Preparation and characterization of curcumin-loaded silica nanoparticles and their in-vivo anti-cancer activity evaluation
Curcumin [(1E,6E)-1,7-bis (4-hydroxy- 3-methoxyphenyl) -1,6- heptadiene-3,5-dione)], a polyphenolic compound derived from dietary spice turmeric, has numerous biological and pharmacological activities. It is currently being used for treating several disorders, including cancer. Keeping in view its importance, the curcumin was embedded in the silica nanoparticles prepared by reaction of Tween-40, n-Butanol, triethoxyvinylsilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane using water as solvent. After completion of reaction, the nanoparticles were obtained by dialysis of the reaction mixture. The nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, TEM, DLS and XRD analyses. The SEM, TEM and DLS analysis shows the average particle size to be 70nm, 66 nm and 75.72nm respectively. Further in-vivo studies were conducted on wistar rats to determine the maximum tolerance dose (MTD) of nanoparticles and study the anti-cancer potential by tumor regression analysis. The MTD was found to be 10 mg/kg body weight of wistar rats and curcumin-doped ORMOSIL nanoparticles in comparison with pure curcumin revealed the highly significant results in tumor regression in EAT induced tumor model.
Yoruba traditional healing system has being in practice for several centuries, yet, there are still certain complexities which set confusion in understanding its conceptualization. Due to lack of enough information about the practice, cynicism, religious bigotry against the practice and over-westernization of healthcare system in Yoruba society, basic features of Yoruba traditional healing system are still obscured. Conceptualization of the healing is narrowed and reduced to fetish; its epistemology is linked with Satan, and organization of Yoruba traditional healing is regarded as unscientific among other complexities suffered by the healing system. This continues to hamper the acknowledgment of its contributions to sustainable healthcare development. Through ethnographic data collection techniques using key informants’ interviews, observation, case study analysis and ethno-botanical survey conceptualization of traditional healing in Yoruba worldviews is examined. Despite the wave of social change influencing the practice of healing in Yoruba society, Yoruba traditional healing system is still resilient, rational and scientific. It features organization of service, providing all- inclusive health caring; with professionalization and specialization in health care service. Since Yoruba healing system is indigenous to the people, it has to be sustained by providing enough information that can explain and contextualize its practices.
Many lay people along with some so called “key opinion leaders” have a common slogan “There’s no answer for cancer”. Again, mistake delays proper treatment and make situation worse, more often. Compliance is crucial to obtain optimal health outcomes, such as cure or improvement in QoL. Patients may delay treatment or fail to seek care because of high out-of- pocket expenditures. Despite phenomenal development, conventional therapy falls short in cancer management. There are two major hurdles in anticancer drug development: dose-limiting toxic side effects that reduce either drug effectiveness or the QoL of patients and complicated drug development processes that are costly and time consuming. Cancer patients are increasingly seeking out alternative medicine and might be reluctant to disclose its use to their oncology treatment physicians. But there is limited available information on patterns of utilization and efficacy of alternative medicine for patients with cancer. As adjuvant therapy, many traditional medicines shown efficacy against brain, head and neck, skin, breast, liver, pancreas, kidney, bladder, prostate, colon and blood cancers. The literature reviews non-pharmacological interventions used against cancer, published trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
A survey of South African plant species used for the treatment of “u wela” in Venda culture, Limpopo Province
Medicinal plants are widely recognized as the key component for critical human health, social and economic support. The current study was conducted to identify medicinal plants used by local people and traditional healers to treat “u wela” in Vhembe District, Limpopo, South Africa. A questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local names of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation administered by the traditional healers. Plant species were collected based on indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers through the use of a questionnaire and personal interviews, and some were identified using literature and herbarium at the University of Limpopo. The study revealed that thirty-seven medicinal plants are used for treatment of “u wela” in the study area. The frequency index was calculated and the highest frequency was observed in Elaeodendron transvaalensis Jacq (47%) and the least were found in Albizia versicolor Welw. Ex Oliv (6%). Some medicinal uses of identified plants which have not been recorded in the consulted literature were documented. Noticeably, many of these plants were grown in the wild. Traditional healers use different plant part(s) for the treatment of various ailments. Roots (40%) were highly used followed by 20%, bark (13%) and leaves. The plant forms used were trees, (38%), shrubs, (3%), climbers, herbs and succulents (4.7%) belonged to the herbs and succulents. The results stipulated that a high population of people in the community still relied on traditional medicine for their primary health care.
There are around 60 global species belonging to the genus Sesbania which are commonly found to be grown in Africa, Australia, and Asia. The leaves of Sesbania grandiflora have been used in local traditional medicine since ancient times. Major chemical constituents are alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, tannin, anthraquinone, steroid, pholobatannins, and terpenoids. Isovestitol, medicarpin, sativan (isoflavonoids) and betulinic acid (tannin substance) are the major constituents responsible for antibacterial and antifungal, antioxidant, anti-urolithiatic, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic, and hepatoprotective properties. Also, the plant extract contains alkaloids, phenolics, tannins, triterpenoids, and sterols. All parts of S. grandiflora are used in traditional medicine and phytochemical investigations have been conducted on extracts of the leaves, seeds and roots of S. grandiflora to provide scientific validation of its properties.
