American Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Yield and Yield Related Traits in Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Genotypes

    Garlic production in most areas of Ethiopia especially in Amhara region is constrained by shortage of varieties, occasional ice storm raining, poor agronomic practice coupled with susceptibility to pests. Forty nine garlic genotypes were evaluated to determine magnitude of genetic variability for bulb yield and yield related traits in garlic accessions recently collected by Debreziet Agricultural Research center and Fogera National Rice Research and Training Center (FNRRTC) from different parts of Ethiopia. The experiment was laid out using 7×7 simple lattice design with two replications at FNRRTC in 2017/18. Data were collected for ten agronomic traits and analysis of variance revealed significant differences (p

  • Characterization and Analysis of Crop production System for Research and Development Intervention

    Agriculture is the dominant economic activity and the base of livelihood for the residents of East Hararghe Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The livelihood of the residents of East Hararghe Zone dependent on agriculture; however, the sector in the Zone is at subsistence level and efforts has been put to adapt and promote improved technologies that would help to boost production is not satisfactory. For the successful research and development intervention, analysis of the existing crop production system is crucial to understand the real situation. In this line, this study was with specific objectives of identifying crop production systems, and prioritizing major constraints in the study area.The study was used Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRA) tools such as household survey, focus group discussions, pair-wise ranking, and field observation. A total of 329 farm householders were selected using multi-stage sampling techniques. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result of PRA indicates that five major farming typologies:-Chat/Maize highland mixed farming system (CMHMFS), Sorghum/maize/cash crops midland mixed farming system (SMCMMFS), Coffee/maize mixed farming system (CMMFS), Sorghum/groundnut lowland mixed farming system (SGLMFS) and Agro pastoral/pastoral farming system (APPFS) were identified in the Zone. Results of PRA study revealed that the main crop production constraints were lack of improved varieties, shortage were identified as the first limiting factor followed by insect pests, shortage of improved seeds supply, erratic rainfall distribution, soil fertility declining and extension service availability in decreasing order of priority. Hence, there is need for research, development and institutional interventions to alleviate the identified constraints to crop production in the study area through holistic approach.

  • Induce systemic Resistance against root rot and wilt diseases in faba bean as a possible and effective control

    Root rot and wilt diseases caused by soil borne pathogenic fungi is the most sever disease attacks faba bean plants in New valley Governorate, Egypt. Efficacies of some plant resistance elicitors viz.: salicylic Acid (SA), ascorbic acid (AA), humic acid (HA) and Bion was evaluated as faba bean seed soaking, compared to untreated control treatment under greenhouse and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, all the tested chemical inducers have no effect or little effect on linear growth of all tested pathogenic fungal isolates. On the other hand, all tested chemical inducers at different concentrations were decreased the root rot and wilt severity. Salicylic acid at 400 and Bion at 1000 ppm recorded the lowest root rot and wilt severity. All chemical inducers individually or in combination with R. leguminosarum significantly decreased root rot and wilt diseases under greenhouse and field conditions as well as increased total yield /feddan under field conditions. The combination between chemical inducers and R. leguminosarum more effective for controlling root rot and wilt diseases and increased seed yield/feddan than individually treatment. Application of SA and Bion + R. leguminosarum recorded the lowest percentage of root rot and wilt severity and the highest plant growth and yield parameter during both growing seasons.

  • Review on the protein content of different wheat varieties

    In the world wheat varieties are grown over a wide agro-climatic range and as such are anticipated to exhibit quality differences. Pakistan and Ethiopia are best examples of wheat producers found in different agro-climatic ranges. Grain protein percentage is an important component of grain quality. Protein contents measured by standard Kjeldahl method show a higher level than protein contents calculated from NIRS. Generally grain protein contents in wheat varies between 8% and 17%, depending on genetic make-up and on external factors associated with the crop. The Pakistan’s results regarding standard Kjeldahl analysis of protein reveals highest level of 11.2% protein in variety Bakhtawar-92, while Tatara, Watan, Bhakkar-01, Wafaq-01, Gandam-2002 and Chudry-97 contain 11.0% protein. The lowest value is present in Saleem-2000 (9.0%). Wheat grain quality of three bread wheat varieties namely Pavon 76, HAR 2501 and HAR 2536 grown in Arsi and Bale areas of Ethiopia were determined. The wheat varieties had a protein content of 10.60, 11.53 and 10.70%, respectively. Relatively, the wheat varieties collected from Ethiopia has higher amount of protein content compared to those of Pakistan wheat varieties. This variation may be due to method differences but not significant at 95% confidence level. This study is significant to further improve their nutritional excellence.

