Ethnomedicinal uses of exotic plant species in Mogalakwena Municipality of Waterberg District, Limpopo Province South Africa
Traditional medicine still constitutes a large part of the primary health care sector in South Africa. However, limited information exists about the ethnomedicinal uses of exotic plant species. Thus an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to investigate its use in Mogalakwena Local Municipality of Waterberg District of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. This was done by interviewing 30 traditional health practitioners, from 15 villages between April and November 2015. The study documented 8 exotic plant species that are used to treat various diseases. The documented species are distributed across 7 families, of which the Asteraceae (2) is the most prominent, while the remaining families are represented by single species. The plant parts, most used was roots (36.4%), followed by fruits (27.3%), whole plant (18.1%), whereas leaves and flower contributed 9.1% each. It was further evidenced that preparation of remedies were mainly through infusions (30%) and decoctions (30%), administered orally. It is concluded that exotic plants now form an integral part of the materia medica of Bapedi traditional health practitioners. It is further concluded that with proper and careful management exotic plant species can reduce overexploitation of heavily harvested indigenous medicinal plants in South Africa.
Diabetes and arterial hypertension resorts of treatments and plants used for their treatments in three phytogeographic areas of Cameroon
There are three principal resorts of diseases’ treatment in Africa that include the mixed traditional and conventional medicine, the pure traditional medicine and the pure conventional medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of resorts of treatment for selecting efficacious medicinal plants used for the management of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension in Cameroon. The resorts of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension treatment preferred by 1131 Cameroonians, selected in 58 socio-cultural groups and plants used were evaluated. This sample of interviewees was distributed as follow: 293 in coastal dense humid rain forests (phytogeographic area 1), 577 in continental dense humid rain forests (phytogeographic area 2) and 561 in Guinean and Soudano-Zambesian savannahs (Phytogeographic area 3). The combination of traditional and conventional medicine was the most favorable therapeutic resort of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension treatment (58,89%), following by pure traditional medicine (38,72 %) and pure conventional medicine (2,39%). These main resorts present manifold variances in many social groups including. The more important variances include Self herbal medication and consultation of traditional healers (21,75%); self herbal medication and consultation of medical doctors (33,08%); traditional healers, self herbal medication and consultation of medical doctors (22,64%). The percentages in brackets correspond to the proportion of interviewees recorded. The interviewees who preferred traditional medicine know more available and efficacious medicinal plants. Therefore with their aid 33 plants which relieve the health condition of some diabetic and/or hypertensive suspected or indirect and confirmed patients were recorded. The most important of these plants that include Azadirachta indica, Momordica charantia, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus niruri, Laportea ovalifolia, Ceiba pentandra, Allium cepa, Persea americana and Catharanthus roseus relieve the followed up diabetic with hypertension patients. These plants revealed interesting for the potential management of diabetes and hypertension. Meanwhile the recorded plants needed to be detailed investigated for their…
The present investigation has been studied with the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using medicinally valued Adhatoda vasica -Nees and to evaluate the antibacterial and anticancer activity against HEP-G2 (Human epithelium cells of liver cancer) cell lines. The UV-Vis spectroscopy results show a strong resonance centered on the surface of silver nanoparticles at 420 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy study demonstrates A. vasica aqueous extract acted as the reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNPs are single crystalline face-centered cubic in structure, average crystal size 21 nm. Scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) image confirmed synthesis of relatively uniform nanoparticles. The EDS analysis of the nanoparticles dispersion, using a range of 2-4 keV, confirmed the presence of elemental silver, without any contamination. The antibacterial activities were carried out against pathogenic bacteria. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed in the synthesized AgNPs (10µg/mL) against Staphylococcus sp. (16mm), Klebsiella sp. (14.5mm). The cytotoxicity activity as evidence by MTT assay with HEP-G2 cell lines. The synthesized AgNPs are ready for the application in the field of nanomedicine against pathogenic bacteria and very good anticancer drug.
As per WHO, in South-east Asia region alone 96 million people are estimated to be suffering from diabetes. Due to sedentary lifestyle and stress full nature of work, associated risk factors such as being overweight or obese, the number of diabetic patients is increasing. Diabetes is an important cause of blindness, kidney failure, lower limb amputation and other long-term consequences that impact on quality of life significantly. Continuous research is being done by scientists of various fields in order to achieve an effective cure of the disease and to improve quality of life. A great deal of work has also been done by Ayurvedic research scholars on various herbal and mineral drugs to find an effective treatment for diabetes generally reffered to as Prameha. Shilajatu is one such drug which has been described for the management of Prameha in Ayurveda texts. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Shilajatu in the improving the quality of life in patients of Prameha. Twenty two diabetic patients were selected for the study. The results were assessed in terms of symptomatic relief on the basis of scoring system, as per the Questionnaire on Quality of Life. Statistically highly significant improvement (p
Bhaishajya kalpana is a very well developed sub-discipline of Ayurveda entirely devoted to drug formulations. Sharangadhara Samhitha is an epitome of Ayurvedic literature of medieval India. Since the drug manufacturing part is elaborately dealt in this, it is considered as an authentic text book of Bhaishajya Kalpana. It is one pioneering work, aptly included in the list of Laghutrayi, the other two being Bhavaprakasha & Madhava nidana. Acharya Sharngadhara, son of Damodara is considered as the author of this text. Except giving out his name as the author at the commencement of the text, he has not furnished any information about himself or his other works. Sharngadhara Samhita composed of 3 parts or khandas in which 32 chapters and 2600 verses are explained. This book is designed in a simple and easy language to serve as a handbook and thus it shines in the pure hearts of Scholars and Practitioners.
