In Vivo effects of dosage of leaf, bark and root extracts of V. paradoxa on diarhoea-induced albino rats
In vivo study of different dosages (50mg/kg and 100mg/kg) of various solvent extracts (water, methanol, omidun and sterile omidun) of Leaf, Root and Bark of Vitellaria paradoxa were examined on male and female albino rats induced with diarrhoea- causing microorganisms (Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC ATCC 43889), Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC ATCC 43887), Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922). The rats were randomly assigned into four groups (A-D), group A rats infected with Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC ATCC 43887) and later treated with ciprofloxacin, group B rats were infected with EPEC only, group C rats were infected with EPEC and treated with 50mg/kg concentration of methanol extract of leaf of V. paradoxa, while group D rats were not infected nor treated. The procedure was repeated for other test diarrhoea-causing microorganisms and 100mg/kg concentrations of all the solvent extracts of root and bark respectively. The rats were observed hourly for six hours for the presence or absence of diarrhoea. Haematological studies was conducted on the blood samples of the rats. All extracts of V. paradoxa have anti-diarrhoea effect at both concentrations tested against all the tested diarrhoeagenic bacteria. Although the type of diarrhoea-inducing microorganisms did not significantly affect the activity of the plant parts and 50mg/ml concentration of water extract exhibited more significant reduction in diarrhoea symptoms than 100mg/ml concentration of other solvent extracts. Bark and leaf extracts of V. paradoxa was also more effective at reducing symptoms of diarrhoea in the experimental rats than root extracts. Levels of the major blood parameters (White Blood Cell, Red Blood Cell, Haemoglobulin and Packed Cell Volume) were not significantly different (P>0.05) among the rats treated with the plant parts but slightly higher in rats treated with bark, followed by root and leaves.
The aim of study was to develop and evaluate microemulsion for permeation enhancement of Cumin in treatment of anaemia. Successful attempt was made to carry out formulation of Cumin loaded microemulsion. Oleic acid selected as oil phase, tween 80 and propylene glycol selected as surfactant and co-surfactant, from pseudoternary phase diagram different concentration of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant and distilled water were optimized and water dilution method was used for microemulsion preparation. Cumin extract loaded microemulsion were formulated and characterized for particle size, PDI, zeta potential, viscosity, percent transmittance, RI and drug content. The ex vivo permeation study was performed on goat small intestine. It was observed that 55.50% Cumin extract and 87.19% Cumin loaded microemulsion was permeated. This data indicates that Cumin loaded microemulsion has greater permeation as compared to extract. In vivo study data observed that microemulsion formulation increases the Hb, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC level as compared with extract. The results clearly indicate that microemulsion increases the Hb and RBC and bring towards the normal level.
Therapeutic Communication Process in Traditional Medicine Broken Bone Massage: a Case Study in Citapen, West Java, Indonesia
Traditional medicine in Indonesia, especially broken bone massage, is usually done by experienced personnel or therapist whose got skills from their family or derived down from generation to generation since Dutch Colonial era. This study aims to find out about therapeutic communication process in traditional medicine, in this case, is broken bone massage. Therapeutic communication, in this case, is interpersonal communication with points of mutual understanding between therapist and patients. Fundamental issues and communication is the mutual need between therapist and patients so that it can be categorized into personal communication between the therapist and patients, therapist help and patients receive the help. The research method used is qualitative research. Qualitative research is a study aimed at understanding social reality, by seeing the world from what it is, not the world that should be, then a qualitative researcher must be people who have an open-minded nature. The informants in this study are a therapist and patients with the broken bone problem. This research data was obtained through observation, interview, and literature study. This paper discusses therapeutic communication process in traditional medicine between broken bone massage’s therapist and patients. The intention of this research is evidence how the process of therapeutic communication in traditional medicine gains patients trust and creating a sense of comfort while doing the treatment.
