The method of cold maceration was used in the extraction by serial exhaustive extraction method which involves successive extraction with solvents of increasing polarity from a non polar (hexane) to a more polar solvent (methanol) to ensure that a wide polarity range of compound could be extracted. The phytochemical screening of crude yields of the chemical constituents of Tamarindus indica showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins are present in all the extracts are present in all the leaf extracts. Activity of the crude hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate acetone and methanol extracts from the leaf of Tamarindus indica were tested on five clinical isolates; Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and penicillium spp Augmentin and mycotin were used as control drugs. All the crude extracts of the leaf inhibited or exhibited antibacterial activity against all the bacteria pathogens tested with a diameter that ranged between 8 – 26 mm. All the crude extracts of the leaf inhibited or exhibited antifungal activity against Penicillium Spp with a diameter that ranged between 8 – 13 mm but did not show significant inhibition against A. niger. The minimum inhibitory activity (MIC) of the extracts of Tamarindus indica against tested microbes ranges from 400 to 100 mg/ml in all the extracts against the tested bacteria. The minimum inhibitory activity (MIC) of the extracts of Tamarindus indica against tested microbes ranges from 400 to 200 mg/ml in almost all the extracts for the tested fungi.
All medicines were derived from natural materials in the ancient time (1). Most of those early medicines are described under the broad heading “herbs,” although that term may prove misleading. Even though people often think of herbs as plants or plant-derived materials, several commonly used items were obtained from animals and minerals. Further, although the term “herbs” suggests something that is beneficial and has little potential for harm, numerous toxic materials were used, such as foxglove, deadly nightshade, and jimson weed (Datura). Herbalists sometimes processed the herbs to change them from their original form. As the science developed the researchers attempted and succeeded to isolate some active constituents from herbs, so that the end products were not as nature presented them. For example, aconite was processed extensively in China to reduce its toxicity so that it could more readily be used, and borneol, the active constituent found in a few tropical plants, was isolated centuries ago in relatively pure form, a translucent crystal, for both internal and external use. The use of potent and toxic substances and the intentional alteration of natural substances are characteristics of production of modern drugs. Thus, some issues that arise today about interactions of herbs and drugs may have already been encountered in earlier times when herbs were combined with each other (2). The ancient Indian system of Ayurveda is practicing in India since 1500 BC, the main aim of this system is to preservation of normal health and curing the diseased one. Ayurveda has focused on patient safety and benefits. In fact it is known that drug safety is a very basic and fundamental concept in medical practice. The current raised issue with respect to Alternative medicine and Ayurveda is increasing reports of Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) related to herbal medicine (3). This may…
In this review article the author argues that complete presentation of Stress full life is neither Possible to overcome safe Mudra therapy on different simple steps. This therapy are increasing in Physical and mental health, stress is an important stimulus of human growth and creativity as well an inevitable part of life
There are many methods to theoretically compute the efficacies of modern medicaments. These methodologies are not suitable for computing the efficacies of formulations used in Alternative Systems of Medicines especially to Ayurvedic formulations. In this paper a computational method developed earlier for computing the Drug Efficacy Indices of Ayurvedic formulations was applied to Dusparsakadi Kwatha a formulation for treating Hemorrhoids. The primary study objective of this research is to compute and compare the Drug Efficacy Indices of various possible combinations mentioned in the Classical Texts for treating Hemorrhoids and marketed by modern manufactures under the name Dusparsakadi Kwatha. The linguistic analysis of the corresponding verse of the classical formulation was done using the language interpretation methods based on Paninian concepts. The Drug Efficacy Indices were computed using the earlier reported formula. It is not a clinical study and purely theoretical methods based on the philosophical background of Ayurveda are applied. The computed Drug Efficacy Indices of some of the possible combinations were found more than the marketed formulation. These combinations were successfully practiced by many learned traditional practitioners by adhering to the meaning of the verses of classical texts. The studies successfully computed the efficacies of various combinations. It also showed that the research methodologies must be based on the philosophical background of Alternative Systems of Medicine alone can be successfully applied to their fields.
Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram negative, commensal enteric bacterial pathogen usually located in the intestinal tracts of either animals or human beings. The pathogenic members of enteric bacteria’s are usually associated to infections that are characterized by enteric fevers, abdominal pain, and diarrhoea and vomiting. This study aimed at determining the effects of the selected medicinal plants extracts against Clinical isolate of Enterococcus faecalis obtained from Kenyatta University health Centre. Kirby Bauer method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the plants extracts against Enterococcus faecalis. All the plant extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis with Tagetes minuta producing the largest average zones of inhibition of 18.67±1.03mm when compared to the other plant extracts. Vernonia lasiopus was more active at low concentrations (MIC 3.9µg/ml; MBC 5.0µg/ml) while Aloe secundiflora was less active (MIC 7.0µg/ml; 9.7µg/ml). Ciprofloxacin (5µg/ml) was used as a positive control producing an average zone of inhibition of 21.67±2.66mm while Methanol (33.50±2.56mm) and 4% Dimethyl sulphoxide (0.00±0.00mm) were used as negative control. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of four phytochemicals namely; saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids. The study provides insight about the antimicrobial activity of the plant extracts and if they can be used in treatment of as an antimicrobial agent against infections caused by Enterococcus faecalis.
