in folk medicine in the treatment of chronic diseases.