Bharat ,now known as India, by the world, is full of knowledge with advances since thousands of years. The nation has its own culture and healthy socio-economic life style since ancient time..This review article is concerned with its medical facilities that were available since ancient time in this continent. Ayurved is special boon to all the world by Bharat.Ayurved is not only the system of medicine but is a science of life…a direction to live healthy and long life.
The method of cold maceration was used in the extraction by serial exhaustive extraction method which involves successive extraction with solvents of increasing polarity from a non polar (hexane) to a more polar solvent (methanol) to ensure that a wide polarity range of compound could be extracted. The phytochemical screening of crude yields of the chemical constituents of Tamarindus indica showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins are present in all the extracts are present in all the leaf extracts. Activity of the crude hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate acetone and methanol extracts from the leaf of Tamarindus indica were tested on five clinical isolates; Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and penicillium spp Augmentin and mycotin were used as control drugs. All the crude extracts of the leaf inhibited or exhibited antibacterial activity against all the bacteria pathogens tested with a diameter that ranged between 8 – 26 mm. All the crude extracts of the leaf inhibited or exhibited antifungal activity against Penicillium Spp with a diameter that ranged between 8 – 13 mm but did not show significant inhibition against A. niger. The minimum inhibitory activity (MIC) of the extracts of Tamarindus indica against tested microbes ranges from 400 to 100 mg/ml in all the extracts against the tested bacteria. The minimum inhibitory activity (MIC) of the extracts of Tamarindus indica against tested microbes ranges from 400 to 200 mg/ml in almost all the extracts for the tested fungi.
All medicines were derived from natural materials in the ancient time (1). Most of those early medicines are described under the broad heading “herbs,” although that term may prove misleading. Even though people often think of herbs as plants or plant-derived materials, several commonly used items were obtained from animals and minerals. Further, although the term “herbs” suggests something that is beneficial and has little potential for harm, numerous toxic materials were used, such as foxglove, deadly nightshade, and jimson weed (Datura). Herbalists sometimes processed the herbs to change them from their original form. As the science developed the researchers attempted and succeeded to isolate some active constituents from herbs, so that the end products were not as nature presented them. For example, aconite was processed extensively in China to reduce its toxicity so that it could more readily be used, and borneol, the active constituent found in a few tropical plants, was isolated centuries ago in relatively pure form, a translucent crystal, for both internal and external use. The use of potent and toxic substances and the intentional alteration of natural substances are characteristics of production of modern drugs. Thus, some issues that arise today about interactions of herbs and drugs may have already been encountered in earlier times when herbs were combined with each other (2). The ancient Indian system of Ayurveda is practicing in India since 1500 BC, the main aim of this system is to preservation of normal health and curing the diseased one. Ayurveda has focused on patient safety and benefits. In fact it is known that drug safety is a very basic and fundamental concept in medical practice. The current raised issue with respect to Alternative medicine and Ayurveda is increasing reports of Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) related to herbal medicine (3). This may…
In this review article the author argues that complete presentation of Stress full life is neither Possible to overcome safe Mudra therapy on different simple steps. This therapy are increasing in Physical and mental health, stress is an important stimulus of human growth and creativity as well an inevitable part of life
There are many methods to theoretically compute the efficacies of modern medicaments. These methodologies are not suitable for computing the efficacies of formulations used in Alternative Systems of Medicines especially to Ayurvedic formulations. In this paper a computational method developed earlier for computing the Drug Efficacy Indices of Ayurvedic formulations was applied to Dusparsakadi Kwatha a formulation for treating Hemorrhoids. The primary study objective of this research is to compute and compare the Drug Efficacy Indices of various possible combinations mentioned in the Classical Texts for treating Hemorrhoids and marketed by modern manufactures under the name Dusparsakadi Kwatha. The linguistic analysis of the corresponding verse of the classical formulation was done using the language interpretation methods based on Paninian concepts. The Drug Efficacy Indices were computed using the earlier reported formula. It is not a clinical study and purely theoretical methods based on the philosophical background of Ayurveda are applied. The computed Drug Efficacy Indices of some of the possible combinations were found more than the marketed formulation. These combinations were successfully practiced by many learned traditional practitioners by adhering to the meaning of the verses of classical texts. The studies successfully computed the efficacies of various combinations. It also showed that the research methodologies must be based on the philosophical background of Alternative Systems of Medicine alone can be successfully applied to their fields.