Introduction: Chronic noncommunicable diseases are the major cause of death in developed countries. The uses of plants in ethnopharmacological studies have been carried out in order to find biologically active compounds for the development of new pharmacological agents that minimize the toxic effects caused by the available drugs. Petiveria alliacea L., a family species of Phitolacaceae, is commonly used by folk medicine in the therapy of various disorders, including chronic diseases. Objective: This study aimed to carry out an ethnobotanical study on P. alliacea L. in the Milagres-CE community, relating preparation methods and indications for the treatment of chronic disorders by traditional communities. Methodology: Study period was from February to April 2016. A questionnaire was applied to a sample of 30 random residents from the region. Results: Parts most used by the interviewees are the leaves, whole plant, the root associated with the leaf and only the root. Regarding the therapeutic indications, 50% reported using the plant in the treatment of rheumatism, 30% in the treatment of arthritis and 20% in the treatment of non-chronic diseases. Conclusion: Results of this study provide a basis for the use of P. aliacea in folk medicine in the treatment of chronic diseases.
The use of acupuncture as a complementary procedure in the rehabilitation of phonoaudiological complaints
Introduction: Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese practice currently recognized by the Federal Speech and Hearing Therapy Council through Resolution No. 272/2001. It can be applied as a complement to speech therapy therapies, since it contributes to an overall improvement of the patient, promoting the balance of the individual, decreasing muscular tension, stimulating memory, reducing edema and pain, improving sleep, muscle toning and reduction of depression. Objectives: To verify in the literature the use of acupuncture as a complementary procedure in the rehabilitation of phonoaudiological complaints. Methodology: This is a systematic review through selection and analysis of publications in journals through the descriptors “Speech Therapy”, “Acupuncture”, “Complementary Therapies” and their combinations between. It was considered only the works available free online, published in the platform SciELO, LILACS and Revista Comunicação, published from 2002 to 2015. Results: We found 9 articles, 44% (n = 4) of the studies presented a case report approach and 56% (n = 5) were group studies. Concerning the areas involved in the studies, there were 80% (n = 10) studies concentrated predominantly in the area of “Orofacial Motricity” and 20% (n = 2) in the “Audiology” area. Conclusion: Acupuncture has provided good results in phonoaudiological complaints, appearing as a complementary pathway to conventional treatments.
The review article focus on Gangrene and its associated amputations are clinically challenging, but Homoeopathy offers therapy options. In this case are presented, in which the homoeopathic treatment prevented amputation of a body part. Homoeopathy stimulates the body’s ability to heal through its immune mechanisms; consequently, it achieves wound healing and establishes circulation to the gangrenous part. Instead of focusing on the local phenomena of gangrene pathology, treatment focuses on the general indications of the immune system, stressing the important role of the immune system as a whole. The aim was to show, through case reports, that homoeopathic therapy can treat gangrene without amputing the gangrenous part, and hence has a strong substitution for consideration in treating gangrene.
Bio-enhancement effect of Bos primigenius indicus urine isolates on Curcumin anticancer activity using different human cell line models of A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat and K562
The study is conducted to explore possible utilization of cow urine and understanding complete biochemical compounds involved in possible therapeutic applications of cow urine therapy which was used from ancient times. In the present experiment inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) methods was used to analyze the complete mineral and compound detection. The test conducted using MTT method using human cancer A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat and K562 cell lines as part of the in vitro preclinical characterization of Cow urine extracted Curcumin and pure Curcumin compounds and compared against positive control Sodium lauryl Sulphate (SLS). More than 100% increment in cell killing at a concentration of 1.25 mg/ml recorded in the cell line for the cow urine extracted Curcumin and less than 70% for the pure Curcumin. Positive control SLS exhibited nearly 100% of killing cells.
