Bhaishajya kalpana is a very well developed sub-discipline of Ayurveda entirely devoted to drug formulations. Sharangadhara Samhitha is an epitome of Ayurvedic literature of medieval India. Since the drug manufacturing part is elaborately dealt in this, it is considered as an authentic text book of Bhaishajya Kalpana. It is one pioneering work, aptly included in the list of Laghutrayi, the other two being Bhavaprakasha & Madhava nidana. Acharya Sharngadhara, son of Damodara is considered as the author of this text. Except giving out his name as the author at the commencement of the text, he has not furnished any information about himself or his other works. Sharngadhara Samhita composed of 3 parts or khandas in which 32 chapters and 2600 verses are explained. This book is designed in a simple and easy language to serve as a handbook and thus it shines in the pure hearts of Scholars and Practitioners.
Bharat ,now known as India, by the world, is full of knowledge with advances since thousands of years. The nation has its own culture and healthy socio-economic life style since ancient time..This review article is concerned with its medical facilities that were available since ancient time in this continent. Ayurved is special boon to all the world by Bharat.Ayurved is not only the system of medicine but is a science of life…a direction to live healthy and long life.
The method of cold maceration was used in the extraction by serial exhaustive extraction method which involves successive extraction with solvents of increasing polarity from a non polar (hexane) to a more polar solvent (methanol) to ensure that a wide polarity range of compound could be extracted. The phytochemical screening of crude yields of the chemical constituents of Tamarindus indica showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins are present in all the extracts are present in all the leaf extracts. Activity of the crude hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate acetone and methanol extracts from the leaf of Tamarindus indica were tested on five clinical isolates; Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and penicillium spp Augmentin and mycotin were used as control drugs. All the crude extracts of the leaf inhibited or exhibited antibacterial activity against all the bacteria pathogens tested with a diameter that ranged between 8 – 26 mm. All the crude extracts of the leaf inhibited or exhibited antifungal activity against Penicillium Spp with a diameter that ranged between 8 – 13 mm but did not show significant inhibition against A. niger. The minimum inhibitory activity (MIC) of the extracts of Tamarindus indica against tested microbes ranges from 400 to 100 mg/ml in all the extracts against the tested bacteria. The minimum inhibitory activity (MIC) of the extracts of Tamarindus indica against tested microbes ranges from 400 to 200 mg/ml in almost all the extracts for the tested fungi.
All medicines were derived from natural materials in the ancient time (1). Most of those early medicines are described under the broad heading “herbs,” although that term may prove misleading. Even though people often think of herbs as plants or plant-derived materials, several commonly used items were obtained from animals and minerals. Further, although the term “herbs” suggests something that is beneficial and has little potential for harm, numerous toxic materials were used, such as foxglove, deadly nightshade, and jimson weed (Datura). Herbalists sometimes processed the herbs to change them from their original form. As the science developed the researchers attempted and succeeded to isolate some active constituents from herbs, so that the end products were not as nature presented them. For example, aconite was processed extensively in China to reduce its toxicity so that it could more readily be used, and borneol, the active constituent found in a few tropical plants, was isolated centuries ago in relatively pure form, a translucent crystal, for both internal and external use. The use of potent and toxic substances and the intentional alteration of natural substances are characteristics of production of modern drugs. Thus, some issues that arise today about interactions of herbs and drugs may have already been encountered in earlier times when herbs were combined with each other (2). The ancient Indian system of Ayurveda is practicing in India since 1500 BC, the main aim of this system is to preservation of normal health and curing the diseased one. Ayurveda has focused on patient safety and benefits. In fact it is known that drug safety is a very basic and fundamental concept in medical practice. The current raised issue with respect to Alternative medicine and Ayurveda is increasing reports of Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) related to herbal medicine (3). This may…
In this review article the author argues that complete presentation of Stress full life is neither Possible to overcome safe Mudra therapy on different simple steps. This therapy are increasing in Physical and mental health, stress is an important stimulus of human growth and creativity as well an inevitable part of life
There are many methods to theoretically compute the efficacies of modern medicaments. These methodologies are not suitable for computing the efficacies of formulations used in Alternative Systems of Medicines especially to Ayurvedic formulations. In this paper a computational method developed earlier for computing the Drug Efficacy Indices of Ayurvedic formulations was applied to Dusparsakadi Kwatha a formulation for treating Hemorrhoids. The primary study objective of this research is to compute and compare the Drug Efficacy Indices of various possible combinations mentioned in the Classical Texts for treating Hemorrhoids and marketed by modern manufactures under the name Dusparsakadi Kwatha. The linguistic analysis of the corresponding verse of the classical formulation was done using the language interpretation methods based on Paninian concepts. The Drug Efficacy Indices were computed using the earlier reported formula. It is not a clinical study and purely theoretical methods based on the philosophical background of Ayurveda are applied. The computed Drug Efficacy Indices of some of the possible combinations were found more than the marketed formulation. These combinations were successfully practiced by many learned traditional practitioners by adhering to the meaning of the verses of classical texts. The studies successfully computed the efficacies of various combinations. It also showed that the research methodologies must be based on the philosophical background of Alternative Systems of Medicine alone can be successfully applied to their fields.
Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram negative, commensal enteric bacterial pathogen usually located in the intestinal tracts of either animals or human beings. The pathogenic members of enteric bacteria’s are usually associated to infections that are characterized by enteric fevers, abdominal pain, and diarrhoea and vomiting. This study aimed at determining the effects of the selected medicinal plants extracts against Clinical isolate of Enterococcus faecalis obtained from Kenyatta University health Centre. Kirby Bauer method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the plants extracts against Enterococcus faecalis. All the plant extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis with Tagetes minuta producing the largest average zones of inhibition of 18.67±1.03mm when compared to the other plant extracts. Vernonia lasiopus was more active at low concentrations (MIC 3.9µg/ml; MBC 5.0µg/ml) while Aloe secundiflora was less active (MIC 7.0µg/ml; 9.7µg/ml). Ciprofloxacin (5µg/ml) was used as a positive control producing an average zone of inhibition of 21.67±2.66mm while Methanol (33.50±2.56mm) and 4% Dimethyl sulphoxide (0.00±0.00mm) were used as negative control. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of four phytochemicals namely; saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids. The study provides insight about the antimicrobial activity of the plant extracts and if they can be used in treatment of as an antimicrobial agent against infections caused by Enterococcus faecalis.
This case-study accounts on a 25 year’s old woman’s serious suffering and recovery due to successful hypnotherapy conducted by the author. Diana, the patient was a salesgirl in a little store. She was inflicted numerous stab-wounds with culpable homicide, and her life depended on few seconds only. After having had a chest surgery she was gradually becoming anxious while reliving her trauma again and again, and she became ill suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and she had to take antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs. Her Jungian type of psychotherapy including hypnotic sessions with Guiding Spirit Method divided into two periods. In the course of the first period longing for a year she was relieving from anxious attacks and intrusive traumatic images as characterized by PTSD, and she has become balanced mentally. Although, she had been quite well after the first period of therapy, a new serious problem came to light since she aborted twice, and she was unable to be pregnant again. Then, the second period of therapy started for her request, and ended when she became pregnant again, and she had a newborn baby, later. This study is divided into two parts. In the first part the patient will be the leading character, whose subjective report serves as a basis of the case-study. In doing so an intimacy of the report is felt as it is told in Diana’s voice written in her diary. The therapist’s interpretation upon the therapeutic process can be read in the second part. The patient made reports based on her own experiences and gave her written consent for publication. The client’s name mentioned in this paper is fictional and non-identifiable.
Background: Yoga is becoming popular worldwide and many studies and systematic reviews are being published with scientific evidence of its health promoting abilities and therapeutic potential in various psychosomatic conditions. Aims and objective: This short review paper takes a bird’s eye view of some health promoting benefits of yoga with regard to different systems as understood by modern medical physiology. Possible mechanisms for such physiological, biochemical and psychological effects are elucidated with references. Conclusion: Though most of the research studies and systematic reviews give evidence of in enhancing physiological functions of virtually every system, more exhaustive and rigorous studies are still advocated required to establish these positive benefits in conclusive terms. It is important to not forget the qualitative aspects of such benefits in our quest for quantitative findings when dealing with mind-body therapies and lifestyle modifications that have preventive, promotive, rehabilitative and curative potential as an adjunct therapy.
Factors Affecting the Utilization of Antenatal Care among Pregnant Women in Moba Lga of Ekiti State, Nigeria
This study investigated factors that influence Utilization of antenatal cares among pregnant women in Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti state. Descriptive research design was used for the study. The population for the study consisted of all pregnant women who are receiving antenatal cares in maternity centres and hospitals in Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The Simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. This study concluded that knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards the utilization of an antenatal care services are encouraging and determine to a large extent their interest in using the services. It was recommended that government should endeavour to provide both human and material resources needed for effective utilization of antenatal care services and the services should be made completely free so that women from low socio-economic statuses would be able to assess it.