  • A Study on birds and fish Diversity, abundance and their Conservation Status of Bahire Giorgis Lake

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) variety named ‘Numan’ with the pedigree designation of ‘EH06007-2’ has been released by Kulumsa agricultural research centre in Ethiopia. The variety is best adapted to altitudes ranging between 1800 to 3000 m.a.s.l. areas of Ethiopia and similar agro-ecologies. The variety was developed through hybridization between F5 generation (EH99037-5) and exotic material (ILB1563) and resulted in breeder id designation of ‘EH06007-2’. It has been tested at Kulumsa, Asassa, Bokoji, Koffale, Holetta, Adadi, Jeldu, Adet, Shambu and Sinana, from 2012 to 2013 main cropping seasons. The seed weight of this variety is 36.5% heavier than the seed weight of the variety used as the standard check. Despite ‘Numan’ showed relatively (-2.77%) less seed yield advantage across a range of environments and years than the standard checks Dosha and Tumsa in the National Variety Trials based on most stability measurement parameters. However, this variety is the seed size and moderately resistant to the major faba bean diseases such as chocolate spot and rust, and it could be cultivated across a number of locations in the mid and high-altitude areas of Ethiopia for increasing productivity of the crop and important variety for foreign export.

  • A Study on birds and fish Diversity, abundance and their Conservation Status of Bahire Giorgis Lake

    The objective of the study was to assess bird and fish species diversity, relative abundance and threats of Lake BahireGiorgis. Abundance of waterbirdand fish species composition of Lake was studied in dry and wet season in August 2017 and January 2018.Physico-chemical parameters of the Lake were identified using standard methodologies. Parameters such as electrical conductivity, PH, nitrate, Sulfite, Phosphate, TDS and Temperature values are within acceptable limits in contrast contained high amounts of alkalinity, total hardness and Turbidity. The study of fish diversity assessed through catches from four sites of the Lake. Two fish speciesOreochroisniloticus and Cyprinuscarpio were observed. The aboundance of fish is higher in wet season than dry season.Oreochroisniloticus was found dominantrepresnting13.79%andCyprinuscarpiowas the least aboundant 6.895%.Regarding birds, a total of 8 species, 8 genera, 6 families and 4 orders were identified. The most abundant and frequent species were Egyptian Goose (42.80), Yellow-billed duck (38.14),Red billed duck (12.44) whereas spotted redshank (0.78) and Rouget’s rail (0.39) were the least abundant.The largest number of bird species was recorded indry season and the lowest in wet season. The Lake is under severe pressure due to anthropogenic activities, like population pressure, habitat destruction, deforestation, agriculture, siltation, water pollution, overgrazing, bird killedwith trap and unmanaged irrigation system all contribute to the decline of the bird and fish species in lake.It can be concluded that the fish and the bird diversity and aboundance were low in the area and nothing was done on biodiversity conservation. Hence, an urgent conservation measure is recommended.

  • Diversity Analysis and Identification of Promising Powdery mildew Resistance Genotypes for Hybridization in Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    In the present study, seventy-one field pea gene pools including three released varieties were evaluated in an augmented block design for assessing genetic divergence and level of resistance to powdery mildew for exploitation in a breeding program aimed at improving yield potential of field pea by using cluster and principal component analysis. Among the 10 studied traits, four (Eigenvalue >1.0) contributed more than 68.45% variability among the materials. Cluster analysis grouped the 71 field pea genotypes into seven distinct classes. The genetic divergence between all possible pairs of clusters were highly significant (P

  • INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF ANTHRACNOSE (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) ON SELECTED COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) GENOTYPES