This case-study accounts on a 25 year’s old woman’s serious suffering and recovery due to successful hypnotherapy conducted by the author. Diana, the patient was a salesgirl in a little store. She was inflicted numerous stab-wounds with culpable homicide, and her life depended on few seconds only. After having had a chest surgery she was gradually becoming anxious while reliving her trauma again and again, and she became ill suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and she had to take antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs. Her Jungian type of psychotherapy including hypnotic sessions with Guiding Spirit Method divided into two periods. In the course of the first period longing for a year she was relieving from anxious attacks and intrusive traumatic images as characterized by PTSD, and she has become balanced mentally. Although, she had been quite well after the first period of therapy, a new serious problem came to light since she aborted twice, and she was unable to be pregnant again. Then, the second period of therapy started for her request, and ended when she became pregnant again, and she had a newborn baby, later. This study is divided into two parts. In the first part the patient will be the leading character, whose subjective report serves as a basis of the case-study. In doing so an intimacy of the report is felt as it is told in Diana’s voice written in her diary. The therapist’s interpretation upon the therapeutic process can be read in the second part. The patient made reports based on her own experiences and gave her written consent for publication. The client’s name mentioned in this paper is fictional and non-identifiable.
Background: Yoga is becoming popular worldwide and many studies and systematic reviews are being published with scientific evidence of its health promoting abilities and therapeutic potential in various psychosomatic conditions. Aims and objective: This short review paper takes a bird’s eye view of some health promoting benefits of yoga with regard to different systems as understood by modern medical physiology. Possible mechanisms for such physiological, biochemical and psychological effects are elucidated with references. Conclusion: Though most of the research studies and systematic reviews give evidence of in enhancing physiological functions of virtually every system, more exhaustive and rigorous studies are still advocated required to establish these positive benefits in conclusive terms. It is important to not forget the qualitative aspects of such benefits in our quest for quantitative findings when dealing with mind-body therapies and lifestyle modifications that have preventive, promotive, rehabilitative and curative potential as an adjunct therapy.
Factors Affecting the Utilization of Antenatal Care among Pregnant Women in Moba Lga of Ekiti State, Nigeria
This study investigated factors that influence Utilization of antenatal cares among pregnant women in Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti state. Descriptive research design was used for the study. The population for the study consisted of all pregnant women who are receiving antenatal cares in maternity centres and hospitals in Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The Simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. This study concluded that knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards the utilization of an antenatal care services are encouraging and determine to a large extent their interest in using the services. It was recommended that government should endeavour to provide both human and material resources needed for effective utilization of antenatal care services and the services should be made completely free so that women from low socio-economic statuses would be able to assess it.
Popularization of traditional and complementary medicine: Urging voluminous effort driving towards scientific evaluation of safety and efficacy
Traditional medicines are widely used in developing countries with fast gaining popularity all over the world. Traditional medicine practices has long historical background that passes on from generation to generation. The quantity and quality, safety and efficacy of traditional medicine has became a worldwide concern emphasizing the need to develop harmonized international standards. The global market for herbal remedies is about $83 billion and growing at 10 to 20 percent yearly with the top global players like Germany, Asia, Japan, Europe and North America. Traditional therapies have a popular perception lower adverse effects rate as consumers perceive that natural sourced products are less likely to cause problems. The common causes of herbal product related adverse reaction occurrence are use toxic herbs, overdose, drug–herb interactions and idiosyncratic reactions. Herbal are mostly used over the counter without knowledge or advice of practitioner rising safety concern. Quality issues of traditional products are due to improper processing, adulteration, misidentification, missing of one or more herbs in a product, substitution, inclusion of prescription drugs, contamination and variability in active ingredient. Scientific study to assess safety and efficacy, composition, dosage form requirements are need of the time. Regulations governing the safety, quality and efficacy of traditional and complementary therapies vary widely from country to country and many countries do not have formal system for traditional and complementary medicine registration. Implementation of good manufacturing practice in cultivation, harvesting and processing along with chromatographic fingerprinting will greatly contribute to quality control of traditional medicines. Rigorous research is required for preclinical safety-efficacy, toxicology and clinical trials of traditional and complementary medicine. Boosting research with availability of funds are a major issue. Credibility of traditional and complementary will depend on development of evidence base approval system by encouraging spontaneous reporting, implementing active pharmacovigilance and clinical safety monitoring system.
Evaluation of ameliorative potential of isolated flavonol fractions from Thuja occidentalis in lung cancer cells and in Benzo(a)pyrene induced lung toxicity in mice
Relative anticancer potentials of six flavonol fractions (F1-F6) isolated from Thuja occidentalis extract were first evaluated against lung cancer cells A549 in vitro, and fraction- F4 showing the maximum protective ability, was then tested in mice intoxicated with Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a known carcinogen with major effect on lung, to learn if this could also have ameliorative action against lung toxicity and tissue damage in mice in vivo. Chemical nature of F1-F6 fractions was confirmed with specific flavonol confirmatory test and mass spectral analysis; all fractions were tested for their possible anticancer effects against A549 cells. Results suggested that fraction 4 (F4) had the strongest anticancer effect. When treated to BaP intoxicated mice, F4 induced recovery of damaged lung tissue, presumably through inhibition of ROS generation, and enhanced production of major antioxidant molecules, that in turn blocked PI3K-activated expressions of Akt. Decrease in Bcl2/Bax ratio, over-expression of p53 gene and activation of caspase 3 were observed in tissues of F4 treated mice, further confirming apoptotic cell death as its major target. The F4 fraction of Thuja occidentalis extract showed remarkable apoptotic potential against lung cancer cells and ameliorative ability against BaP induced lung toxicity.