Antibacterial, antifungal and wound healing potentials of extract and fractions of Nauclea diderrichii root bark
gar dilution technique to determine the inhibition zone diameters (IZD) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The excision wound model was used to assess the wound healing properties of MDE (5, 10 and 20%) and compared it with that of bacitracin and neomycin powder (BNP, standard) in rats. Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity test were performed using standard procedures. Results showed that extract and fractions exhibited antimicrobial effect with IZD (mm, 40 mg/ml) against tested organisms. The EF exhibited the best antimicrobial activity with IZD of 30, 8, 15, 8 and 12 against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella aerogenes and Aspergillus flavus, respectively. The EF also gave an MIC (mg/ml) of 0.63, 20.00, 1.25, 20.00 and 0.63 for S. aureus, S. cohnii, P. aeruginosa, K. aerogenes, and A. flavus, respectively. The MDE showed a comparable wound healing effect with BNP, although with better effect on day 20 with 100% wound contraction while BNP gave 93.79%, post wound excision. Therefore, N. diderrichii root bark possesses antibacterial, antifungal and wound healing properties.
Ethnomedicinal uses of indigenous plant species in Mogalakwena Municipality of Waterberg District, Limpopo Province South Africa
Various indigenous cultures in the Limpopo Province of South Africa are transitioning from a traditional lifestyle to a westernised one. This leads to a loss of cultural identity and knowledge. Consequently, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to investigate the medicinal uses of indigenous plants in the Mogalakwena Local Municipality of the Waterberg District in Limpopo Province, South Africa, an area experiencing rapid transition to a western lifestyle. The study interviewed 30 traditional healers via a semi-structured questionnaire. Thirty five indigenous plant species were documented to be used in the treatment of 37 ailments. These species are distributed among 22 families, of which Asteraceae (5 species), Fabaceae (4 species) and Hyacinthaceae (3 species) are the most prominent. The remaining families are represented by either a single or two species. Bark and roots accounted for 50% of the material used, followed by leaves (12%) and tuber (8%), amongst other. Preparation of remedies was mainly through decoctions (40%), followed by infusions (33.3%), paste (8.3%), and fumes through burning (6.7%). The high percentage of bark and roots use is an area of concern. Furthermore this study found many instances of unsustainable harvesting techniques. These issues need immediate attention for the long term conservation of a number of threatened species identified in this study.
The State of Chhattisgarh has about 44% of its geographical Area Covered with forests. The Koria district in Chhattisgarh lies between 22058’ to 23049’ North latitudes and 810 33’ to 82045’ East longitude. The average rainfall is 121.36 cm. The forest area is 81.23% of Total dist. area. The annual mean temperature is 240C. The temperature varies between 16.20C to 310C. Geologically the area is dominated by upper Gondwana rocks. Which are rich in coal deposit. The highest mountain ranges of the region occupy the northern part of the district. The district Koria has a very rich flora exhibiting diversity specially of medicinal plants. There is no comprehensive description of the flora of the district is available . The district has a tribal population using enormous range of plants for their basic needs, sustenance and livelihood.“Keeping these points in view” the Present paper deals with diversity of the medicinal plants of the district and their ecological status. Vegetational analysis of Bharatpur block revealed some interesting observations on phytosociological characters enumerate medicinal plants belonging to Bharatpur block enumerate 80 medicinal plants were recorded. the common plant species showing maximum frequency were Tribulus terrestris (90%), Vicia sativa (80%) and Jatropha curcas, Cleome gynandra and Blumea lacera (70%). At this block, Woodfordia fruticosa, Xanthium strumarium and Pergularia extensa were showing maximum frequency of 80%, 70% and 60% respectively. Woodfordia fruticosa showed high density also. Triumfetta rhomboidea showed maximum density and abundance but Bacopa monnieri and Vanda roxburghii showed maximum abundance.It was abstracted that Bacopa monnieri, Costus speciosus, Curculigo orchioides, Curcuma amada and Embelia robusta were the rare species. They exhibited only 20% frequency. Leea macrophylla was also very rare having only 10% frequency and only density of 1. Curculigo orchioides and Pterocarpus marsupium were among the less abundant species at this site.