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), is among the most important legume crop for protein source in peoples’ diet globally and including Kenya. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) is a common disease of legumes that causes yield loss of upto 90-100%. Potential production of common beans in Kenya is expected to be above 2000 kg ha-1 but due to challenges of pests and diseases among them anthracnose, it remains below potential yields. The aim of the recent study was to investigate selected common bean genotypes for anthracnose resistance in Kenya. The study was done in three varied agro-ecological zones; Busia, Bungoma and University of Eldoret. Fifteen genotypes were evaluated on field experiment to ascertain anthracnose incidence and severity. Four bean genotypes were used as experimental controls; two resistant and two susceptible controls. Data was collected on incidences and severity and subjected to Analysis of variance in SAS version 9.1. Mean values were separated using Tukeys’ Studentized Range Test. The results revealed tolerant and resistant genotypes with lower incidences and severity than those of resistant controls while susceptible genotypes recorded higher incidences and severity than those of the susceptible controls. Tolerant genotypes were; Ciankui, Tasha, and KK8 while the resistant genotypes were; Miezi mbili, KK15 and Chelalang. Site variation was significant at (P≤0.05) with Busia 82%, Bungoma 76% and University of 53%. KK15, Tasha and Chelalang were tolerant in all sites, and this could be attributed to their genetic resistance. The six genotypes identified to be potentially tolerant and resistant to anthracnose and high yielding could be further studied and used in breeding programs for development of resistant lines globally and in Kenya.

  • Occurrence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli in Minimally-processed and Frozen Fruit Pulps

    Fruits and fruit pulps are widely consumed worldwide due to their nutrients, flavors and varieties. However, these products become contaminated with pathogens during harvest or production, which are risks to consumers. This study analyzed the microbiological quality of frozen fruit pulps and minimally processed fruits sold in supermarkets and the presence Salmonella sp. and pathogenic Escherichia coli. Almost all frozen fruit pulps samples were adequate to consume, only one samples of unpasteurized mango pulp was positive for E. coli carrier of est1b gene that codify thermostable toxin of Enterotoxigenic E. coli. Minimally processed fruits presented high yeast and mold counts in 36.25% (29/80) of the samples and 27.6% (22/80) had thermotolerant coliforms. In addition, one sample of grated coconut had E. coli and one sample of melon honeydew had Salmonella sp. E. coli O157:H7 was absent in all samples of minimally processed fruits. E. coli showed greater resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Multidrug resistance was observed in 14.3% (2/14) of E. coli isolates. Only one strain of Salmonella sp. was resistant to antibiotic sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Therefore, the enforcement of pasteurization in the fruit pulp processing, as well hygienic-sanitary control in lead up of minimally-processed fruits and temperature control in storage are recommended to minimize the risk of foodborne disease.

  • Agricultural Land Use Pattern and Socioeconomic Study of Taluk Dharmadas Mouza

    The Taluk Dharmadas Mouza is situated at the sadar upozilla of the Rangpur city under 32 number ward. This study was conducted for acquiring knowledge and analyzing of land pattern on agricultural phenomenon as well as the socioeconomic condition. For this mechanism was the socioeconomic questionnaire method, fractional code method, GIS and RS techniques were also used. GIS and RS are used for mapping land pattern, land surface temperature calculation where a fractional code method was used for obtaining and analyzing specific Jurisdiction List (JL) Number and plot number based cultural and physical characteristics. Furthermore the questionnaire helped for studying the overall land use, environmental, socioeconomic and agricultural description. The study found that the study area contains 40 percent agricultural land where 91 percent soil is sandy, against it 30 percent of proper irrigation prevails and temperature pattern is suitable, but the flooding 28 percent and water logging 24 percent is the excessive for agricultural activities instead of this most profitable crop found in only paddy production of 36 percent. In addition, three or multiple crop cultivation gets 45.15 percent agricultural land which revels the increased amount of production. The individual unwillingness for cultivation is 88 percent by considering several aspects including economic condition which is a threat to food safety. In addition urbanization is rapidly forming, but settlement pattern is not developed as their socioeconomic condition where the old age pattern for male is excessive instead of youth female age group of 13 percent which provides the efficiency of the female is larger than male portion. Economic condition is in the lower middle and upper middle level as it is compared with per capita income so their product obtaining quality is poor for housing of 19 percent where cattle is increased by 53 percent. Land changing capacity includes agricultural…