Adulteration methods and current trends in authentic identification of botanical materials used for the pharmaceuticals
Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation and chemical profiling techniques have their own limitations for authentication of plant species. DNA-based markers give the new directions to pharmacognosy. It is important to distinguish accurately the authentic plant sources for herbal drugs because adulteration and substitutions diminish their efficacy and reduce the trust of users as well as it is necessary to convert botanical materials into scientifically valid herbal drugs. Proper integration of molecular techniques as analytical tools with conventional knowledge will lead to the development of a comprehensive system of identification of medicinal plants that can be conveniently applied at the research and industry level for quality control of botanicals. The review derives the advantages of DNA-based method for the purpose of correct identification of herbal material and discrimination of originals from the plant-derived adulterants.
Anti-inflammatory effect of Phattapitta Recipe in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide
Pattapitta Recipe has been used for the treatment of cirrhosis in the Thai Traditional Medicine Clinic of Prapokklao Hospital. The liver functions of cirrhotic patients treated with Pattapitta Recipe were improved and recovered to normal function within 5 months. Furthermore, Pattapitta Recipe has been used for the treatment of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatitis-B, hepatitis-C, and cirrhosis due to unidentified causes. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory activities. This study is mainly focused on the cell viability test of Phattapitta Recipe on macrophages cell line RAW 264.7 and investigation of an anti-inflammatory action of Phattapitta Recipe on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages cell line, RAW 264.7. The results showed that Phattapitta Recipe had no cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells. Phattapitta Recipe 250 ug/mL possessed anti-inflammatory effects by significantly decreased mRNA levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor –α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in macrophages cell line RAW 264.7. Moreover, Phattapitta Recipe also significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6 at the protein level. Although Phattapitta Recipe treated cells showed a decreased trend of nitric oxide levels, it was not statistically significant reduction. The results from this study will be beneficial for the development of Phattapitta Recipe as a potential treatment of anti-inflammatory diseases.
Analgesics are the substances which are used in pain, without losing consciousness. The word analgesic derives from Greek an- (“without”) and algos (“pain”). Analgesic drugs act in various form on the central nervous systems and peripheral nervous system. Various sources of analgesic drugs synthetic analgesic and natural analgesic, natural analgesics like opoid analgesics, Aloevera Barbedensis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Zingiber Officinale, Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum camphora, Matricaria pubescens etc. This review gives information about different analgesic obtained from natural sources.
The knowledge base of pharmacy medicine is changing. Even five decades ago rural people used to visit kobiraj doctors for traditional medication mostly obtained from the roots and leaves of the remote plants (As seen in old dramas and movies). During 70’s to 8o’, a modern allopathy system taken over most of it and plant medicines were completely became obsolete. Even talking about those medicines means people are looking at you saying “what old age are you living?”. Interestingly the same concept is back in the name of modern herbal medicine, anybody will be surprised to know that the sales volume of herbal medicines jumped to Tk 1,000 crore in 2010 against Tk 1 crore in 1980 in Bangladesh. In the language of the philosophers it is “the Circle of Life”. Of course, there’s no denying the effectiveness of modern medicine. The drugs used in modern medicine are powerful but quite often, the risks with these drugs are also high. Purpose of the study: An illustrated review of traditional plants, their nature and use, both pharmacological and pharmaceutical. Findings: Traditional plants are used from ancient time for various human well-being, both as life-saving and lifestyle drugs. A careful use of these plants can bring dramatic changes in the history of medicine, on the contrary abuse/misuse is just waste of money and also creates potential health hazards. The emerging use of plant derived medicines should have a proper quality control and system control of sales, distribution and use through strict vigilance.Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature review, consulting books, technical newsletters, newspapers, journals, and many other sources are done with this review. Health professionals like qualified doctors, hospital staff, nurses are interviewed. A few folk healers’ shops are also visited to see the real situation includes their sales policy, misleading claims…
A woman, named Eve, has been possessed by Evil. She is continuously tortured by host of visions and cursed by demonic voices. She has a miscarriage and commits suicide several times. The therapist builds up a Jungian type of hypnotherapy and hypnoanalysis based upon Eve’s fairy tale experiences come from her childhood. The patient’s absolute good and evil self- and object representations develop in a mutual relationship each other in the form of miscellaneous symbols. Finally, a prolonged struggle of good and bad symbols arrives at a neutral point of rest. Since the therapist is not afraid of Eve’s experiences he wants to take part in them, which leads to a mutual experience of tandem hypnosis shared by both the patient and the therapist. Facing together with Evil the therapist becomes as a devil in a symbolic way while the devil is made gentle as an uncle of Eve’s life. Finally, the patient’s psychosis is healed.